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    Antioxidant and antimicrobial chitosan films enriched with aqueous sage and rosemary extracts as food coating materials: Characterization of the films and detection of rosmarinic acid release. International journal of biological macromolecules Chitosan films containing aqueous extracts of sage and rosemary were prepared as a potential food coating material with antioxidant and antibacterial properties. The effect of adding extracts at different concentrations on the mechanical, physical, and optical properties of the films was investigated. The addition of the extracts significantly increased Young's modulus values of the films compared to the chitosan film, and a significant decrease was observed in the swelling percentage and water vapor permeability of the films. Since all the prepared films were ionically cross-linked, the increase in water solubility of the films with the addition of the extract was at a low level. The release of rosmarinic acid, which is found in significant amounts in both plants, from the films was monitored by the capillary electrophoresis. The antioxidant properties imparted to the films by the addition of plant extracts were determined by DPPH and FRAP methods. The addition of plant extracts increased the antimicrobial property of chitosan films against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Films containing sage and rosemary extracts showed potential for use as food coating materials. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.073
    Characterization of glycosylated gelatin/pullulan nanofibers fabricated by multi-fluid mixing solution blow spinning. International journal of biological macromolecules In this work, multi-fluid mixing solution blow spinning was applied to develop gelatin/pullulan composite nanofibers, and then the nanofibers were glycated to enhance the physical properties. The results show that the grafting degree of the nanofibers increased significantly from 17.5 % to 36.0 % as the glycation time increased, and the morphology results indicated that 72 h of glycation did not destroy the structure of the nanofibers. FTIR results show that the glycation consumed the the-NH groups, cleaved sugar units of polysaccharide, and affected the secondary structure of the protein. The glycation enhanced the thermal stability and improved the rigidity of the nanofibers. Besides, after 120 h of glycation, the water contact angle of nanofibers increased from 0° to 79.1°, and the water vapor transmission rates decreased from 12.49 to 8.97 g mm/m h kPa, indicating the enhanced hydrophobicity and barrier properties. In addition, the glycation improved the water stability of the nanofibers, which increased the applicability of the gelatin/pullulan nanofibers in food packaging. The present work provides a green and efficient method for improving the physical properties of gelatin/pullulan nanofibers. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.082
    A biomass-derived Schiff base material composited with polylactic acid nanofiber membrane as selective fluorescent 'turn off/on' platform for Pb quantitative detection and characterization. International journal of biological macromolecules Herein, a biomass-derived compound Z1 is synthesized via 'one pot' method for detection Pb using fluorescence and visual dual-mode in aqueous solution. Z1 shows good response to Pb with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13.4 nM. Importantly, the coordination mode of Z1 with Pb is further evaluated by UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy and a 1:1 stoichiometry is identified. Furthermore, Z1 can be applied to detection Pb in practical samples with satisfactory recoveries in range of 96.0 %-112.0 % in real samples. Besides, Z1 is added into polylactic acid (PLA) solution and made as portable fluorescence nanofiber membrane for Pb detection. Further, Z1 responds to Pb with high selectivity and sensitivity and has been applied for tracking Pb changes in soil samples, zebrafish, and plant tissues. These results indicated that Z1 had great application potential in accurate detection Pb. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.089
    Fluorescent nanocellulose-based hydrogel incorporating titanate nanofibers for sorption and detection of Cr(VI). International journal of biological macromolecules Chromium pollution is a major environmental concern; thus, effective and multifunctional adsorbents for removing the Cr(VI) ion are urgently needed. A fluorescent nanocellulose-based hydrogel (FNH) incorporating titanate nanofibers (TNs) was developed for the sorption and detection of Cr(VI) ion. The chemical and physical structures of the hydrogels, as well as their sorption and detection properties, were studied. The predicted maximum adsorption capacity and the lowest detection limit of FNH were 648.4 mg/g and 0.039 μg/L, respectively. Furthermore, the sorption and detection mechanisms of FNH were discussed in detail. These results showed that the excellent sorption and detection might be mainly attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) porous structure constructed by TNs and cellulose nanocrystals modified with carbon dots, which improved the sorption ability and provided the rapid visual response to Cr(VI). Furthermore, cost analysis showed that FNH was cheaper than activated carbon in removing the Cr(VI) ion. This work established a facile technique in developing low-cost and multifunctional adsorbents. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.148
    Transparent and ultra-tough PVA/alkaline lignin films with UV shielding and antibacterial functions. International journal of biological macromolecules Lignin and its derivatives can be used to make membranes with natural polymer materials for its properties including ultraviolet adsorption, biodegradable, antibacterial, and antioxidant. However, the lignin film has poor transparency due to the dark color, and how to control the proportion of each component to enhance properties is the main research topic. In this study, a polyvinyl alcohol /alkaline lignin (PVA/AL) composite film with excellent UV-shielding and visible-transparent performance successfully prepared by solution casting. By mixing with the N-halamine precursor 3-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DPDMH), the composite film after chlorination showed superb antibacterial efficacy and could inactivate 6.85 log Escherichia coli (E. coli) and 6.57 log Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) respectively within 5 min of contact. Moreover, the composite film with 5 wt% AL exhibited ultra-high elongation of 449 % and toughness of 92 MJ/m, and the toughness and malleability was greatly improved. In addition, with the introduction of AL, the composite film could shield 100 % of the UVB (320-275 nm) and UVC (275-200 nm) spectra and most of the UVA (400-320 nm) spectrum. The films prepared in this work are expected to find applications in promising fields such as in packaging materials and ultraviolet shielding. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.188
    Development of highly stable color indicator films based on κ-carrageenan, silver nanoparticle and red grape skin anthocyanin for marine fish freshness assessment. International journal of biological macromolecules Color indicator films for fish freshness were fabricated by incorporating κ-carrageenan (CAR) polymer with red grape skin extract (GSE) as a pH-sensing agent and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as an antimicrobial agent. Anthocyanins in GSE exhibited distinguished pH responsive color changes. GSE and AgNPs were well compatible with CAR with intramolecular interactions, approved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). GSE-containing films displayed distinguished color changes in response to pH variations and volatile ammonia. Enhanced UV blocking ability and strong antioxidant activity were revealed for GSE included films without sacrificing the physico-chemical properties of the CAR film. Films containing AgNPs showed improved mechanical strength and strong antimicrobial ability against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The CAR/AgNPs/GSE film displayed a distinctive color change corresponding to changes in the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of fish during storage. In addition, the CAR/AgNPs/GSE film showed excellent color stability to consecutive UV exposure and its storage time at 25 °C is expected to be at least 240 days, which indicates that it has high potential as an intelligent food freshness indicator film. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.206
    Guar gum-sodium alginate nanocomposite film as a smart fluorescence-based humidity sensor: A smart packaging material. International journal of biological macromolecules Perishable packed foods are easily damaged by the change in relative humidity. In this work, we demonstrate that guar gum- sodium alginate blending with glucose-glycerol carbon dots nanocomposite film can be used to detect relative humidity. The fabricated nanocomposite film was an excellent smart sensor based on the fluorescence 'on-off' mechanisms against humidity. The study demonstrates that at different relative humidity conditions, such as 11 %, 33 %, 75.30 %, 84 %, and 97 %, there is a change in the fluorescence of biocomposite films under UV light. The practical feasibility of the biocomposite developed film was tested in real conditions by placing a piece of bread with high humidity conditions wrapped with the developed nanocomposite film. It was observed that under such conditions, marked quenching of fluorescence was observed and hence detection of humidity was possible. Hence, the fabricated nanocomposite film can monitor the packed food freshness using just a UV light source. Such biopolymer nanocomposite is potential materials and may find application as smart packaging materials, especially as food packaging materials. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.008
    Monitoring dynamic changes in chicken freshness at 4 °C and 25 °C using pH-sensitive intelligent films based on sodium alginate and purple sweet potato peel extracts. International journal of biological macromolecules A pH-sensitive intelligent indicator film was developed and used for monitoring dynamic changes in chicken freshness at 4 °C and 25 °C by immobilizing 0.2 %-1.0 % purple sweet potato peel extracts (PPE) with sodium alginate (SA). The films presented a wide range of colors from red-pink to green-yellow at 2-13, and the films with less PPE were more sensitive to ammonia. The color of films with 0.6 % PPE changed from pink to blue when used in monitoring chicken freshness at 4 °C (5 d) and 25 °C (60 h), which corresponded to changes in total volatile base nitrogen from 5.35 (5.35) mg/100 g to 16.2 (19.9) mg/100 g. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that PPE improved the compactness and crystallinity of SA films, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed hydrogen bonds between SA and PPE. Compared to SA films, the water vapor and light barrier abilities of films with 0.6 % were significantly improved (P < 0.05), there was no significant effect on tensile strength (P > 0.05), and the elongation of 0.6 % PPE films (P < 0.05) was decreased. Thus, PPE can serve as an excellent indicator of intelligent films for monitoring the freshness of meat products. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.198
    Preparation of a biodegradable chitosan packaging film based on zinc oxide, calcium chloride, nano clay and poly ethylene glycol incorporated with thyme oil for shelf-life prolongation of sweet cherry. International journal of biological macromolecules This study includes development of chitosan-based films with incorporated essential thyme oil and different combinations of cross-linkers viz., ZnO, CaCl, NC, and PEG for the safe storage of sweet cherries. The resulting films stored with sweet cherries were analyzed for different physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. Incorporation of ZnO, CaCl, NC, and PEG in chitosan-based films maintained fruit quality by conserving higher total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and reduced weight loss. The combined ZnO + CaCl + NC + PEG in chitosan-based films also suppressed microbial activity. The sensorial quality of fruits stored with CH + ZnO + CaCl + NC + PEG treatment was also stable during storage. In conclusion, the combined CH + ZnO + CaCl + NC + PEG with added thyme oil application is an effective approach to maintain the postharvest quality and could be an alternative to increase the shelf life of sweet cherries, besides decreasing environmental impacts of non-biodegradable packages. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.013
    Integration of physicochemical, molecular dynamics, and in vitro evaluation of electrosprayed γ-oryzanol-loaded gliadin nanoparticles. Food chemistry Electrospraying is a technique to improve the application and stability of bioactive compounds in food. Here, electrospraying was applied to fabricate gliadin particles incorporated γ-oryzanol. The round particles were obtained, with an average diameter of 481.56 ± 283.74 nm, from scanning electron microscopy. Simulations demonstrated how γ-oryzanol-loaded gliadin particles were unfolded in acetic acid and culminated in their globular shape under an electric field. The results also revealed that γ-oryzanol was present in gliadin particles. Moreover, there was a successful formation of particles with a homogeneous distribution and an enhanced thermostabilization of γ-oryzanol. In food simulants, γ-oryzanol demonstrated an initial burst release, followed by a subsequent, slower release that occurred gradually. Finally, MTT assays showed concentration- and time-dependent inhibitions of γ-oryzanol-loaded gliadin particles on HT-29 cells, with IC values of 0.47 and 0.40 mg/mL for 24 and 48 h, respectively. This study described a protocol for developing γ-oryzanol-loaded gliadin particles with enhanced stability, valuable release-behavior, and decreased HT-29 proliferation. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133589
    Nanocomposite pectin fibers incorporating folic acid-decorated carbon quantum dots. International journal of biological macromolecules Pectin has recently attracted increasing attention as an alternative biomaterial commonly used in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. It shows several promising properties, including good biocompatibility, health benefits, nontoxicity, and biodegradation. In this research, novel nanocomposite fibers composed of folic acid-decorated carbon dots (CDs) in pectin/PEO matrix were fabricated using the electrospinning technique, which was never reported previously. Nitrogen-doped and nitrogen, sulfur-doped CDs were synthesized with average diameters of 2.74 nm and 2.17 nm using the one-step hydrothermal method, studied regarding their physicochemical, optical, and biocompatibility properties. The relative Quantum yields of N-CDs and N, S doped CDs were measured to be 54.7 % and 30.2 %, respectively. Nanocomposite fibers containing CDs were prepared, and their morphology, physicochemical properties, conductivity, drug release behavior, and cell viability were characterized. The results indicated that CDs improve fibrous scaffolds' tensile strength from 13.74 to 35.22 MPa while maintaining comparable extensibility. Furthermore, by incorporation of CDs in the prepared fibers conductivity enhanced from 8.69 × 10 S·m to 1.36 × 10 S·m. The nanocomposite fibrous scaffold was also biocompatible with controlled drug release over 212 h, potentially promising tissue regeneration. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.031
    Preparation, characterization and food packaging application of nano ZnO@Xylan/quaternized xylan/polyvinyl alcohol composite films. International journal of biological macromolecules Xylan could be considered as a good potential candidate for food packaging film because of the vast source and biodegradability, however, its application was restricted by the drawbacks of poor film-forming property, humidity sensitivity, weak mechanical strength and poor antibacterial property. In this paper, xylan was firstly modified by quaternization to improve the film-forming property, then ZnO nanoparticles encapsulated by xylan (nano ZnO@Xylan) was prepared by nanoprecipitation method, finally a series of biodegradable composite films were prepared using quaternized xylan and polyvinyl alcohol with incorporation of nano ZnO@Xylan. The surface morphology, molecular structure and crystallography structure of the films were characterized. The addition of nano ZnO@Xylan decreased water vapor permeability and solubility, meanwhile obviously increased the ultraviolet shielding performance as well as the antibacterial properties of the films. The bacteriostasis rate of the films against E. coli and S. aureus reached up to 99 %. Furthermore, the preservation time of cherry tomatoes covered with ZnO@Xylan/QX/PVA films was extended to at least 21 days. In conclusion, all the results ensure that the fabricated composite films have considerable promising application in the food packaging industry. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.157
    Development of sodium alginate/glycerol/tannic acid coated cotton as antimicrobial system. International journal of biological macromolecules Present study aims at developing antimicrobial cotton gauze by dip coating of sodium alginate (SA), glycerol (Gly) and tannic acid (TA) blend. SA blends were prepared with varying concentration of glycerol in the range of 10-40 %. Blended films were fabricated and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), tensile studies, and contact angle analysis. The mechanical behavior of films indicated significant decrease in the tensile strength and modulus with the increase in the glycerol content due to the plasticization effect. The hydrophilicity of the blend films increased with increase in the glycerol content. TA was added to the blend as an antimicrobial agent. These blends were coated on the cotton gauze by dip coating method and their characterizations were carried out by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which revealed a smooth coating of SA:Gly:TA blend on cotton gauze. Antimicrobial analysis of TA coated gauzes was carried out which showed >95 % viable colony reduction against E. coli and S. aureus. Cytocompatibility studies indicated excellent cell-compatible activity. These results implicated that such coated gauzes are promising candidate that hold the great potential to be utilized as infection-resistant material in the health care sector. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.168
    A novel insight into green food preservation: Design of equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP) based on gas barrier (GB) - gas conductor (GC) blending materials. Food chemistry In this work, the design of equilibrium modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP) was achieved by adjusting gas permeability using gas barrier (GB) - gas conductor (GC) blending material. Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) was used as promoter for gas permeation, i.e. GC, and introduced into poly ether sulfone (PES) as GB. As the results, the introduction of SPEEK cannot only enhance the gas permeability of the blending material, but also modify the physic and chemical properties. When the blending material used as EMAP for peppers, significant effects were exhibited on inhibiting the variations in sensory, color, texture, and chemical properties of the preserved peppers, especially when the samples preserved in packaging consisted of 60 % SPEEK and 40 % PES, in which suitable atmosphere with 5.18 % v/v CO and 3.16 % v/v O was maintained. The overall findings revealed the feasibility of GB - GC theory for EMAP design. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133560
    Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability and release of selenium-containing peptide TSeMMM-encapsulated nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. Luo Xieqi,Fan Fengjiao,Sun Xinyang,Li Peng,Xu Tong,Ding Jian,Fang Yong Ultrasonics sonochemistry Rice selenium-containing peptide TSeMMM (T) with immunomodulatory functions was isolated from selenium-enriched rice protein hydrolysates. However, its biological activity is difficult to be protected in complex digestive environments. In this study, T was encapsulated within zein and gum arabian (GA) through ultrasound treatment to improve its bioactivity and bioavailability. The zein@T/GA nanoparticles were formed using ultrasonic treatment at 360 W for 5 min with a 59.9% T-encapsulation efficiency. In vitro digestion showed that the cumulative release rate of zein@T/GA nanoparticles reached a maximum of 80.69% after 6 h. In addition, short-term animal studies revealed that the nanoparticles had an effect on the levels of tissue glutathione and improved peptides' oral bioavailability. Conclusively, these findings suggest that the ultrasonicated polysaccharide/protein system is suitable for encapsulating active small molecular peptides. Furthermore, it provides a novel foundation for studying the bioavailability of active substances in functional foods. 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.105923
    Slow digestible colored rice flour as wall material for microencapsulation: Its impacts on gut bacterial population and metabolic activities. Wattananapakasem Isara,Costabile Adele,Suwannaporn Prisana Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) Black waxy and red jasmine rice flour (6.5% and 18.7% amylose content, respectively) were modified using pullulanase followed by heat-moisture treatment (Hydrolyzed-HMT) to produce microcapsules that entrapped L. plantarum TISTR 1465. Hydrolyzed-HMT of colored rice flours showed restricted pasting properties, lower breakdown and higher thermal properties than native flour (p<0.05). Hydrolysis treatment was able to promote a low molecular weight starch that easily formed a crystalline structure after HMT. As a consequence, a significant increase in slowly digestible starch was observed (from 23.7% to 37.0% in waxy type and 22.2% to 34.6% non-waxy type). The survival of L. plantarum TISTR 1465 after simulated gastric fluid (90min) and simulated intestinal fluid (120min) of the Hydrolyzed 36h-HMT black waxy rice was higher (8.07±0.13logCFU/g and 7.48±0.12logCFU/g) than gum arabic (6.12±0.11 and 4.72±0.28logCFU/g) and no carrier (3.34±0.23 and 0.43±0.75logCFU/g) respectively. Moreover, these microcapsules also obtained the highest survival (8.67±0.20logCFU/g) after storage for 90days at 4°C. Under scanning electron microscopy, starch granules of the hydrolyzed 36h-HMT were seen as polyhedral shapes in the spherical aggregates that carried the microorganisms and reduced their injury and mortality. Short-chain fatty acids of the hydrolyzed 36h-HMT were much higher than positive control at every fermentation time (p<0.01). The fluorescence in situ hybridization result showed that the prebiotic property of hydrolyzed 36h-HMT black waxy rice can better aid the beneficial probiotic Lactobacillus spp. growth after 24h fermentation than the negative control (from 8.40±0.48 to 7.03±0.21logCFU/g, p<0.05) and commercial prebiotic Orafti®Synergy1 (8.40±0.48 to 7.47±0.08logCFU/g, p<0.01). Microencapsulation of hydrolyzed black waxy rice flour followed by HMT is proposed as a synbiotic ingredient to apply in synbiotic foods. 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.027
    From brown to colored: Polylactic acid composite with micro/nano-structured white spent coffee grounds for three-dimensional printing. Li Sheng,Shi Congcan,Sun Shenghong,Chan Huifang,Lu Huimin,Nilghaz Azadeh,Tian Junfei,Cao Rong International journal of biological macromolecules Functional fillers in three-dimensional (3D) printing composite filaments offer an innovative way spent coffee grounds (SCGs) can be reused. However, the inherent brownness of SCGs places a limit on the color in which the composite filament and, consequently, the finished print appears. Herein, colored composite filaments for fused deposition modeling were successfully fabricated, where micro/nano-structured decolorized SCGs (MN-DSCGs) were embedded within polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. At the optimum condition, the 3D prints using composite filaments exhibit comparable tensile and flexural strength to the PLA counterparts. Also, they demonstrate superior melt flow and excellent print quality. Under the same condition, 3D printed MN-DSCGs/PLA blend has sufficient color restoration as compared to the prints using virgin PLA. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.176
    Research Progress on Typical Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polymers. Fu Xingqin,Zhang Yuejun,Jia Xu,Wang Yongji,Chen Tingting Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Quaternary ammonium salt polymers, a kind of polyelectrolyte with a quaternary ammonium group, are widely used in traditional and emerging industries due to their good water-solubility, adjustable cationicity and molecular weight, high efficiency and nontoxicity. In this paper, firstly, the properties and several synthesis methods of typical quaternary ammonium salt monomers were introduced. Secondly, the research progress on the synthesis of polymers was summarized from the perspective of obtaining products with high molecular weight, narrow molecular weight distribution and high monomer conversion, and special functional polymers. Thirdly, the relationships between the structures and properties of the polymer were analyzed from the perspectives of molecular weight, charge density, structural stability, and microstructural regulation of the polymer chain unit. Fourthly, typical examples of quaternary ammonium salt polymers in the application fields of water treatment, daily chemicals, petroleum exploitation, papermaking, and textile printing and dyeing were listed. Finally, constructive suggestions were put forward on developing quaternary ammonium salt polymers with high molecular weights, strengthening the research on the relationships between the structures and their properties and pinpointing relevant application fields. 10.3390/molecules27041267
    Ordered lamellar supermicroporous titania templating by rosin-derived quaternary ammonium salt. Song Fei,Wang Peng,Chen Shangxing,Wang Zongde,Fan Guorong PloS one By using dehydroabietyltrimethyl ammonium bromine (DTAB), a novel rosin-derived quaternary ammonium salt, as template and peroxotitanium acid as precursor, ordered lamellar supermicroporous titania has been synthesized via a hydrothermal process. The template agent:titanium source molar ratio in the synthesis system and the hydrothermal temperature have great impact on the microstructure characteristics of the samples. The increase of DTAB:TiO2 molar ratio from 0.04:1 to 0.10:1 is favorable to the increase of regularity of pore structures, but has no significant effects on the crystalline structures. The increase of the hydrothermal temperature from 343 to 393 K can induce an increase in crystallinity of the samples. However, the exorbitant hydrothermal temperature will reduce the regularity of pore structures. When the mole ratio of DTAB:TiO2 is 0.10:1 and the hydrothermal temperature is 373 K, the as-synthesized sample possesses pore structure with the highest level of long-range order, as well as pore wall with semicrystallized anatase phase. The pore size and the pore wall thickness are about 2.0 nm and 1.0 nm, respectively. 10.1371/journal.pone.0180178
    Constructing antibacterial polymer nanocapsules based on pyridine quaternary ammonium salt. Zeng Minghao,Xu Jiayun,Luo Quan,Hou Chunxi,Qiao Shanpeng,Fu Shuang,Fan Xiaotong,Liu Junqiu Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications Excessive use of antibiotics accelerates the development and spread of drug-resistant strains, which is a huge challenge for the field of medical health worldwide. Quaternary ammonium salt polymers are considered to be membrane-active bactericidal groups with vast potential to control bacterial infections and inhibit drug resistance. Herein, we report on the creative synthesis and characterization of novel antimicrobial polymer nanocapsules based on pyridine quaternary ammonium salt. The antimicrobial polymer nanocapsules were formed by reaction of C symmetrical rigid monomer 2,4,6‑tris(4‑pyridyl)‑1,3,5‑triazine (TPT) and a flexible linker 1,2‑dibromoethane. The polymer nanocapsule was constructed as a cationic hollow sphere composed of a two-dimensional sheet whose main chain was formed by the pyridine quaternary ammonium salt, and a part of the bromide ion was adsorbed on the sphere. This hollow nanocapsule was characterized in detail by DLS, SEM, TEM, AFM, EDS and EA. When the cationic polymer nanocapsules are close to the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, the negatively charged phospholipid molecules in the bacterial membrane are attracted to the cationic surface and lead to rupture of cells. SEM confirmed the breakage of Escherichia coli membranes. The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be 0.04 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration was 0.1 mg/mL. Our experiments demonstrated that the adsorption of negatively charged phospholipid molecules on the surface of the pyridine quaternary ammonium salt polymer can kill Gram-negative bacteria without inserting quaternary ammonium salt hydrophobic groups into the cell membrane. 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110383
    Novel boronium salt exhibits substantial antibacterial activity when compared to a commercial quaternary ammonium disinfectant. Soltani Mohammad,Ravine Terrence J,Davis James H Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters Commercial disinfectants are routinely used to decontaminate surfaces where microbes are expected and unwelcome. Several disinfectants contain quaternary ammonium salts, or "quats", all being derived from ammonium. Quaternary alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride or bromide disinfectants are widely available. These compounds are effective in reducing or eliminating bacteria on contaminated nonporous surfaces. A unique benzyl derived boronium salt with strong detergent action has been developed. It demonstrated 4-8X greater antibacterial activity against 3 different bacteria when compared to an equal concentration of a commercial quant disinfectant solution containing alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and alkyl dimethyl ethylbenzyl ammonium chloride. Antibacterial effectiveness of each agent was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. 10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.127808
    Antimicrobial and inhibitory enzyme activity of N-(benzyl) and quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives on plant pathogens. Badawy Mohamed E I,Rabea Entsar I,Taktak Nehad E M Carbohydrate polymers Chemical modification of a biopolymer chitosan by introducing quaternary ammonium moieties into the polymer backbone enhances its antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a series of quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR and UV spectroscopic techniques. The antimicrobial activity against crop-threatening bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora and fungi Botrytis cinerea, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans were evaluated. The results proved that the grafting of benzyl moiety or quaternization of the derivatives onto chitosan molecule was successful in inhibiting the microbial growth. Moreover, increase water-solubility of the compounds by quaternization significantly increased the activity against bacteria and fungi. Exocellular enzymes including polygalacturonase (PGase), pectin-lyase (PLase), polyphenol oxidase (PPOase) and cellulase were also affected at 1000 mg/L. These compounds especially quaternary-based chitosan derivatives that have good inhibitory effect should be potentially used as antimicrobial agents in crop protection. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.04.098
    Enhancement of the permeability and activities of epigallocatechin gallate by quaternary ammonium chitosan/fucoidan nanoparticles. Huang Tzu-Wen,Ho Yi-Cheng,Tsai Tsung-Neng,Tseng Ching-Li,Lin Chi,Mi Fwu-Long Carbohydrate polymers Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has many biological functions; however, the use of EGCG in biomedical and food industries was limited due to its poor oral absorption and high susceptibility to degradation. In this study, a mucoadhesive quaternary chitosan was synthesized and combined with fucoidan (FD) (or depolymerized lower molecular weight fucoidan, LMWF) to prepare EGCG-loaded nanoparticles, which extended EGCG release over 300 min and enhanced the transepithelial permeation of EGCG using Caco-2 cells as a model for intestinal absorption. The nanoparticls protected EGCG against degradation in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and the remaining EGCG was 1.7-folds higher than the control (EGCG alone). The additive effects of EGCG combined with FD or LMWF in the nanoparticles increased the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the enzyme inhibitory activity against α-amylase (2.82-4.92 fold increase) and α-glucosidase (1.35-1.67 fold increase), while quaternary chitosan helped to enhance the antibacterial effect of EGCG. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116312
    Targeting pathogenic fungi, bacteria and fungal-bacterial biofilms by newly synthesized quaternary ammonium derivative of pyridoxine and terbinafine with dual action profile. Garipov Marsel R,Sabirova Alina E,Pavelyev Roman S,Shtyrlin Nikita V,Lisovskaya Svetlana A,Bondar Oksana V,Laikov Aleksandr V,Romanova Julia G,Bogachev Mikhail I,Kayumov Airat R,Shtyrlin Yurii G Bioorganic chemistry Many pathogenic bacteria and microscopic fungi form rigid polymicrobial biofilms this way enhancing their resistant to treatment. A series of novel pyridoxine-based quaternary ammonium derivatives of terbinafine characterized by both antifungal and antibacterial activities was designed. The leading compound named KFU-127 exhibits promising antifungal and antibacterial activities against various bacteria and micromycetes in both planktonic and biofilm-embedded forms demonstrating MIC values comparable with those of conventional antifungals and antimicrobials. Similar to other antiseptics like benzalkonium chloride and miramistin, KFU-127 is considerably toxic for eukaryotic cells that limits is application to topical treatment options. On the other hand, KFU-127 reduces the number of viable biofilm-embedded bacteria and C. albicans by 3 orders of magnitude at concentrations 2-4 times lower than those of reference drugs and successfully eradicates S. aureus-C. albicans mixed biofilms. The mechanism of antimicrobial action of KFU-127 is bimodal including both membrane integrity damage and pyridoxal-dependent enzymes targeting. We expect that this bilateral mechanism would result in lower rates of resistance development in both fungal and bacterial pathogens. Taken together, our data suggest KFU-127 as a new promising broad spectrum topical antimicrobial capable of one-shot targeting of bacterial and fungal-bacterial biofilms. 10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104306
    Oxidized konjac glucomannan-cassava starch and sucrose esters as novel excipients for sustained-release matrix tablets. Liu Cancan,Li Jianbin,Li Kai,Xie Caifeng,Liu Jidong International journal of biological macromolecules A novel sustained-release matrix tablet was developed through wet granulation by using oxidized konjac glucomannan-cassava starch (OKGM-CS) and sucrose esters (SE) as excipients. OKGM-CS treated by dry heat exhibited low solubility and swelling power, indicating that it might be a potential adjuvant for sustained-release drug formulations. SE incorporation significantly decreased the porosity and swelling rates of tablets and retarded drug release. Tablets containing SE with an HLB value of 5 displayed better sustained-release performance, the cumulative release decreased from 94.36% to 83.29% and MDT increased from 4.50 h to 5.79 h. All these findings suggest the potential of OKGM-CS and SE as novel sustained-release agents for matrix tablets. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.11.146
    Surfactin from Bacillus subtilis displays promising characteristics as O/W-emulsifier for food formulations. Hoffmann Mareen,Mück Denise,Grossmann Lutz,Greiner Lena,Klausmann Peter,Henkel Marius,Lilge Lars,Weiss Jochen,Hausmann Rudolf Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces BACKGROUND:Biosurfactants are surface-active molecules produced by different microorganisms and display a promising alternative to synthetically derived food emulsifiers. One of these biosurfactants, synthesized by Bacillus subtilis, is the lipopeptide surfactin, which composes a linear fatty acid and cyclic peptide moiety. This study explores the interfacial and emulsion forming properties of surfactin to further characterize its suitability as an O/W emulsifier in food formulations. RESULTS:Surfactin revealed a high interfacial activity with a reduction of interfacial tension of 83.26 % to 4.21 ± 0.11 mN/m. O/W emulsions (c = 10 % w/w) were prepared by high-pressure homogenization, which yielded volume-based mean particle sizes below 1 μm already at low emulsifier concentrations of 0.01 % (w/w). Environmental stress experiments revealed that emulsions were stable between pH 6 to pH 9. Furthermore, neither phase separation nor extensive emulsion instability was observed with NaCl addition up to 0.5 M. However, CaCl addition (> 3 mM) destabilized surfactin mediated emulsions. Finally, the main emulsion forming and stabilization effect of surfactin was related to its high interfacial activity and the high degree of electrostatic repulsion between the oil droplets (i.e. zeta-potential of up to -100 mV). CONCLUSION:In comparison to other natural and synthetic emulsifiers, the results showed that surfactin is a strong candidate to form and stabilize O/W emulsions under the reported conditions. 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111749
    A Novel Functional Emulsifier Prepared with Modified Cassava Amylose with Octenyl Succinic Anhydride and Quercetin: Preparation and Application in the Pickering Emulsion. Zhang Hailing,Chen Haiming,Jiang Shan,Kang Xiaoning Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) An emulsifier with a targeted antioxidant effect was prepared using the inclusion complexes of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-modified cassava amylose (CA) and quercetin (Q). The designed emulsifier, a carbohydrate polymer-flavonoid complex, exhibited both amphiphilic and antioxidant properties. To investigate the physical and oxidation stabilities of the prepared emulsion, three types of emulsions were prepared: primary emulsions stabilized by enzyme-modified starch, secondary emulsions stabilized by OSA-CA, and tertiary emulsions stabilized by Q-encapsulated complexes (OSA-CA/Q). The structural characteristics of CA, OSA-CA, and OSA-CA/Q were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. The stabilities of the emulsions were evaluated based on their particle size distribution, zeta potential, creaming stability, and peroxide value. The results showed that the secondary and tertiary emulsions exhibited a relatively narrower particle size distribution than the primary emulsions, but the particle size distribution of the tertiary emulsions was the narrowest (10.42 μm). Moreover, the secondary and tertiary emulsions had lower delamination indices than the primary emulsions after 7 days of storage. The results obtained from the antioxidant experiments indicated that OSA-CA/Q exhibited good oxidation stability for application in emulsion systems. 10.3390/molecules26226884
    Rheological and emulsifying properties of an exopolysaccharide produced by potential probiotic Leuconostoc citreum-BMS strain. Abid Yousra,Azabou Samia,Blecker Christophe,Gharsallaoui Adem,Corsaro Maria Michela,Besbes Souhail,Attia Hamadi Carbohydrate polymers EPS-BMS, is to our knowledge, the first high molecular weight exopolysaccharide from potential probiotic Leuconostoc citreum-BMS strain that consists on a mixture of α-(1,6)-dextran branched at the third position and β-(2,6)-levan. This sample exhibited interesting rheological and emulsifying properties under different conditions. Steady shear experiments proved that EPS-BMS had a pseudoplastic behavior without thixotropic properties. Interestingly, pseudoplasticity was maintained even under stress conditions of temperature, pH and salts, which could provide some sensory properties for food products such as mouth feel. Dynamic oscillatory measurements reflected a liquid-like behavior of the sample regardless of the studied EPS concentration, pH, temperature and ionic force. Results related to the emulsifying as well as interfacial properties showed that EPS-BMS had great potential to be applied as emulsifier and/or emulsion stabilizer in both neutral and acidic conditions. Based on the properties reported in this work, EPS-BMS could be potentially applied in the food industry. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117523
    Properties of Ozone-Oxidized Tapioca Starch and Its Use in Coating of Fried Peanuts. Pranoto Yudi,Paramita Brigitta Laksmi,Cahyanto Muhammad Nur,Benjakul Soottawat Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Oxidation of tapioca via ozone oxidation was carried out under different conditions in comparison with HO. The impact of ozonation on physicochemical properties of tapioca was studied and fried peanuts coated with different tapioca were characterized. Different ozone oxidation times (10, 20, and 30 min) and various pH values (5, 7, and 9) were used for tapioca modification. Tapioca oxidized by ozone for 20 min at pH 7 had higher swelling power (SP), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), and viscosity than the native counterpart ( < 0.05). This coincided with the higher carbonyl and carboxyl contents ( < 0.05). The highest frying expansion (FE) with the lowest hardness was attained for fried peanut coated with tapioca oxidized under the aforementioned condition. Therefore, oxidation of tapioca using ozone under optimal conditions could be a potential means to improve frying expansion as well as the crispiness of the fried coated peanuts. 10.3390/molecules26206281
    Aqueous ozone: Chemistry, physiochemical properties, microbial inactivation, factors influencing antimicrobial effectiveness, and application in food. Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety The need for sustainable food production and the demand for fresh and minimally processed foods have prompted remarkable research in novel food processing technologies that ensure safe and shelf-stable food for a large population. Long-established techniques such as heating, drying, and freezing have been associated with nutrient loss and high energy consumption. This trend has drawn attention to the practice of employing ozone in several food applications owing to its significant disinfectant and antimicrobial efficiency. The aqueous form of ozone has been found to show greater efficacy than its gaseous form, with faster decomposition rates leaving no harmful residues. The current study presents an overview of the latest scientific literature on the properties, chemistry, and generation of aqueous ozone, emphasizing the factors affecting process efficiency. The review scrupulously focuses on food decontamination, starch modification, pesticide degradation, and seed germination effects of aqueous ozone, highlighting the optimum processing parameters and salient findings of some major studies. A brief insight into the limitations and future trends has also been presented. Aqueous ozone has been acclaimed to have the potential to cause significant changes in the food matrix that could result in constructive modifications with outcomes entirely dependent on the processing conditions. Indirect and direct reactions involving hydroxyl radical and molecular oxygen atoms, respectively, form the basis of the ozone reaction in aqueous media, providing a distinctive kind of advanced oxidation process that offers certain crucial benefits. With a shorter half-life in water as compared to air, the rapid decomposition of aqueous ozone to oxygen, leaving no harmful residues, adds to its advantages. 10.1111/1541-4337.12886
    Macromolecular characteristics and fine structure of amylomaltase-treated cassava starch. Boonna Sureeporn,Rolland-Sabaté Agnès,Lourdin Denis,Tongta Sunanta Carbohydrate polymers This work investigates the macromolecular structure of native and amylomaltase (AM) treated cassava starch at various reaction times. AM-treated starches showed lower amylose content compared to their parental starch. Long chain proportions (DP 25-80) increased with reaction time up to 4 h and then slightly decreased at 24 h. Macromolecular and fine structure of AM-treated starches for 5 min (AM5min) and 4 h (AM4 h) were characterized more deeply by using HPSEC-MALLS and H NMR combined with β-amylolysis and MALDI-TOF-MS. Molar mass and dispersity of both AM-treated starches were lowered. Nevertheless, AM5min had longer external chains whereas AM4 h exhibited a larger and denser macromolecular core. A cyclo-structure with DP 8 was found in both AM-treated starches; however, AM4 h contained cyclo-structures with various sizes (DP 8-32). Finally, by controlling reaction time and substrate constituents, which are important factors affecting the AM action modes, AM-treated starch with various structural features can be obtained. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.10.042
    Effects of starches from different botanical sources and modification methods on physicochemical properties of starch-based edible films. Dai Limin,Zhang Jun,Cheng Fang International journal of biological macromolecules The effects of starches from different botanical sources (waxy corn, cassava, sweet potato, potato, wheat, and corn) and different commercial modified cassava starches (esterified cassava starch, cross-linked cassava starch, and oxidized cassava starch) on the physicochemical properties of starch-based films prepared by solution casting method were investigated. The mildew resistance test showed that the cassava starch (CAS) film-forming dispersion had the best mildew resistance and all the modified starch film-forming dispersions had less mildew resistance than that of the native starch film-forming dispersion. The color and transparency of the films depended on the plant sources and modification methods of the starch. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis verified the formation of hydrogen bonds between the starch and plasticizer (glycerol) and possible sites for hydrogen bonds on the starch. The atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed that the surface of all starch films was homogeneous except waxy corn starch (WCS) film, wheat starch (WS) film, and corn starch (CS) film. Mechanical properties and water vapor permeability (WVP) tests suggested that CAS film had the best comprehensive properties in native starches. For modified cassava starches, the comprehensive properties of the cross-linked CAS film were better than those of other modified CAS films. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.197
    Green and clean modification of cassava starch - effects on composition, structure, properties and digestibility. Mhaske Pranita,Wang Ziyu,Farahnaky Asgar,Kasapis Stefan,Majzoobi Mahsa Critical reviews in food science and nutrition There is a growing need for clean and green labeling of food products among consumers globally. Therefore, development of green modified starches, to boost functionality, palatability and health benefits while reducing the negative processing impacts on the environment and reinforcing consumer safety is in high demand. Starch modification started in mid-1500s due to the inherent limitations of native starch restricting its commercial applications, with chemical modification being most common. However, with the recent push for "chemical-free" labeling, methods of physical and enzymatic modification have gained immense popularity. These methods have been successfully used in numerous studies to alter the composition, structure, functionality and digestibility of starch and in this review, studies reported on green modification of cassava starch, one of the most common utilized starches, within the last ten years have been critically reviewed. Recent research has introduced starch as an abundant, natural substrate for producing resistant starches through biophysical technologies that act as dietary fiber in the human body. It is evident that different techniques and processing parameters result in varying degrees of modification impacting the techno-functionality and digestibility of the resultant starch. This can be exploited by researchers and industrialists in order to customize starch functionality in accordance with application. 10.1080/10408398.2021.1919050
    The application of gelatinisation techniques in modification of cassava and yam starches using precipitation method. Ulyarti U,Lisani L,Surhaini S,Lumbanraja P,Satrio B,Supriyadi S,Nazarudin N Journal of food science and technology Starches modified using the precipitation method which are added to edible film formulation were shown to lower water vapor transmission rates and increase the mechanical strength of the film. The effect may not only be due to the changes in starch morphology, but other aspects of the starch granules, such as their size and chemical properties in particular, are also suggested as reasons for improvements to the quality of edible film by modified starches. The aim of this research was to determine physicochemical changes in modified cassava and yam starches using several gelatinisation techniques in the precipitation method. The gelatinisation techniques used in this study were two methods of heating (using a hotplate and autoclave reactor + oven heating) and two types of starch solvent (distilled water and a mixture of distilled water and ethanol 1:1, v/v). The results showed that both cassava and yam starch granules modified using a hotplate at a heating temperature of 100 °C for 30 min were more badly damaged and smaller than those modified using autoclave reactor + oven heating at 140 °C for 1 h. However, the latter suffered more damage and were smaller in size when the heating time was increased to 3-5 h. All techniques applied in the modification increased the intensities of stretching vibration of O-H and C-H, and bound water bending vibration. The use of ethanol in the starch solvent enabled the starches to retain the shape and size of the granules despite the rearrangement of intra and intermolecular bonding as confirmed by FTIR spectra. 10.1007/s13197-021-05134-0
    Structure and physicochemical properties of cross-linked and acetylated tapioca starches affected by oil modification. Food chemistry This work investigated the structure and physicochemical properties of cross-linked tapioca starch (CTS), acetylated tapioca starch (ATS) and their counterparts (Oil-CTS and Oil-ATS). The results showed oil on the interface of starch granules promoted granule agglomeration after oil modification. Besides, oil modification could increase granule size and destroy the crystalline structure but did not affect the molecular structure of starch. Meanwhile, oil-modified starches did not form the V-type structure like amylose-fatty acid complex, suggesting that oil could not enter the helical cavity of amylose to form complex. Furthermore, compared with CTS and ATS, oil-modified starches had higher shear resistance, lower viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy. Notably, Oil-CTS possessed excellent emulsion stability, with the potential application as an emulsion stabilizer. This study revealed oil modification as an innovative method to endow starch with high shear resistance, low gelatinization enthalpy and excellent emulsion stability to meet the demands of food industries. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132848
    Modification of Cassava Root Starch Phosphorylation Enhances Starch Functional Properties. Wang Wuyan,Hostettler Carmen E,Damberger Fred F,Kossmann Jens,Lloyd James R,Zeeman Samuel C Frontiers in plant science Cassava ( Crantz) is a root crop used as a foodstuff and as a starch source in industry. Starch functional properties are influenced by many structural features including the relative amounts of the two glucan polymers amylopectin and amylose, the branched structure of amylopectin, starch granule size and the presence of covalent modifications. Starch phosphorylation, where phosphates are linked either to the C3 or C6 carbon atoms of amylopectin glucosyl residues, is a naturally occurring modification known to be important for starch remobilization. The degree of phosphorylation has been altered in several crops using biotechnological approaches to change expression of the starch-phosphorylating enzyme GLUCAN WATER DIKINASE (GWD). Interestingly, this frequently alters other structural features of starch beside its phosphate content. Here, we aimed to alter starch phosphorylation in cassava storage roots either by manipulating the expression of the starch phosphorylating or dephosphorylating enzymes. Therefore, we generated transgenic plants in which either the wild-type potato GWD () or a redox-insensitive version of it were overexpressed. Further plants were created in which we used RNAi to silence each of the endogenous phosphoglucan phosphatase genes STARCH EXCESS 4 () and LIKE SEX4 2 (), previously discovered by analyzing leaf starch metabolism in the model species . Overexpressing the potato GWD gene (), which specifically phosphorylates the C6 position, increased the total starch-bound phosphate content at both the C6 and the C3 positions. Silencing endogenous LSF2 gene (), which specifically dephosphorylates the C3 position, increased the ratio of C3:C6 phosphorylation, showing that its function is conserved in storage tissues. In both cases, other structural features of starch (amylopectin structure, amylose content and starch granule size) were unaltered. This allowed us to directly relate the physicochemical properties of the starch to its phosphate content or phosphorylation pattern. Starch swelling power and paste clarity were specifically influenced by total phosphate content. However, phosphate position did not significantly influence starch functional properties. In conclusion, biotechnological manipulation of starch phosphorylation can specifically alter certain cassava storage root starch properties, potentially increasing its value in food and non-food industries. 10.3389/fpls.2018.01562
    Ozone technology as an alternative to fermentative processes to improve the oven-expansion properties of cassava starch. Matta Junior M D,Castanha Nanci,Dos Anjos Carlota Boralli Prudente,Augusto Pedro Esteves Duarte,Sarmento Silene Bruder S Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) Cassava starch has a remarkable importance in the food industry and it can be used either as ingredient or additive. The sour cassava starch is a product with a good oven-expansion capacity and several applications, being especially important as an alternative for gluten-based products. However, it is obtained through natural fermentation followed by solar drying, which hinders its production and application. In this context, this work proposed the ozone processing as an alternative to obtain cassava starch with good oven-expansion property. The effect of ozonation on starch granular and molecular structure was evaluated, as well as on the main starch properties. The ozone processing reduced the starch molecular size, also forming carbonyl and carboxyl groups. The structural changes led to pastes with higher clarity, better oven expansion and softer texture. The improvement in starch properties and technological aspects were related with the molecular changes. In conclusion, ozone oxidation was proved to be a viable and easier alternative for the conventional process. 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.04.050
    Preparation, characterization and physicochemical properties of cassava starch-ferulic acid complexes by mechanical activation. Fang Kun,He Wei,Jiang Yi,Li Kai,Li Jianbin International journal of biological macromolecules Although research on phytochemicals has been a hot topic due to positive effects on human health, modification of starch with phytochemicals has been limited. In the present work, cassava starch-ferulic acid (CS-FA) complexes were acquired using different times of mechanical activation via stirring ball milling, and their characterization and physicochemical properties were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy showed the broken structure of native cassava starch, but the smooth structure of CS-FA complexes. The X-ray diffraction indicated that the C-type crystalline structure of native cassava starch completely disappeared with the increase time of mechanical activation. The complexation was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Solid carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (C NMR) studies. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability was decreased by mechanical activation, but it could be improved with the existence of ferulic acid. The solubility of CS-FA complexes increased with increasing of the time by mechanical activation. Therefore, mechanical activation is considered a suitable method for preparing CS-FA complexes. As a new material with considerable antioxidant activity, it would be a great potential for CS-FA complexes in functional food, biomedical materials, and cosmetic products. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.05.213
    Cassava and banana starch modified with maleic anhydride-poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (Ma-mPEG): A comparative study of their physicochemical properties as coatings. Méndez Paula A,Méndez Ángela M,Martínez Laura N,Vargas Brandon,López Betty L International journal of biological macromolecules This study proposes a simple route to obtain starch grafted copolymers from cassava and banana starches chemically modified with amphiphilic maleic anhydride-poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (Ma-mPEG). The starches were extracted from cassava (StC) and banana (StB) pulp and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, amylose content, scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and average molecular weight. Starches were chemically modified with amphiphilic Ma-mPEG in three mass ratios 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3. Thermal behavior and interactions of Ma-mPEG/starch in the St-g-(Ma-mPEG) copolymers were studied by DSC and TGA. The T values showed a higher plasticizer effect in the copolymers obtained from StC. Films were formed from StC-g-(Ma-mPEG) and StB-g-(Ma-mPEG) copolymers, thermal and morphological properties were studied. An increase in the mass ratios of Ma-mPEG and the absence of the glycerol in the formulations formed homogeneous films. StC-g-(Ma-mPEG) 1:3 with 2% concentration showed a potential use as coating in strawberries, presenting a lower weight loss (15.5 ± 5.7%) than the control sample (18.6 ± 3.3%). 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.02.053
    Curdlan production from cassava starch hydrolysates by Agrobacterium sp. DH-2. Bioprocess and biosystems engineering Curdlan is an edible microbial polysaccharide and can be used in food, biomedical and biomaterial fields. To reduce the cost of curdlan production, this study investigated the suitability of cassava starch hydrolysates as carbon source for curdlan production. Cassava starch was hydrolyzed into maltose syrup using β-amylase and pullulanase at various enzyme dosages, temperature, time and addition order of two enzymes. The maltose yield of 53.17% was achieved at starch loading 30% by simultaneous addition β-amylase 210 U/g starch and pullulanase 3 U/g starch at 60 °C for 9 h. Cassava starch hydrolysates were used as carbon source for curdlan production by Agrobacterium sp. DH-2. The curdlan production reached 28.4 g/L with the yield of 0.79 g/g consumed sugar and molecular weight of 1.26 × 10 Da at 96 h with cassava starch hydrolysate at 90 g/L initial sugar concentration. Curdlan produced from cassava starch hydrolysates was characterized using FT-IR spectra and thermo gravimetric analysis. This work indicated that cassava starch was a potential renewable feedstock for curdlan production. 10.1007/s00449-022-02718-8
    Amylomaltase from Thermus filiformis: expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its use in starch modification. Nimpiboon P,Tumhom S,Nakapong S,Pongsawasdi P Journal of applied microbiology AIM:To express amylomaltase from Thermus filiformis (TfAM) in a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organism and to use the enzyme in starch modification. METHODS AND RESULTS:TfAM was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using 2% (w/v) galactose inducer under GAL1 promoter. The enzyme was thermostable with high disproportionation and cyclization activities. The main large-ring cyclodextrin (CD) products were CD24-CD29, with CD26 as maximum at all incubation times. TfAM was used to modify cassava and pea starches, the amylose content decreased 18% and 30%, respectively, when 5% (w/v) starch was treated with 0·5 U TfAM g starch. The increase in short branched chain (DP, degree of polymerization, 1-5) and the broader chain length distribution pattern which extended to the longer chain (DP40) after TfAM treatment were observed. The thermal property was changed, with an increase in retrogradation of starch as suggested by a lower enthalpy. CONCLUSIONS:TfAM was successfully expressed in S. cerevisiae and was used to make starches with new functionality. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:This is the first report on the expression of AM in the GRAS yeast and the production of a modified starch gel from pea starch to improve the versatility of starch for food use. 10.1111/jam.14675
    Dual-process of starch modification: Combining ozone and dry heating treatments to modify cassava starch structure and functionality. Lima Dâmaris Carvalho,Maniglia Bianca Chieregato,Matta Junior Manoel Divino,Le-Bail Patricia,Le-Bail Alain,Augusto Pedro Esteves Duarte International journal of biological macromolecules This work evaluated for the first time the effect of dual modification of cassava starch by using ozone (O) and dry heating treatment (DHT). The dual modification was capable to promote fissures on the surface of the starch granule (DHT + O), affected the starch amorphous domains, presented greater degree of starch oxidation (DHT + O) and different profiles of starch molecular size distribution. These modifications resulted in starches with different properties. Moreover, the sequence of treatments was decisive for the hydrogel properties: while DHT + O resulted in formation of stronger gels, O + DHT resulted in weaker gels. In conclusion, this proposed dual modification was capable to produce specific modified starch when compared with the isolated treatments, also expanding the potential of cassava starch applications. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.046
    Pullulanase modification of granular sweet potato starch: Assistant effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma on multi-scale structure, physicochemical properties. Ge Xiangzhen,Shen Huishan,Su Chunyan,Zhang Bo,Zhang Qian,Jiang Hao,Yuan Li,Yu Xiuzhu,Li Wenhao Carbohydrate polymers This study explored the potential application of physical combined enzyme treatment to modify starch granules. Starch was modified by exposure to cold plasma (CP) for 1, 3, and 9 min and to pullulanase (PUL) for 12, 24, and 36 h. Individual treatments with CP and PUL somewhat modified starch structure and physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, compared with native starch and individual treatments, CP-PUL combined treatment significantly (p < 0.05) promoted the subsequent structural modification, increased the short-chain ratio and the amylose content, reduce the molecular weight and the relative crystallinity, and disturb the short-range order. CP also improved the properties of PUL-modified starch, including enhanced solubility, thermal properties and resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis but worsened swelling power and peak viscosity properties. This research provides a new perspective for the rational application of CP-PUL co-treated starch in the food industry. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118481
    Effect of dual modification sequence on physicochemical, pasting, rheological and digestibility properties of cassava starch modified by acetic acid and ultrasound. Khurshida Singamayum,Das Manas Jyoti,Deka Sankar C,Sit Nandan International journal of biological macromolecules Dual modification of cassava starch was carried out using ultrasonication and acetylation by acetic acid by altering the sequence. The results revealed that the type of modification and sequence of modification for dual modified starches significantly affected the properties of starch. The swelling decreased for all the modified starches whereas solubility decreased for ultrasonicated starches but increased for acetylated starch and dual modified starch where acetylation was done after ultrasonication. The paste viscosities of all the modified starches were found to be significantly lower compared to native starch and the lowest viscosities were observed for dual modified starch where ultrasonication was done after acetylation. The resistant starch and slowly digestible starch content of the modified starches were significantly higher than in native starch, and the type of modification and sequence of modification for dual modified starches seemed to affect the digestibility of starches. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.062
    Isolation, characterization, modification and uses of taro starch: A review. Nagar Chetan Kumar,Dash Sanjaya Kumar,Rayaguru Kalpana,Pal Uma Sankar,Nedunchezhiyan Maniyam International journal of biological macromolecules Taro is a major root crop utilized widely for diverse food and non-food applications. Taro corms are processed into various forms before consumption, which makes them digestible and palatable, extends the shelf life and reduces post-harvest losses. Taro corm contains starch as the major carbohydrate, accounting up to 70-80% of the whole dry matter. The starches obtained from different cultivars and sources significantly differ in physical, chemical, thermal, morphological, and functional properties, which can be explored for varied applications. Starch quality also controls the end-quality of food and industrial products. Several starch modification methods have been studied to improve its positive attributes and to eliminate deficiencies in its native characteristics. These modification methods, which can be categorised into physical, chemical and enzymatic, have proved to improve the characteristics and applications of starch. This review aims to compile the information about the chemical composition, characterization, isolation and modification methods, with an objective of its increased use in food or non-food industries. In addition, challenges and issues in the small-scale processing of taro are discussed. The information available in this review may help in a better understanding and utilization of taro starch. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.10.041
    Octenyl Succinate Modification of Starch Enhances the Formation of Starch-Lipid Complexes. Wang Jinwei,Ren Fei,Yu Jinglin,Copeland Les,Wang Shujun Journal of agricultural and food chemistry The present study investigated the effect of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modification of starch on the formation of starch-lipid complexes. The complexing index (CI) showed that native maize starch (NMS) formed more complexes with monopalmityl glycerol (MPG) than with palmitic acid (PA), whereas dipalmityl glycerol (DPG) was not effective in forming complexes with NMS. After OSA modification, the complexation between OSA-starch and lipids was greatly enhanced, especially for PA and DPG, and the CI values increased from 79.6 to 93.3% for OSA-starch-PA and from 80.3 to 93.2% for OSA-starch-DPG complexes with increasing DS of OSA-starch. Structural analyses showed that OSA-starch-lipid complexes had higher degrees of long- and short-range molecular orders than the corresponding NMS-lipid complexes. This study showed for the first time that DPG can form complexes with OSA-starch, which was attributed to the increased dispersion of DPG in water by the emulsifying ability of OSA-starch. The finding is of great significance for a better understanding of the formation of starch-lipid complexes. 10.1021/acs.jafc.1c05816
    Understanding how different modification processes affect the physiochemical, functional, thermal, morphological structures and digestibility of cardaba banana starch. Olawoye Babatunde,Fagbohun Oladapo Fisoye,Popoola Oyekemi Olabisi,Gbadamosi Saka Olasunkami,Akanbi Charles Taiwo International journal of biological macromolecules In this study, starch was isolated from cardaba banana starch and was subjected to modification by heat-moisture treatment, citric acid, octenyl succinic anhydride, and sodium hexametaphosphate. Both the native and modified cardaba banana starches were examined for chemical, functional, pasting, thermal, morphological, structural, and antioxidant properties, as well as in vitro starch digestibility. Modification significantly influenced the properties of the cardaba banana starch. Cross-linking treatment improved the water, oil absorption, alkaline hydration capacity, swelling power, solubility and paste clarity of the starch. The final viscosity of the banana starch paste was increased alongside succinic anhydride modification which in turn enhanced the suitability of the starch in the production of high viscous products. Both FTIR spectra and X-ray diffractograms confirmed the starch had a C-type starch which was not affected by modification. Modification led to a decrease in relative crystallinity of the starch with succinylation having the maximum effect. The starch fractions; both SDS and RS significantly increased due to modification while the hydrolysis and glycemic index of the starch were significantly decreased by chemical modification. In conclusion, both physical and chemical modification of cardaba banana starch produced a starch that can serve as functional food or functional food ingredients. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.12.134
    Modification of starch by polysaccharides in pasting, rheology, texture and in vitro digestion: A review. International journal of biological macromolecules Starch is a copolymer with unique physicochemical characteristics, is known for its low cost, easy degradability, renewable and easy availability. However, natural starches have some undesirable properties such as poor solubility, poor functional properties, lower resistant starch content with reduced retrogradation, and poor stability under various temperatures, pH, which limit their application in food. Different modification methods are used to improve its performance and expand its application. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate why the addition of small amounts of polysaccharides affects the properties of starch pastes and gels. The application of polysaccharide-modified starch can be seen in the pasting, rheology, texture and in vitro digestive properties of starch gels. The main influencing factors include different starches, different specific polysaccharides, and different methods of preparation of composite pastes and gels. This paper reviews the changes in the properties of starch in terms of pasting, rheology, texture and in vitro digestion after modification with polysaccharides and the mechanism of polysaccharide action on starch. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.02.170
    Bacterial cellulose production by Komagataeibacter hansenii using algae-based glucose. Uzyol Huma Kurtoglu,Saçan Melek Türker Environmental science and pollution research international Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a homopolymer and it is distinguished from plant-based cellulose by its unique properties such as high purity, high crystallinity, high water-holding capacity, and good biocompatibility. Microalgae are unicellular, photosynthetic microorganisms and are known to have high protein, starch, and oil content. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris was evaluated as source of glucose for the production of BC. To increase the starch content of algae the effect of nutrient starvation (nitrogen and sulfur) and light deficiency were tested in a batch assay. The starch contents (%) were 5.27 ± 0.04, 7.14 ± 0.18, 5.00 ± 0.08, and 1.35 ± 0.04 for normal cultivation, nitrogen starvation, sulfur starvation, and dark cultivation conditions, respectively. The performance of enzymatic and acidic methods was compared for the starch hydrolysis. This study demonstrated for the first time that acid hydrolysate of algal starch can be used to substitute glucose in the fermentation medium of Komagataeibacter hansenii for BC production. Glucose was used as a control for BC production. BC production yields on dry weight basis were 1.104 ± 0.002 g/L and 1.202 ± 0.005 g/L from algae-based glucose and glucose, respectively. The characterization of both BCs produced from glucose and algae-based glucose was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results have shown that the structural characteristics of algae-based BC were comparable to those of glucose-based BC. 10.1007/s11356-016-7049-7
    Recent advances in starch-based films toward food packaging applications: Physicochemical, mechanical, and functional properties. Lauer Moira K,Smith Rhett C Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety Interest in starch-based films has increased precipitously in response to a growing demand for more sustainable and environmentally sourced food packaging materials. Starch is an optimal candidate for these applications given its ability to form thermoplastic materials and films with affordable and often sustainably sourced plasticizers like those produced as waste byproducts by biodiesel and agricultural industries. Starch is also globally ubiquitous, affordable, and environmentally benign. Although the process of producing starch films is relatively straightforward, numerous factors, including starch source, extraction method, film formulation, processing methods, and curing procedures, drastically impact the ultimate material properties. The significant strides made from 2015 to early 2020 toward elucidating how these variables can be leveraged to improve mechanical and barrier properties as well as the implementation of various additives or procedural modifications are cataloged in this review. Advances toward the development of functional films containing antioxidant, antibacterial, or spoilage indicating components to prevent or signal the degradation of food products are also discussed. 10.1111/1541-4337.12627
    Effect of four viscous soluble dietary fibers on the physicochemical, structural properties, and in vitro digestibility of rice starch: A comparison study. Zheng Jiong,Huang Shan,Zhao Ruyue,Wang Nan,Kan Jianquan,Zhang Fusheng Food chemistry The effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), high-methoxyl pectin (HMP), konjac glucomannan (KGM), and xanthan gum (XG) on the physicochemical, structural properties, and digestibility of rice starch were investigated and compared. The four viscous soluble dietary fibers (VSDFs) increased the viscosity, storage modulus and loss modulus while decreased the pasting temperature and gelatinization enthalpy. Moreover, XG produced the lowest peak viscosity and dynamic modulus compared with the other VSDFs. Furthermore, the degree of short-range ordered structure of starch with KGM increased from 0.8448 to 0.8716; and the relative crystallinity of starch with XG increased by 12%. An ordered and reunited network structure was observed in SEM. In addition, VSDF inhibited the digestibility of rice starch and significantly increased the resistant starch content. This study compared the effect of four VSDFs on the physicochemical, structural and digestion properties of rice starch to fully understand and develop their application to starchy foods. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130181
    Comparative Analysis of Bacterial Cellulose Membranes Synthesized by Chosen Strains and Their Application Potential. International journal of molecular sciences This article presents a comparative analysis of bacterial cellulose membranes synthesized by several strains of the genus in terms of their specific physical, physico-chemical, and mechanical properties. Herein, the aim was to choose the most suitable microorganisms producing cellulosic materials with the greatest potential for the fabrication of bio-inspired nanocomposites. The selection was based on three main steps, starting from the evaluation of BNC biosynthetic efficiency with and without the addition of ethanol, followed by the assessment of mechanical breaking strength, and the physical parameters (compactness, structural integrity, appearance, and thickness) of the obtained biological materials. Ultimately, based on the performed screening procedure, three efficiently growing strains ( H3 (6Et), K4 (8Et), and sp. isolated from balsamic vinegar (12Et)) were chosen for further modifications, enabling additional cellulose functionalization. Here, supplementation of the growth medium with five representative polymeric compounds (citrus/apple pectin, wheat starch, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol) led to significant changes in BNC properties, especially dye loading abilities, mechanical strength, and water adsorption/retention capacities. The resulting nanocomposites can be potentially useful in various fields of medicine and industry, and in the future, they may become a practical and cost-effective competitor against commercial biomaterials currently available on the market. 10.3390/ijms23063391
    Mechanical, antibacterial and biodegradable properties of starch film containing bacteriocin immobilized crystalline nanocellulose. Bagde Priyanka,Nadanathangam Vigneshwaran Carbohydrate polymers We reported the preparation of antibacterial corn starch film (57% reduction in bacterial count) with enhanced tensile strength (69%) by incorporating immobilized bacteriocin. Whisker shaped crystalline nanocellulose (CNC, length 71.2 ± 20.7 nm and width 27.8 ± 11.2 nm) was prepared from cotton linters by bio-mechanical process, having the degree of polymerization 250. Bacteriocins extracted from broth cultures of P. acidilactici and E. faecium were immobilized on the surface of CNC and used to reinforce the starch film. The biodegradability of reinforced films was affected due to the use of bacteriocin in fillers. Surface morphology and roughness of reinforced films were studied by SEM and AFM. In an ambient environment, the films incorporated with bacteriocin immobilized CNC stayed fresh for 28 days while that of bacteriocin alone had fungal degradation in 14 days. This supports the requirement of CNC immobilization for better stability of bacteriocin on storage. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115021
    Valorizing kitchen waste through bacterial cellulose production towards a more sustainable biorefinery. Wu Mengke,Chen Wei,Hu Jinguang,Tian Dong,Shen Fei,Zeng Yongmei,Yang Gang,Zhang Yanzong,Deng Shihuai The Science of the total environment In this work, water washing pretreatment was employed on kitchen waste (KW) to integrate a multi-product biorefinery process for producing biogas, biodiesel, bacterial cellulose (BC) and biofertilizer. As a crucial stream in this biorefinery process, BC production were investigated to clarify the effects of residual salt and cooked oil. Meanwhile, glycerol, a by-product in biodiesel stream, as carbon source was attempted to produce BC. Results indicated that BC yield was significantly promoted from 0.11 g L to 2.07 g L as NaCl content decreased from 0.44% to 0.04%. Correspondingly, the BC crystallinity increased from 30.1% to 57.4% and the tensile strength increased from 3.30 MPa to 21.64 MPa. In addition, the residual cooked oil didn't affect the BC yield significantly, however, the crystallinity was greatly decreased from 57.4% to 34.5% as more cooked oil was remained in the medium of KW, and the tensile strength was decreased from 21.64 MPa to 4.30 MPa, correspondingly. Obviously, reducing the salt and cooked oil content in the starch fraction of KW by intensifying the water washing pretreatment will greatly benefit the BC yield and qualities. When the glycerol from biodiesel stream was employed for BC production with content of 10 g L-25 g L, 34.2%-44.0% increase on BC yield can be achieved. By contrast, extra higher glycerol content (50 g L) reduced the BC yield by 41%. However, the crystallinity and the tensile strength were increased by 18% and 2.2-folds, respectively. Therefore, the biodiesel stream can be well integrated in the process via producing BC with by-product of glycerol as a replaceable carbon source. Based on the results above, a more sustainable biorefinery process of KW via BC production can be achieved, which will potentially offer a new path to valorize the daily-released KW. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133898
    Synthesis and characterization of starch nanocellulosic films incorporated with Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract. Ghoshal Gargi,Singh Deepinderjot International journal of food microbiology Carrot cellulose nano fibers (CNF) have been extracted from carrot pulp using acid hydrolysis process. The size of the CNF was in the range of 6.33-58.77 nm. Starch nano-composite films were manufactured using varying concentration of CNF (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) and mechanical properties of the films were studied at relative humidity 50% and 75%. Nano-composite films were manufactured using Eucalyptus globulus leafs extract (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%). Physio-chemical properties, antioxidant, antimicrobial, morphological and crystalline properties of the films were studied. Nano-composite films with 4% Eucalyptus globulus leafs extract was best to provide better barrier, antioxidant properties to grapes when wrapped and stored at room temperature (25 ± 2)°C for 7 days and refrigerator temperature (4 ± 1)°C for 28 days. Wrapped grapes with NCC/Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract stored for 28 days either at 25 °C or 4 °C had bacterial surface loads reduced up to 5 orders of magnitude compared to non-wrapped samples and had 4 orders of magnitude less bacterial surface loads than at the beginning of the experiments. Wrapped grapes with NCC/Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract significantly reduced the growth of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Penicillium spp. when the cells of these organisms were spiked onto grapes and the samples were stored either at (25 ± 2) °C or (4 ± 1) °C for 28 days. The results showed that nano-composite with 4% Eucalyptus globulus leafs extract films have immense potential as food packaging/wrapping material. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2020.108765
    Improving nisin production by encapsulated Lactococcus lactis with starch/carboxymethyl cellulose edible films. Lan Wenting,Zhang Rong,Ji Tengteng,Sameen Dur E,Ahmed Saeed,Qin Wen,Dai Jianwu,He Li,Liu Yaowen Carbohydrate polymers In this study, Lactococcus lactis was embedded in a film of corn starch (NS) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) prepared using a casting method. At a CMC:NS ratio of 5:5, the composite film had the best comprehensive properties. Scanning electron microscopy images clearly showed that L. lactis was effectively embedded. The film with 1.5 % L. lactis showed the best performance and the lowest water vapor transmission rate (5.54 × 10 g/m s Pa. In addition, the edible film retained a viable count of 5.64 log CFU/g of L. lactis when stored at 4 °C for 30 days. The composite film with 1.5 % L. lactis showed the highest release of nisin (3.35 mg/mL) and good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (53.53 %) after 8 days. Therefore, this edible film is a viable alternative antimicrobial strategy for the active packaging of foods containing low moisture content. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117062
    Ecofriendly novel synthesis of tertiary composite based on cellulose and myco-synthesized selenium nanoparticles: Characterization, antibiofilm and biocompatibility. Abu-Elghait Mohammed,Hasanin Mohamed,Hashem Amr Hosny,Salem Salem S International journal of biological macromolecules Microbial infections are considered common and dangerous for humans among other infections; therefore the synthesis of high efficacy antimicrobial and anti-biofilm composites is continuous to fight microbial resistance. In our study, a new and novel tertiary composite (TC) was synthesized, it composed of TEMPO cellulose (TOC), chitosan, starch, and myco-synthesized Se-NPs. Myco-synthesized Se-NPs and TC were fully characterized using UV, FT-IR, XRD, SEM with EDX, particle distribution, and mapping. The antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) were effectively established for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The possible impact of myco-synthesized novel cellulose-based selenium nanoparticles tertiary composite on the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and Candida albicans was evaluated in this study. TC exhibited constant biofilm inhibition against P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and C. albicans, while the results obtained from cytotoxicity of Se-NPs and TC showed that, alteration occurred in the normal cell line of lung fibroblast cells (Wi-38) was shown as loss of their typical cell shape, granulation, loss of monolayer, shrinking or rounding of Wi-38 cell with an IC value of where 461 and 550 ppm respectively. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.040
    Functional effectiveness of double essential oils@yam starch/microcrystalline cellulose as active antibacterial packaging. Cheng Junfeng,Wang Hualin,Xiao Feng,Xia Li,Li Linlin,Jiang Shaotong International journal of biological macromolecules In this work, two combinations of double EOs, i.e., α-terpineol: eugenol (α-T:Eu) and carvacrol:eugenol (CA:Eu), are used to develop the active antibacterial films of double EOs@yam starch/microcrystalline cellulose (EOs@SC). The hydrogen-bonded networks in SC matrix are conducive to thermostability enhancement and the film of SC25 is determined for EO incorporation. The interactions between EOs and SC matrix are also hydrogen bonds and the double EOs@SC are smooth at ratio of ≤2:2 for α-T:Eu or CA:Eu. The ultimate film properties are dependent on the incorporated EOs. The release of EOs is well controlled by two mechanisms of diffusion (predominant) and swelling (secondary). Synergetic antibacterial activity occurs on double EOs@SC. The shelf life of pork can be extended by 1 day at 25 °C by the two typical films of α-T:Eu@SC and CA:Eu@SC. Moreover, EOs@SC can be well degraded in humus soil. Thereby, the target films will have great potential in active packaging to extend the shelf life of food. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.094
    Potato Juice, a Starch Industry Waste, as a Cost-Effective Medium for the Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cellulose. Ciecholewska-Juśko Daria,Broda Michał,Żywicka Anna,Styburski Daniel,Sobolewski Peter,Gorący Krzysztof,Migdał Paweł,Junka Adam,Fijałkowski Karol International journal of molecular sciences In this work, we verified the possibility of valorizing a major waste product of the potato starch industry, potato tuber juice (PJ). We obtained a cost-effective, ecological-friendly microbiological medium that yielded bacterial cellulose (BC) with properties equivalent to those from conventional commercial Hestrin-Schramm medium. The BC yield from the PJ medium (>4 g/L) was comparable, despite the lack of any pre-treatment. Likewise, the macro- and microstructure, physicochemical parameters, and chemical composition showed no significant differences between PJ and control BC. Importantly, the BC obtained from PJ was not cytotoxic against fibroblast cell line L929 in vitro and did not contain any hard-to-remove impurities. The PJ-BC soaked with antiseptic exerted a similar antimicrobial effect against and as to BC obtained in the conventional medium and supplemented with antiseptic. These are very important aspects from an application standpoint, particularly in biomedicine. Therefore, we conclude that using PJ for BC biosynthesis is a path toward significant valorization of an environmentally problematic waste product of the starch industry, but also toward a significant drop in BC production costs, enabling wider application of this biopolymer in biomedicine. 10.3390/ijms221910807
    Bio and photoactive starch/MnO and starch/MnO/cotton hydrogel nanocomposite. Saraf Pegah,Abdollahi Movaghar Mahdieh,Montazer Majid,Mahmoudi Rad Mahnaz International journal of biological macromolecules Here a starch and starch hydrogel nanocomposite and superabsorbent cotton fabric was fabricated and characterized. The optimized starch hydrogel nanocomposite was synthesized by using 0.008 M potassium permanganate, 0.7 g starch and 0.6 M sodium hydroxide at 50-55 °C. potassium permanganate as a strong and inexpensive oxidizing agent were used to potentially nano cross-link the starch molecular chains and graft the starch to cellulose molecular chains along with synthesizing manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO) to further obtain antibacterial, antifungal and photocatalytic properties. The stability of products in water and the water absorption indicated the highest water content of 800% for the optimum sample. The same materials and conditions were also applied to the cotton fabric to produce a superabsorbent fabric. The simple one-step synthesis procedure, in-situ production of nanoparticles, cost-effectiveness and having desired features including photocatalytic, antibacterial properties of 93% against S. aureus, and biocompatibility make the starch hydrogel nanocomposite a suitable candidate for various applications such as agriculture, medical, textile engineering and water treatment. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.10.168
    Janus particles: A review of their applications in food and medicine. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition In contrast to conventional particles that have isotropic surfaces, Janus ("two-faced") particles have anisotropic surfaces, which leads to novel physicochemical properties and functional attributes. Janus particles with differing compositions, structures, and functional attributes have been prepared using a variety of fabrication methods. Depending on their composition, Janus particles have been classified as inorganic, polymeric, or polymeric/inorganic types. Recently, there has been growing interest in preparing Janus particles from biological macromolecules to meet the demand for a more sustainable and environmentally friendly food and pharmaceutical supply. At interfaces, Janus particles exhibit the characteristics of both surfactants and Pickering stabilizers, and so their behavior can be described using adsorption theories developed to describe these surface-active substances. Research has highlighted several potential applications of Janus particles in food and medicine, including emulsion formation and stabilization, toxin detection, antimicrobial activity, drug delivery, and medical imaging. Nevertheless, further research is needed to design and fabricate Janus particles that are suitable as functional ingredients in the food and biomedicine industries. 10.1080/10408398.2022.2067831
    Chemical aspects of polyphenol-protein interactions and their antibacterial activity. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition The hunt for novel antibiotics has become a global public health imperative due to the rise in multidrug-resistant microorganisms, untreatable infection cases, overuse, and inefficacy of modern antibiotics. Polyphenols are getting much attention in research due to their multiple biological effects; their use as antimicrobial agents is attributed to their activity and that microbes have a hard time developing resistance to these natural compounds. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites produced in higher plants. They are known to possess various functional properties in the human body. Polyphenols also exhibit antibacterial activities against foodborne pathogens. Their antibacterial mechanism is based on inhibiting bacterial biofilm formation or inactivating enzymes. This review focused on polyphenol-protein interactions and the creation of this complex as a possible antibacterial agent. Also, different phenolic interactions on bacterial proteins, efflux pump, cell membrane, bacterial adhesion, toxins, and other bacterial proteins will be explored; these interactions can work in a synergic combination with antibiotics or act alone to assure bacterial inhibition. Additionally, our review will focus on polyphenol-protein interaction as a possible strategy to eradicate bacteria because polyphenols have shown a robust enzyme-inhibitory characteristic and a high tendency to complex with proteins, a response that neutralizes any bactericidal potential. 10.1080/10408398.2022.2067830
    Valorization of olive processing by-products via drying technologies: a case study on the recovery of bioactive phenolic compounds from olive leaves, pomace, and wastewater. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition Olive by-products are rich sources of phenolic compounds and their valorization is a favorable approach in line with sustainable development goals of the United Nations (UN) organization to promote well-being and production of healthier products; also, to deal with the environmental and economic subjects resulting in more profitability in the olive oil industry. The production of value-added ingredients from these by-products is not extensively exploited on the industrial scale. Drying is a critical pretreatment before extraction that can have a direct impact on the recovery and yield of the available bioactive compounds in olive by-products. In order to produce more stable and high quality phenolic products, encapsulation using spray and freeze drying is used. In this study, the effect of the drying process before and after extraction of bioactive compounds from olive by-products as a valuable source of phenolic compounds is reviewed. In addition, fortification using these ingredients and their incorporation in food formulations is also investigated. 10.1080/10408398.2022.2068123
    Artemisinin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex loaded with porous starch for enhanced bioavailability. International journal of biological macromolecules The current work aimed to enhance the oral bioavailability of water-insoluble drug Artemisinin (ART) by the inclusion of ART with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and then loaded with porous starch (PS). The preparation conditions of ART HP-β-CD inclusion complex loaded with PS (AHPS) were optimized according to drug loading (DL) and entrapment efficiency (EE). The properties of AHPS were characterized by optical and thermodynamic methods. ART was linked by hydrogen bond to HP-β-CD to form hydrophilic supramolecules, which are loaded into PS under the action of hydrogen bond. The maximum DL and EE of AHPS were about 16.51% and 67.26%, respectively. Then we investigated the physicochemical properties and antimalarial activity of AHPS. The solubility and bioavailability of AHPS at 48 h were higher than ART and market ART piperaquine tablets (APT), and showed better antimalarial activity in vitro and vivo. It provides a new idea for the development and application of fat-soluble drug. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.170
    Complexation behavior of carboxymethyl short-chain amylose and quaternized chitosan. International journal of biological macromolecules The complexation of carboxymethyl short-chain amylose (CSA) and hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (HACC) and the stability of CSA/HACC nanocomplex were investigated. Resonance light scattering (RLS), turbidity, nanoparticle size and zeta potential analyses revealed that the complex coacervation occurred between CSA and HACC. The mass ratio and pH markedly influenced the complexation behavior; CSA with a higher degree of substitution (DS0.2) altered the complexation at a lower mass ratio and pH, increasing the turbidity and RLS intensity. The results of particle size and zeta potential analyses indicated that CSA/HACC complexes possessed the good pH and ionic strength stability. In addition to electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effects were also determined to be involved in the complexation process using thermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Additionally, the process was spontaneous, and CSA with a higher DS showed stronger complexation ability. These results may enable the understanding of polysaccharide complex behaviors. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.165
    Application of antimicrobial coating based on carboxymethyl cellulose and natamycin in active packaging of cheese. International journal of biological macromolecules The effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-natamycin (N; 0.05 and 0.5%) coating on the quality of high-moisture mozzarella cheese (HMMC) were examined. The cheeses were immersed in the coating solutions and then kept at 7 °C for 8 days and microbial specifications (i.e., total mesophilic count, total psychrophilic count, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast-mold), pH, weight loss, and sensory properties were examined. The results of the agar spot diffusion assay represented inhibitory effects of CMC-N coating solution on Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Penicillium citrinum, and Candida albicans. In HMMC, the natamycin-free CMC coating caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in all microbial groups, while the addition of natamycin to the coating only reduced the count of mold and yeast. As a result, the coating with natamycin at 0.05 and 0.5% represented a 0.6 and 0.9 log cycle reduction in yeast-mold populations, respectively. Based on the total mesophilic count, the control samples reached the 7 log CFU/g on day 4, indicating a 4-day shelf life of HMMC, while in HMMC coated with and without natamycin this limit was achieved on the 8th day of storage, which indicates that the coatings have doubled the HMMC shelf life. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.185
    Transparent, UV-blocking, and high barrier cellulose-based bioplastics with naringin as active food packaging materials. International journal of biological macromolecules Free-standing, robust, and transparent bioplastics were obtained by blending cellulose and naringin at different proportions. Optical, thermal, mechanical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties were systematically investigated. In general, the incorporation of naringin produced important UV blocking and plasticizer effects and good antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Moreover, the barrier properties were characterized by determination of their water and oxygen transmission rates, finding that both parameters decreased by increasing the naringin content and reaching values similar to other petroleum-based plastics and cellulose derivatives used for food packaging applications. Finally, the biodegradability of these films was determined by measurement of the biological oxygen demand (BOD) in seawater, demonstrating an excellent decomposition in such conditions. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.177
    Exploration of multifunctional properties of garlic skin derived cellulose nanocrystals and extracts incorporated chitosan biocomposite films for active packaging application. International journal of biological macromolecules For many years, garlic has been used as a condiment in food and traditional medicine. However, the garlic skin, which accounts for 25% of the garlic bulk, is considered agricultural waste. In this study, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and garlic extract (GE) from garlic skin were isolated and used as fillers to manufacture biocomposite films. The films were characterized in terms of UV barrier, thermal, mechanical, biodegradability, and antimicrobial activity. The chitosan-containing films and CNCs have significantly improved the films' tensile strength, Young's modulus, and elongation but decreased the film transparency compared to chitosan films. The combination of the CNCs and GE, on the other hand, slightly reduced the mechanical properties. The addition of CNCs slightly decreased the film transparency, while the addition of GE significantly improved the UV barrier properties. Thermal studies revealed that the incorporation of CNC and GE had minimal effect on the thermal stability of the chitosan films. The degradability rate of the chitosan composite films was found to be higher than that of the neat chitosan films. The antimicrobial properties of films were studied against Escherichia coli, Streptomyces griseorubens, Streptomyces alboviridis, and Staphylococcus aureus, observing that their growth was considerably inhibited by the addition of GE in composite films. Films incorporating both CNCs and GE from garlic skin hold more promise for active food packaging applications due to a combination of enhanced physical characteristics and antibacterial activity. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.220
    Silver nanoparticles anchored magnetic self-assembled carboxymethyl cellulose-ε-polylysine hybrids with synergetic antibacterial activity for wound infection therapy. International journal of biological macromolecules The severe bacterial infection and chronic wound healing caused by the abuse of antibiotics threaten the public health, which calls the need for the development of novel antibacterial agents and alternative therapeutic strategies. Herein, magnetic carboxymethyl cellulose-ε-polylysine hybrids (FCE) were synthesized via a facile one-pot coprecipitation method and further used as matrix to anchor silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The as-resulted Ag/FCE hybrids were employed to inactivate pathogenic bacteria and accelerate bacteria-infected wound healing with the assistance of HO. In vitro investigation revealed the combination of hydroxyl radical (·OH) originated from low concentration of HO catalyzed by Ag/FCE and the antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs endowed effective antibacterial performance to the hybrids against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Investigation on antibacterial mechanism indicated antibacterial activity of the synergetic strategy was achieved by destroying bacterial cell integrity, arresting metabolic, producing intracellular ROS, and oxidizing GSH. Additionally, in vivo assay exhibited Ag/FCE possessed satisfactory biocompatibility and effectively accelerated S. aureus-infected wound healing with the presence of low concentration of HO. Altogether, the presented results supported the great potential application of the synergistic antibacterial strategy for the therapy of bacterial-infected wound healing. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.225
    Preparation of chitosan/tannin and montmorillonite films as adsorbents for Methyl Orange dye removal. International journal of biological macromolecules A series of novel chitosan/tannin/montmorillonite (Cs/Tn/MMT) films were synthesised by loading different (from 0.2 to 0.5 wt%) and MMT (from 0.5 to 1.5 wt%) ratios, to be used as promising low-cost biosorbents for methyl orange (MO) removal from aqueous media. The prepared films were characterised using different techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle, optical properties, colourimetric measurement, porosity, swelling and thickness. The effects of various parameters, i.e. initial MO concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature, were studied. The Cs/Tn0.2/MMT1 film showed a high removal efficiency of 95.62% and maximum adsorption capacity of 57.37 mg/g under the optimum adsorption conditions (initial methyl orange concentration 60 mg/L, pH 7 and 25 °C). The adsorption kinetic followed the pseudo second order kinetic model and the experimental data were a good fit for the Langmuir isotherm indicating a homogeneous and monolayer adsorption process. The thermodynamic parameters suggested physical adsorption and exothermic behaviour. Consequently, Cs/Tn/MMT films showed effective potential for the uptake of anionic dyes. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.04.231
    Preparation and application of silver/chitosan-sepiolite materials with antimicrobial activities and low cytotoxicity. International journal of biological macromolecules Antimicrobial materials can prevent microbial infection and affect the beauty and structure of interior walls. Herein, a hybrid material silver/chitosan-sepiolite (Ag/5CTs-Sep) with antimicrobial activities was prepared via impregnation. Its antimicrobial properties were investigated via the disk diffusion method. Results showed that the width of inhibition zone of Ag/5CTs-Sep against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Aspergillus niger reached 58.15, 32.95 and 35.18 mm, respectively. The Sep was a suitable carrier for increasing thermal stability and antimicrobial durability, and chitosan improved the dispersion of silver to enhance antimicrobial activities. In addition, characterization indicated that the modification of Sep by CTs can promote the formation of lattice oxygen in Ag/5CTs-Sep, which can induce a high reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, causing the death of microbials. The antifungal mechanism revealed that the death of Aspergillus niger was due to Ag/5CTs-Sep that induced the production of high ROS level and damaged cell membrane. Moreover, Ag/5CTs-Sep possessed low cytotoxicity, and an applied test of the water-based coatings showed that the addition of Ag/5CTs-Sep could both effectively inhibit microorganisms and meet the performance standards for water-based coatings. This work may provide new guidance for the design and application of antibacterial materials. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.015
    Bacterial responsive hydrogels based on quaternized chitosan and GQDs-ε-PL for chemo-photothermal synergistic anti-infection in diabetic wounds. International journal of biological macromolecules Clinically, systemic antibiotic therapy and traditional dressings care are not satisfactory in treating chronic diabetic ulcers (DU). Therefore, we presented sprayable antibacterial hydrogel for effective treatment of DU by using antibacterial macromolecules (quaternized chitosan, QCS, Mn ≈ 1.5 × 10), photothermal antibacterial nanoparticles (ε-poly-l-lysine grafted graphene quantum dots, GQDs-ε-PL) and miocompatible macromolecules (benzaldehyde-terminated four-arm poly(ethylene glycol), 4 arm PEG-BA) as materials. The results revealed that the hydrogel could be in situ formed in 70-89 s through dynamic imine bonds crosslinking and exhibited a pH-dependent swelling ability and degradability. The hydrogel could respond to bacterial triggered acidic environment to play a synergistic effect of chemotherapy and xenon light irradiated PTT, leading to the rupture of the bacterial membrane and the inactivation of bacteria, promoting the migration and proliferation of fibroblast cell, enhancing the adhesion of platelet endothelial cell, and finally accelerating the healing of infected diabetic wound. Moreover, the hydrogel displayed self-healing, hemostatic, and biocompatible abilities, which could provide a better healing environment for wound and further promote wound healing. Hence, the multifunctional hydrogel is expected to be a potential dressing for the clinical treatment of DU. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.008
    Quaternized chitosan/cellulose composites as enhanced hemostatic and antibacterial sponges for wound healing. International journal of biological macromolecules It is essential to enhance our antibacterial arsenal in the first-aid hemostatic treatment due to the healing delay and even death from the bacteria-contaminated wounds. Herein, serial quaternized chitosan with varying degrees of substitution (QCS) was prepared by glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride modification. Then the obtained QCS was conjugated with dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) through Schiff base reaction to obtain the corresponding composite sponges (2QCS-DAC). The surface morphology, chemical structures, and physical characters of mechanical measurement, water uptake behavior, porosity, and degradation tests were determined. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo biological assays were performed. The obtained 2QCS-DAC sponges exhibit abundant porous structures, moderate mechanical properties, excellent water uptake performance, and effective bactericidal rates against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, these porous composite sponges have superior blood coagulation abilities with the blood coagulation time reduced by 76.6% and 59.8% compared with blank control and Celox™ as well as low hemolysis rates (<5%). Meanwhile, 2QCS-DAC had benign cytotoxicity of L929 cells in vitro and could accelerate the infected wound healing of rats at the early stage in vivo. Overall, this composite sponge appears to be a viable wound dressing for daily wound care in civilian hospitals and emergency hemostasis on battlefields. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.007
    Production of chitin nanoparticles by bottom-up approach from alkaline chitin solution. International journal of biological macromolecules Most of the series of nanochitins have been produced by the break-down process. In this study, chitin nanoparticles were prepared by a bottom-up process. Chitin was treated with sodium hydroxide to obtain an alkaline chitin aqueous solution. The alkaline chitin was regenerated by neutralization and then vigorously stirred to obtain chitin nanoparticles. The average particle size of the chitin nanoparticles was 7 nm. The individual particles were stably dispersed in water. Chitin nanoparticles had lower crystallinity than the raw material chitin and the surface of the chitin nanoparticles regenerated in water were presumed to be hydrophilic. The low crystallinity and the high hydrophilicity of the surface contributed to the high dispersibility of the chitin nanoparticles in water. Chitin nanoparticles had higher heat resistance than the raw material chitin, suggesting a large change in the higher-order structure associated with dissolution and subsequent regeneration of chitin. Since chitin nanoparticles interact with each other less than chitin nanofibers produced by mechanical treatment, the viscosity of nanoparticles was smaller than that of nanofibers. Therefore, it can be prepared at a high concentration. In addition, the chitin nanoparticles can be easily redispersed in water after being concentrated by centrifugation. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.006
    Cytocompatible quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend film loaded copper for antibacterial application. Yin Maoli,Lin Xinghuan,Ren Tian,Li Zhiguang,Ren Xuehong,Huang Tung-Shi International journal of biological macromolecules Antibacterial quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/Cu blend film (QCMCS/PVA/Cu blend film) was prepared by quaternary ammonium salt modified carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMCS), PVA and copper sulfate pentahydrate via the process of solution casting and ion adsorption. The successful preparation of QCMCS was proved by EA, NMR and FTIR, and the degree of quaternization is 71.86%. The QCMCS/PVA/Cu blend film was characterized by SEM, AFM and EDX, and the content of the copper is about 1 wt%. Tensile tests and TGA showed that the mechanical and thermal properties were improved after being loaded with copper ions. By loading with Cu, the blend film showed good antibacterial activities. About 98.3% of S. aureus and 99.9% of E. coli could be inactivated within 60 min. The cell cytotoxicity was also studied and the results showed that all the prepared films had acceptable cell viability and biocompatible, which indicates that this blend film has potential applications in packaging and biomedical materials. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.08.105
    Antioxidant and antibacterial chitosan film with tea polyphenols-mediated green synthesis silver nanoparticle via a novel one-pot method. Zhang Wanli,Jiang Weibo International journal of biological macromolecules In the present study, the antioxidant and antibacterial chitosan/tea polyphenols-silver nanoparticles composite film (CS/TP-AgNPs) was developed via a novel one-pot method. The TP was added to the CS film not only as the reducing agent of AgNPs but also as the cross-linking agent and antioxidant. The AgNPs and nanocomposite films developed were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Besides, the physical, mechanical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite films were also analyzed. As the content of TP-AgNPs incorporation increased, the color of CS/TP-AgNPs nanocomposite film gradually shifted to brown, accompanied by an increase in opacity and thickness. The decrease in moisture contents and water vapor permeability of CS/TP-AgNPs nanocomposite film indicated that the TP-AgNPs varied the original bond between the CS-CS and CS-water. The denser cross-section of CS/TP-AgNPs nanocomposite film confirmed the enhanced mechanical properties. It is worth noting that CS/TP-AgNPs nanocomposite film exhibited more excellent antioxidant and antibacterial activity than CS film. This study developed the multi-functionality chitosan film by the simultaneous incorporation of AgNPs and TP and revealed the multiple effects of TP acting as reducing agent for AgNPs, cross-linking agent and antioxidant on chitosan film. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.11.093
    pH-responsive and antibacterial properties of self-assembled multilayer films based on chitosan and tannic acid. Kumorek Marta,Minisy Islam M,Krunclová Tereza,Voršiláková Marta,Venclíková Kristýna,Chánová Eliška Mázl,Janoušková Olga,Kubies Dana Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications Polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) films that disintegrate under physiological conditions are intensively studied as coatings to enable the release of bioactive components. Herein, we report on the interactions and pH-stability of LbL films composed of chitosan (CH) or N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (CMCH) and tannic acid (TA), employed to guarantee the film disintegration. The self-assembly of TA with CH and CMCH at pH 5 and with CMCH at pH 7.4 were proven by turbidimetric, surface plasmon resonance and UV-Vis analyses. The LbL films exhibited pH-dependent properties; CMCH/TA films prepared at pH 7.4 showed exponential growth as well as a higher layer thickness and surface roughness, whereas films prepared at pH 5 grew linearly and were smoother. The film stability varied with the pH used for film assembly; CH/TA films assembled at pH 5 were unstable at pH 8.5, whereas CMCH/TA films assembled at pH 7.4 disintegrated at pH 4. All films exhibited a similar disassembly at pH 7.4. The coatings reduced the adhesion of E. coli and S. aureus by approximately 80%. CMCH-terminated CMCH/TA films were more resistant to bacterial adhesion, whereas CH-terminated CH/TA films demonstrated stronger killing activity. The prepared pH-triggered decomposable LbL films could be used as degradable coatings that allow the release of therapeutics for biomedical applications and also prevent bacterial adhesion. 10.1016/j.msec.2019.110493
    Design and validation of antibacterial and pH response of cationic guar gum film by combining hydroxyethyl cellulose and red cabbage pigment. Chu Menglong,Feng Nianrong,An Hu,You Guanglin,Mo Changshun,Zhong Hongyang,Pan Liuru,Hu Dongying International journal of biological macromolecules A simple and feasible method was adopted to construct the antibacterial and pH response of cationic guar gum (CGG) composite films (CGG-HEC, RC) through using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as an enhancer and red cabbage (RC) as a smart active substance. The effect of different HEC content on the binary composite films (CGG-HEC) performance shows that the highest tensile strength (51.59 MPa) can be obtained by adding 10% HEC due to the good compatibility between CGG and HEC. The ternary composite film (RC3) with 10% HEC and 3% RC addition has good performance in all aspects, such as high tensile strength (65.41 MPa), appropriate water vapor transmission coefficient (1.08), and good thermodynamic stability. In addition, RC3 has good antibacterial properties against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, taking advantage of the antibacterial properties of CGG and RC. RC3 can respond to changes in environmental pH and has a significant color change, and also has a significant color change when detecting the deterioration of pork and soy milk. Therefore, the ternary composite film (RC3) has good mechanical properties, antibacterial and intelligent response characteristics, and may be used in intelligent antibacterial packaging. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.198
    Chitosan-riboflavin composite film based on photodynamic inactivation technology for antibacterial food packaging. Su Linyue,Huang Jiaming,Li Huihui,Pan Yingjie,Zhu Beiwei,Zhao Yong,Liu Haiquan International journal of biological macromolecules Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a novel sterilization technology that has proven effective in medicine. This study focused on applying PDI to food packaging, where chitosan (CS) films containing photosensitizing riboflavin (RB) were prepared via solution casting. The CS-RB composite films exhibited good ultraviolet (UV)-barrier properties, and had a visually appealing highly transparent yellow appearance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed even dispersion of RB throughout the CS film. The addition of RB led to improved film characteristics, including the thickness, mechanical properties, solubility, and water barrier properties. The CS-RB composite films produced sufficient singlet oxygen under blue LED irradiation for 2 h to inactivate two food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and one spoilage bacteria (Shewanella baltica). The CS-RB composite films were assessed as a salmon packaging material, where inhibition of bacterial growth was observed. The film is biodegradable, and has the potential to alleviate the issues associated with the excessive use of petrochemical materials, such as environmental pollution and limited resources. The CS-RB composite films showed potential as a novel environmentally friendly packaging material for shelf-life extension of refrigerated food products. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.056
    A sandwich-like chitosan-based antibacterial nanocomposite film with reduced graphene oxide immobilized silver nanoparticles. Gu Bin,Jiang Qimeng,Luo Bichong,Liu Chuanfu,Ren Junli,Wang Xiaohui,Wang Xiaoying Carbohydrate polymers Bacterial breeding is the main cause of food perishability, which is harmful to human health. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used antimicrobial agents, but they are easy to release and cause cumulative toxicity. In this work, with corn stalk as green reductant and GO as template, a simple electrostatic self-assembled sandwich-like chitosan (CS) wrapped rGO@AgNPs nanocomposite film (CS/rGO@AgNPs) was synthesized to achieve stabilizing and controlled-release of AgNPs. The results showed that the the CS/rGO@AgNPs film continued releasing AgNPs for up to 14 days, and the final release amount of silver nanoparticles was only about 1.9 %. More importantly, the nanocomposite film showed durable antibacterial effect and good antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus, and they showed no toxicity to cells. Hence, the nanocomposite film has potential application as an effective and safe packaging material to prolong the shelf life of food products. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117835
    The modification of pomegranate polyphenol with ultrasound improves mechanical, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of tuna skin collagen-chitosan film. Ultrasonics sonochemistry To produce an edible film with high mechanical and physicochemical properties, Tuna skin collagen-chitosan (TSC-CTS) composite films were prepared by incorporating ultrasound (UT) and pomegranate polyphenols including gallic acid (GA), tannic acid (TA), and ellagic acid (EA), respectively. The tensile strength and the DPPH scavenging activity of the GA-UT-TSC-CTS film (ultrasound frequency of 28 ± 0.5 kHz, power of 100 W/L, sweep frequency cycle of 100 ms, duty ratio of 77% and time of 10 min; GA concentration of 1.0 g/L and reaction time of 10 min) were increased by 47.03% and 24.16 folds, respectively compared to the control (TSC-CTS film). Meanwhile, light transmittance and water vapor permeability of the GA-UT-TSC-CTS film were decreased by 29.26% and 15.70%, respectively. These positive modification results were attributed to the altered structure during the film formation process, which were verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), circular dichroism (CD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetry results. Moreover, the GA-UT-TSC-CTS film possessed moderate thermal stability and color indexes and improved antibacterial activity. The antibacterial effect of the film against Bacillus subtilis was the highest, followed by Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall, the combination modification of gallic acid and ultrasound was an efficient modification method to improve the mechanical, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of edible TSC-CTS films. 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.105992
    A pH-intelligent response fish packaging film: Konjac glucomannan/carboxymethyl cellulose/blackcurrant anthocyanin antibacterial composite film. You Peiqiong,Wang Lin,Zhou Ning,Yang Ying,Pang Jie International journal of biological macromolecules Blackcurrant anthocyanins (BCA) can be used to improve the structure and properties of konjac glucomannan (KGM)/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) composite film. In this study, the microstructure of the KGM/CMC/BCA composite film was evaluated. The results show that BCA is uniformly dispersed in the KC matrix, which changes the mechanical properties of the film (tensile strength (TS): 55.00 → 38.44 MPa and elongation at break (EB): 8.60 → 3.67%) and barrier properties (water vapor permeability (WVP): 0.67 → 2.53 g·mm/m day kPa). With the addition of BCA (0.05, 0.15, 0.20 wt%), the composite film exhibits higher thermal stability. Among them, 0.15 wt% has the best thermal stability. The composite film also shows the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of BCA, and has an inhibitory effect on food-borne pathogens. The composite film will show different colors in different buffers, which can be observed with the naked eye. Therefore, KGM/CMC/BCA film can be applied to smart food packaging to realize real-time monitoring of meat product quality. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.02.027
    Enhancing Membrane-Disruptive Activity via Hydrophobic Phenylalanine and Lysine Tethered to Poly(aspartic acid). Liu Bo,Zhang Qifa,Zhou Fang,Ren Lixia,Zhao Yunhui,Yuan Xiaoyan ACS applied materials & interfaces Amphiphilic polymers with pH-responsive abilities have been widely used as carriers for intracellular delivery of bioactive substances, while their membrane-disruptive activity exerted on cells is a critical characteristic that determines delivery efficiency. Herein, we present a novel method to prepare amphiphilic and pH-responsive polymers by chemically tethering l-phenylalanine methyl ester and followed by N-carbobenzyloxy-l-lysine benzyl ester to the side carboxylic acid groups of poly(aspartic acid). The obtained phenylalanine- and lysine-grafted polymer (PAsp- g-Phe)- g-Lys demonstrated enhanced membrane-disruptive activity at pH 7.4 in comparison with that of PAsp- g-Phe. Moreover, the pH-responsive behavior of the grafted polymers caused by the significantly intensified hydrophobicity could be modulated by the tethered amount of hydrophobic amino acids with phenyl groups. The prepared amphiphilic (PAsp- g-Phe)- g-Lys could facilitate entry of calcein into NIH/3T3 and HeLa cells at physiological pH values, possibly due to local chemical destabilization of cell membranes by the interaction between the polymer and membrane bilayers. Therefore, we have provided a feasible approach to prepare pH-responsive polymers with enhanced membrane-disruptive activity, and the phenylalanine- and lysine-grafted polymers could be a potential candidate for intracellular delivery of bioactive molecules in biomedical applications. 10.1021/acsami.8b22721
    The bioactive composite film prepared from bacterial cellulose and modified by hydrolyzed gelatin peptide. Lin Shih-Bin,Chen Chia-Che,Chen Li-Chen,Chen Hui-Huang Journal of biomaterials applications The hydrolyzed gelatin peptides, obtained from the hydrolysis of Tilapia nilotica skin gelatin with alcalase and pronase E, were fractionated using an ultrafiltration system into hydrolyzed gelatin peptides-a (10 kDa membrane), hydrolyzed gelatin peptides-b1, and hydrolyzed gelatin peptides-b2 (5 kDa membrane) fractions. The highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity was observed in hydrolyzed gelatin peptides-b2, which contained more nonpolar amino acids than the other hydrolyzed gelatin peptides. Hydrolyzed gelatin peptides-b2 at a concentration of 12.5 mg/ml exhibited the highest proliferation ability and increased the expression of Type I procollagen mRNA, which indicated an enhanced collagen synthesis. Hydrolyzed gelatin peptides protected Detroit 551 cells from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidative damage and increased cell viability. Hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose-modified bacterial cellulose and dried fabricated biofilm were less eligible for Detroit 551 cell proliferation than bacterial cellulose. The release of hydrolyzed gelatin peptides in bacterial cellulose film was slower than that in hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose-modified bacterial cellulose and dried fabricated biofilm; thus, bacterial cellulose film and hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose-modified bacterial cellulose and dried fabricated biofilm are suitable candidates for applications in delayed release type and rapid release type biofilms, respectively. 10.1177/0885328214568799
    Sustainable, superhydrophobic membranes based on bacterial cellulose for gravity-driven oil/water separation. Wang Feng-Ping,Zhao Xiang-Jun,Wahid Fazli,Zhao Xue-Qing,Qin Xiao-Tong,Bai He,Xie Yan-Yan,Zhong Cheng,Jia Shi-Ru Carbohydrate polymers Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a substrate material with high purity and robust mechanical strength, but due to its small pore size and relatively expensive price, it is restricted as an oil-/water separation membrane. In this study, cheaper plant cellulose needle-leaf bleached kraft pulp (NBKP) was added to BC to increase the pore size of the composite membrane, and a superhydrophobic/superoleophilic membrane was prepared for oil-/water separation. The modified membrane surface displayed a petal-like micro-structure and a water contact angle (WCA) of 162.3°, while the oil contact angle was decreased to 0°. What's more, the membrane exhibited excellent oil-/water separation under gravity, recyclability, and a separation efficiency (>95 %), and it was both pH and salt resistant. The membrane also remained durably hydrophobic after 10 separation cycles. And the separation methodology is expected to be highly energy-efficient. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117220
    Sandwich panel biocomposite of thermoplastic corn starch and bacterial cellulose. Santos Talita A,Spinacé Márcia A S International journal of biological macromolecules Inadequate disposition and long period for degradation of Petroleum-derived polymers promote damages in the environment, which could be minimized by the use of biodegradable polymers such as starch and cellulose. Films of thermoplastic corn starch (TPS) and bacterial cellulose (BC) were used to produce sandwich panel biocomposite. RXD, SEM and FTIR were used to verify the transformation of TPS from native corn starch. TPS/BC is flexible and transparent, but it is less transparent that TPS and BC due to its multilayer format. TPS/BC presented similar thermal events to TPS and BC samples and thermal stability similar to TPS. The FTIR spectrum of the TPS/BC showed bands observed in the BC and TPS spectra. BC, TPS and TPS/BC showed faster water absorption in the initial stage reaching a stability at about 50 h and presenting Fickian behavior. TPS/BC showed lower water absorption and a good adhesion between the phases observed by SEM images, which can be associated to hydrogen interactions in the interface improving mechanical properties. TPS/BC showed an increase of about 3.6 times in the tensile strength compared to TPS, indicating that BC is a good reinforcement for TPS. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.156
    Production and characterization of bacterial cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus isolated from Chinese persimmon vinegar. Du Renpeng,Zhao Fangkun,Peng Qian,Zhou Zhijiang,Han Ye Carbohydrate polymers This study aimed to characterize the structural and physico-mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconoacetobacter xylinus TJU-S8 which was isolated from Chinese persimmon vinegar. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that BC exhibited a good thermal stability. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that BC had a typical crystalline form of the cellulose I. The BC membrane had typical characteristics such as nanodimensional network and microfibrils obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the bacterial cellulose chitosan (BC-C) membrane and bacterial cellulose carboxymethyl chitosan (BC-CC) membrane were synthesized which showed significant inhibition against the growth of both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. These results indicated superior properties of BC that advocated its effectiveness for various applications. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.04.041
    Production of bacterial cellulose hydrogels with tailored crystallinity from Enterobacter sp. FY-07 by the controlled expression of colanic acid synthetic genes. Liu Dan,Cao Yiyan,Qu Rongrui,Gao Ge,Chen Sibin,Zhang Yibo,Wu Mengmeng,Ma Ting,Li Guoqiang Carbohydrate polymers Hydrogels exhibit smart three-dimensional networks and extraordinary water-absorbing ability. To improve the water-holding capacity of bacterial cellulose hydrogels, the expression of a biosynthetic gene cluster of colanic acid, a water-soluble polysaccharide, was induced in Enterobacter sp. FY-07, which produces an abundance of bacterial cellulose hydrogel under aerobic and anaerobic fermentation conditions. The results indicated that in situ modified bacterial cellulose hydrogels with different crystallinities, rheological properties and water-holding capacities were produced by cultivating the engineered strain Enterobacter sp. FY-07::tac under different inducing conditions. The water-holding capacity of the modified bacterial cellulose hydrogel was enhanced by more than 1.7 fold compared to the hydrogel produced by Enterobacter sp. FY-07, and the networks of the modified bacterial cellulose hydrogel were densified but still clear. These results suggest that this in situ modification strategy endows bacterial cellulose hydrogels with improved properties and potentially expands their applications in biomedical fields and the food industry. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.12.014
    Efficient and economic process for the production of bacterial cellulose from isolated strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus of RSV-4 bacterium. Kumar Vinod,Sharma Devendra Kumar,Bansal Vasudha,Mehta Deepak,Sangwan Rajender S,Yadav Sudesh Kumar Bioresource technology In the present investigation, several residues from agro-forestry industries such as rice straw acid hydrolysate, corn cob acid hydrolysate, tomato juice, cane molasses and orange pulp were evaluated as the economical source for the production of bacterial cellulose. The bacterial cellulose attained the significant yield of 7.8 g/L using tomato juice, followed by 3.6 g/L using cane molasses and 2.8 g/L using orange pulp after 7 days of incubation. Furthermore, the optimum pH and temperature of fermentation for maximum production of bacterial cellulose was 4.5 and 30 ± 1 °C. The identified bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus RSV-4 has been deposited at repository under the accession number MTCC 25117. The produced bacterial cellulose was characterized through FTIR, SEM, TGA and DSC and found to be of very good quality. The bacterial cellulose produced by identified strain on these various agro-waste residues could be a cost effective technology for commercial its production. 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.12.042
    Antibacterial properties of a bacterial cellulose CQD-TiO nanocomposite. Malmir Samira,Karbalaei Atiyeh,Pourmadadi Mehrab,Hamedi Javad,Yazdian Fatemeh,Navaee Mona Carbohydrate polymers Antibacterial dressing can prevent the occurrence of many infections of wounds. Bacterial cellulose (BC) has the ability to carry and transfer the medicine to achieve a wound healing bandage. In this study, Carbon Quantum Dots-Titanium dioxide (CQD-TiO) nanoparticles (NP) were added to BC as antibacterial agents. FTIR Spectroscopy illuminated that NPs were well-bonded to BC. Interestingly, MIC test proved that BC/CQD-TiO nanostructure (NS) has anti-bacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus. The findings indicated that, CQD-TiO NPs have stronger antibacterial properties with better tensile strength compared to CQD NPs, in a concentration-dependent manner. Toxicity of CQD-TiO NPs on human L929 fibroblast cells was also evaluated. Most importantly, the results of the scratch test indicated that the NS was effective in wound healing in L929 cells. The approach in this study may provide an alternative to make an antibacterial wound dressing to achieve an effective drug-based bandage. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.115835
    Shear-induced unidirectional deposition of bacterial cellulose microfibrils using rising bubble stream cultivation. Chae Inseok,Bokhari Syed M Q,Chen Xing,Zu Rui,Liu Ke,Borhan Ali,Gopalan Venkatraman,Catchmark Jeffrey M,Kim Seong H Carbohydrate polymers In crystalline cellulose I, all glucan chains are ordered from reducing ends to non-reducing ends. Thus, the polarity of individual chains is added forming a large dipole within the crystal. If one can engineer unidirectional alignment (parallel packing) of cellulose crystals, then it might be possible to utilize the material properties originating from polar crystalline structures. However, most post-synthesis manipulation methods reported so far can only achieve the uniaxial alignment with bi-directionality (antiparallel packing). Here, we report a method to induce the parallel packing of bacterial cellulose microfibrils by applying unidirectional shear stress during the synthesis and deposition through the rising bubble stream in a culture medium. Driving force for the alignment is explained with mathematical estimation of the shear stress. Evidences of the parallel alignment of crystalline cellulose Iα domains were obtained using nonlinear optical spectroscopy techniques. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117328
    Impact of cellulose properties on enzymatic degradation by bacterial GH48 enzymes: Structural and mechanistic insights from processive Bacillus licheniformis Cel48B cellulase. Araújo Evandro A,Dias Artur Hermano Sampaio,Kadowaki Marco A S,Piyadov Vasily,Pellegrini Vanessa O A,Urio Mateus B,Ramos Luiz P,Skaf Munir S,Polikarpov Igor Carbohydrate polymers Processive cellulases are highly efficient molecular engines involved in the cellulose breakdown process. However, the mechanism that processive bacterial enzymes utilize to recruit and retain cellulose strands in the catalytic site remains poorly understood. Here, integrated enzymatic assays, protein crystallography and computational approaches were combined to study the enzymatic properties of the processive BlCel48B cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis. Hydrolytic efficiency, substrate binding affinity, cleavage patterns, and the apparent processivity of bacterial BlCel48B are significantly impacted by the cellulose size and its surface morphology. BlCel48B crystallographic structure was solved with ligands spanning -5 to -2 and +1 to +2 subsites. Statistical coupling analysis and molecular dynamics show that co-evolved residues on active site are critical for stabilizing ligands in the catalytic tunnel. Our results provide mechanistic insights into BlCel48B molecular-level determinants of activity, substrate binding, and processivity on insoluble cellulose, thus shedding light on structure-activity correlations of GH48 family members in general. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118059
    One-Step Biosynthesis of Soft Magnetic Bacterial Cellulose Spheres with Localized Nanoparticle Functionalization. Roig-Sanchez Soledad,Torrecilla Oriol,Floriach-Clark Jordi,Parets Sebastià,Levkin Pavel A,Roig Anna,Laromaine Anna ACS applied materials & interfaces Actuated structures are becoming relevant in medical fields; however, they call for flexible/soft-base materials that comply with biological tissues and can be synthesized in simple fabrication steps. In this work, we extend the palette of techniques to afford soft, actuable spherical structures taking advantage of the biosynthesis process of bacterial cellulose. Bacterial cellulose spheres (BCS) with localized magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have been biosynthesized using two different one-pot processes: in agitation and on hydrophobic surface-supported static culture, achieving core-shell or hollow spheres, respectively. Magnetic actuability is conferred by superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs), and their location within the structure was finely tuned with high precision. The size, structure, flexibility and magnetic response of the spheres have been characterized. In addition, the versatility of the methodology allows us to produce actuated spherical structures adding other NPs (Au and Pt) in specific locations, creating Janus structures. The combination of Pt NPs and SPIONs provides moving composite structures driven both by a magnetic field and a HO oxidation reaction. Janus Pt/SPIONs increased by five times the directionality and movement of these structures in comparison to the controls. 10.1021/acsami.1c17752
    Improvement of O/W emulsion performance by adjusting the interaction between gelatin and bacterial cellulose nanofibrils. Wu Yilan,Lei Chan,Li Jing,Chen Yijie,Liang Hongshan,Li Yan,Li Bin,Luo Xiaogang,Pei Ying,Liu Shilin Carbohydrate polymers This study was designed to improve the stability of medium internal phase emulsion by adjusting the electrostatic interaction between gelatin (GLT) and TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose nanofibrils (TOBC). The influences of polysaccharide-protein ratio (1:10, 1:5, and 1:2.5) and pH (3.0, 4.7, 7.0, and 11.0) on the emulsion properties were investigated. The droplet size of TOBC/GLT-stabilized emulsion was increased with the TOBC proportion increasing at pH 3.0-11.0. Additionally, emulsion had a larger droplet size at pH 4.7 (the electrical equivalence point pH of mixtures). However, the addition of TOBC significantly improved the emulsion stability. The emulsions prepared with TOBC/GLT mixtures (mixing ratio of 1:2.5) at pH 3.0-7.0 were stable without creaming during the storage. It was because the formation of nanofibrils network impeded the droplet mobility, and the emulsion viscosity and viscoelastic modulus were increased with the addition of TOBC. These findings were meaningful to modulate the physical properties of emulsions. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118806
    Synergistic Photodynamic and Photothermal Antibacterial Activity of In Situ Grown Bacterial Cellulose/MoS-Chitosan Nanocomposite Materials with Visible Light Illumination. Shen Huiying,Jiang Chenyu,Li Wei,Wei Qufu,Ghiladi Reza A,Wang Qingqing ACS applied materials & interfaces Owing to the rise in prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogens attributed to the overuse of antibiotics, infectious diseases caused by the transmission of microbes from contaminated surfaces to new hosts are an ever-increasing threat to public health. Thus, novel materials that can stem this crisis, while also functioning via multiple antimicrobial mechanisms so that pathogens are unable to develop resistance to them, are in urgent need. Toward this goal, in this work, we developed in situ grown bacterial cellulose/MoS-chitosan nanocomposite materials (termed BC/MoS-CS) that utilize synergistic membrane disruption and photodynamic and photothermal antibacterial activities to achieve more efficient bactericidal activity. The BC/MoS-CS nanocomposite exhibited excellent antibacterial efficacy, achieving 99.998% (4.7 log units) and 99.988% (3.9 log units) photoinactivation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive , respectively, under visible-light illumination (xenon lamp, 500 W, λ ≥ 420 nm, and 30 min). Mechanistic studies revealed that the use of cationic chitosan likely facilitated bacterial membrane disruption and/or permeability, with hyperthermia (photothermal) and reactive oxygen species (photodynamic) leading to synergistic pathogen inactivation upon visible-light illumination. No mammalian cell cytotoxicity was observed for the BC/MoS-CS membrane, suggesting that such composite nanomaterials are attractive as functional materials for infection control applications. 10.1021/acsami.1c08178
    In situ regulation of bacterial cellulose networks by starch from different sources or amylose/amylopectin content during fermentation. Wang Feng-Ping,Li Bo,Sun Mei-Yan,Wahid Fazli,Zhang Hong-Mei,Wang Shu-Jun,Xie Yan-Yan,Jia Shi-Ru,Zhong Cheng International journal of biological macromolecules Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a promising biopolymer, but its three-dimensional structure needs to be controllable to be used in multiple fields. BC has some advantages over other types of cellulose, not only in terms of purity and properties but also in terms of modification (in situ modification) during the synthesis process. Here, starches from different sources or with amylose/amylopectin content were added to the growth medium to regulate the structural properties of BC in-situ. The obtained BC membranes were further modified by superhydrophobic treatment for oil-water separation. Starches alter the viscosity of the medium, thus affecting bacterial motility and cellulose synthesis, and adhere to the microfibers, limiting their further polymerization and ultimately altering the membrane porosity, pore size, and mechanical properties perpendicular to the BC fibril layer direction. The average pore diameter of the BC/PS membrane increased by 1.94 times compared to the initial BC membrane. The chemically modified BC/PS membrane exhibited super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle 167°), high oil-water separation flux (dichloromethane, 23,205 Lm h MPa), high separation efficiency (>97%). The study provides a foundation for developing methods to regulate the network structure of BC and broaden its application. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.11.198
    Green synthesis of bacterial cellulose/bioactive glass nanocomposites: Effect of glass nanoparticles on cellulose yield, biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity. Abdelraof Mohamed,Hasanin Mohamed S,Farag Mohammad M,Ahmed Hanaa Y International journal of biological macromolecules Despite the advantages of bacterial cellulose (BC) over traditional cellulose, its low yield and little bioactivity makes a limitation to be used in an industrial scale. This paper was mainly dual aimed to increase the BC yield using a nanobioactive glass (NBG), and in situ synthesize BC/NBG bioactive nanocomposites by a novel and simple green method. Accordingly, the composites were prepared via in situ fermentation approach by incorporation of NBG particles into BC producing culture medium. The effect of NBG addition on the production process of cellulose, biocompatibility, bioactivity and antimicrobial activity were investigated. The results showed that NBG was enhanced and increased the BC yield and this has been achieved by maintaining these NBG on the pH value of the culture medium during the fermentation period. Moreover, it was effectively improved biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties of BC. This study evidenced that BC/NBG composite can be expected to be widely applied in biomedical industries such as bone regeneration and wound healing with the unique of being not harmful to humans. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.07.144
    TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril film from nano-structured bacterial cellulose derived from the recently developed thermotolerant Komagataeibacter xylinus C30 and Komagataeibacter oboediens R37-9 strains. Chitbanyong Korawit,Pisutpiched Sawitree,Khantayanuwong Somwang,Theeragool Gunjana,Puangsin Buapan International journal of biological macromolecules Bacterial cellulose (BC), prepared from two recently developed thermotolerant bacterial strains (Komagataeibacter xylinus C30 and Komagataeibacter oboediens R37-9), were used as a raw material to synthesize nanofibril films. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) observations confirmed the ultrafine nano-structure of BC pellicle (BCP) with average fibril widths between 50 and 60 nm. The BC was directly oxidized in a TEMPO/NaBr/NaClO system at pH of 10 for 2 h. TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose nanofibrils (TOBCN) were obtained by a mild mechanical treatment and the TOBCN films were prepared through heat-drying. The oxidation yielded a recovery ratio between 70 and 80% by weight with an increase in the carboxylate content of 0.9-1.0 mmol g . Nanofibrillation yields were more than 90% and the resulting high aspect ratio TOBCNs were ~6 nm in average width with >800 nm in lengths, when observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). TOBCN film of K. xylinus C30 exhibited high transparency (79%), tensile strength (142 MPa), Young's modulus (7.13 GPa), elongation around failure (3.89%), and work of fracture (2.29 MJ m), when compared to the TOBCN films of K. oboediens R37-9 at 23 °C and 50% RH. Coefficients of thermal expansion of both the TOBCN films were low at around 6 ppm K. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.124
    Hydroxyethyl cellulose/bacterial cellulose cryogel dopped silver@titanium oxide nanoparticles: Antimicrobial activity and controlled release of Tebuconazole fungicide. El-Naggar Mehrez E,Hasanin Mohamed,Youssef Ahmed M,Aldalbahi Ali,El-Newehy Mohamed H,Abdelhameed Reda M International journal of biological macromolecules Cryogel materials are composed of porous and lightweight structures that can be used for many industrial applications, particularly, in agriculture for the controlled release of Tebuconazole fungicide. Accordingly, we prepared environmentally friendly cryogel using natural polymers such hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and bacterial cellulose (BC). The cryogel was formed by blending aqueous solutions of both HEC and BC, which was then crosslinked with glyoxal and the mixture was underwent to drying using freeze drying technique. Different concentrations of the as prepared silver@titanium oxide nanoparticles (Ag@TiONPs) were incorporated within the cryogel formation in order to increase its antimicrobial efficiency. A mode pesticide Tebuconazole was encapsulated in the cryogel platform in order to control the release of Tebuconazole. Thus, the developed cryogel which was porous, cheap and had an antimicrobial effect, controlled pesticide release suggesting that it is a potential candidate for agricultural applications. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.226
    Physical and antibacterial properties of bacterial cellulose films supplemented with cell-free supernatant enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium TJUQ1. Feng Yunshu,Yin Nan,Zhou Zhijiang,Han Ye Food microbiology In this study, a composite film was prepared with bacterial cellulose (BC) of Gluconacetobacter xylinus and cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Enterococcus faecium TJUQ1, which was named BC-E. The optimum conditions for the preparation of the composite film with a minimal antibacterial activity were the soak of BC in 80 AU/mL CFS for 6 h. By scanning electron microscope observation, the surface network structure of BC-E was denser than that of BC. The tensile strength of BC and BC-E was 4.65 ± 0.88 MPa and 16.30 ± 0.92 MPa, the elongation at break of BC and BC-E was 3.33 ± 0.89% and 31.60 ± 1.15%, respectively, indicating the mechanical properties of BC-E were significantly higher than that of BC (P < 0.05). The swelling ratio of BC-E (456.67 ± 7.20%) was lower than that of BC (1377.78 ± 9.07%), demonstrating BC-E films presented better water resistance. BC-E films were soaked with 320 AU/mL CFS, and then used to pack the ground meat with 6.55 log CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes. After 8 days of storage, the number of bacteria decreased by 3.16 log CFU/g. Similarly, total mesophilic bacterial levels in the ground meat decreased by 2.41 log CFU/g compared to control groups. 10.1016/j.fm.2021.103828
    Conformational and rheological properties of bacterial cellulose sulfate. Song Shen,Liu Xiaoyuan,Ding Ling,Abubaker Mohamed Aamer,Zhang Ji,Huang Yulong,Yang Shengrong,Fan Zengjie International journal of biological macromolecules In this study, a water-soluble bacterial cellulose sulfate (BCS) was prepared with sulfur trioxide pyridine complex (SO3· Py) in a lithium chloride (LiCl)/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) homogeneous solution system using bacterial cellulose (BC). The structural study showed that the value for the degrees of substitution of BCS was 1.23. After modification, the C-6 hydroxyl group of BC was completely substituted and the C-2 and C-3 hydroxyl groups were partially substituted. In an aqueous solution, the BCS existed as a linear polymer with irregular coil conformation, which was consistent with the findings observed using atomic force microscopy. The steady-state shear flow and dynamic viscoelasticity were systematically determined over a range of BCS concentrations (1 %-4 %, w/v) and temperature (5 °C-50 °C). Steady-state flow experiments revealed that BCS exhibited shear thinning behavior, which increased with an increase in concentration and a decrease in temperature. These observations were quantitatively demonstrated using the cross model. Moreover, based on the dynamical viscoelastic properties, we confirmed that BCS was a temperature-sensitive and weak elastic gel, which was somewhere between a dilute solution and an elastic gel. Therefore, considering the special synthetic strategy and rheological behavior, BCS might be used as a renewable material in the field of biological tissue engineering, especially in the manufacture of injectable hydrogels, cell scaffolds, and as a drug carrier. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.001
    Synthesis and characterization of bacterial cellulose-based composites for drug delivery. Ojagh Seyed Mohammad Amin,Vahabzadeh Farzaneh,Karimi Afzal Carbohydrate polymers Bacterial cellulose (BC) was produced via the static fermentation process using G. xylinus. Cellulose and diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAEC) were converted to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carboxymethylated diethylaminoethyl cellulose (CMDEAEC) while to prepare the composites, two different methods were used: by either direct addition of the materials to the fermentation medium or addition of the materials after the fermentation process. Structural characteristics of composites were determined using instrumental techniques. Potential application of BC, BC/CMC, and BC/CMDEAEC in drug delivery system was examined using methylene blue (MB) as a model drug where the loading capacity and swelling ratio for the samples were as follows: BC/CMC > BC/CMDEAEC > BC. The result of the in-vitro study was in favor of the release behavior of BC/CMDEAEC composite. The MB loading data were fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich equations and kinetic behavior of the release was described by Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118587
    Improved water dispersion and bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 by bacterial cellulose nanofibers. Li Yuanyuan,Yang Qilei,Liu Bingxue,Zhang Qian,Liu Yanjie,Zhao Xiuhua,Li Shujun Carbohydrate polymers The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of bacterial cellulose nanofiber suspension (BCNs) as stabilizer in anti-solvent precipitation and its effect on improving bioavailability of coenzyme Q10. Bacterial cellulose (BC) was hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid followed by the oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to prepare BCNs. The suspension of BCNs-loaded CoQ10 (CoQ10-BCNs) were prepared by antisolvent precipitation. The zeta potential of CoQ10-BCNs was about -36.01 mV. The properties of CoQ10, BCNs and CoQ10-BCNs were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermo gravimetric analysis. The crystallinity of CoQ10 decreased in CoQ10-BCNs compared with the raw CoQ10, and CoQ10-BCNs have good physicochemical stability. In oral bioavailability studies, the area under curve (AUC) of CoQ10-BCNs was about 3.62 times higher than the raw CoQ10 in rats. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118788
    Multivalent Presentation of Cationic Peptides on Supramolecular Nanofibers for Antimicrobial Activity. Beter Mustafa,Kara Hatice K,Topal Ahmet E,Dana Aykutlu,Tekinay Ayse B,Guler Mustafa O Molecular pharmaceutics Noncovalent and electrostatic interactions facilitate the formation of complex networks through molecular self-assembly in biomolecules such as proteins and glycosaminoglycans. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles (PA) are a group of molecules that can form nanofibrous structures and may contain bioactive epitopes to interact specifically with target molecules. Here, we report the presentation of cationic peptide sequences on supramolecular nanofibers formed by self-assembling peptide amphiphiles for cooperative enhanced antibacterial activity. Antibacterial properties of self-assembled peptide nanofibers were significantly higher than soluble peptide molecules with identical amino acid sequences, suggesting that the tandem presentation of bioactive epitopes is important for designing new materials for bactericidal activity. In addition, bacteria were observed to accumulate more rapidly on peptide nanofibers compared to soluble peptides, which may further enhance antibacterial activity by increasing the number of peptide molecules interacting with the bacterial membrane. The cationic peptide amphiphile nanofibers were observed to attach to bacterial membranes and disrupt their integrity. These results demonstrate that short cationic peptides show a significant improvement in antibacterial activity when presented in the nanofiber form. 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00434
    Determination of the Most Stable Packing of Peptides from Ribosomal S1 Protein, Protein Bgl2p, and Aβ peptide in β-layers During Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Glyakina Anna V,Balabaev Nikolai K,Galzitskaya Oxana V Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Our task was to determine the most stable packing of peptides in β-layers to construct an oligomer structure for fibril growth. The β-layers consisting of eight short peptides with the amino acid sequences IVRGVVVAID, VDSWNVLVAG (VESWNVLVAG), KLVFFAEDVG, and IIGLMVGGVV were built. These sequences correspond to the amyloidogenic regions of ribosomal S1 protein from E. coli, protein glucantransferase Bgl2p from the yeast cell wall, and Aβ peptide. First, the amyloidogenic regions were predicted theoretically, and then were confirmed experimentally. Four β-layers with different orientation of the peptides in the layers and the layers relative to each other were constructed. To determine the most stable packing of β-strands, the molecular dynamic (MD) simulations in explicit water were carried out. Two charge states (pH3 and pH5) for each β-layer were considered. The fraction of the secondary structure was a measure of stability for β-layers. β-Layers, in which β-strands are antiparallel relative to each other, were the most stable. Using this packing for β-strands, we constructed the oligomer structures and also checked their stability by using MD simulations. 10.1007/978-1-0716-1546-1_11