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    Prevalence of Chronic Skin Wounds and Their Risk Factors in an Inpatient Hospital Setting in Northern China. Yao Zexin,Niu Jun,Cheng Biao Advances in skin & wound care OBJECTIVE:To gain insight into the magnitude of the problem of chronic skin wounds in a hospital in northern China. METHODS:Researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health records of cases and controls, including 1,977 patients with chronic skin wounds admitted to the hospital's medical wards over 5 years. Multiple logistic regression was used to establish factors correlating with the development of chronic wounds. RESULTS:The total prevalence of chronic wounds increased over the study period, and the occurrence of these wounds was significantly correlated with male sex, married status, unemployment, autumn season, and older age. The primary causes of chronic wounds were infection and diabetic ulcer. There were proportionally more wounds secondary to disease than traumatic wounds. The mean duration of hospitalization for patients with wounds was 13 days, and patients were readmitted an average of 10 times. CONCLUSIONS:With the rapidly aging population in China, disability and chronic wounds are significant problems. Reducing hospital lengths of stay and readmissions remains a challenge. Palliative care may be appropriate for the management of some chronic wounds to prevent and treat further complications. Establishing funding guarantees and the reasonable allocation of health resources is required. 10.1097/01.ASW.0000694164.34068.82
    Outcomes of Foot Infections Secondary to Puncture Injuries in Patients With and Without Diabetes. Truong David H,Johnson Matthew J,Crisologo Peter A,Wukich Dane K,Bhavan Kavitha,La Fontaine Javier,Lavery Lawrence A The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons It is difficult to compare foot infections in patients with diabetes to those without diabetes because foot infections are uncommon in people without diabetes. The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcomes in people with and without diabetes admitted to the hospital for an infected puncture wound. We evaluated 114 consecutive patients from June 2011 to March 2019 with foot infection resulting from a puncture injury; 83 had diabetes and 31 did not have diabetes. We evaluated peripheral arterial disease (PAD), sensory neuropathy, the need for surgery and amputation, length of hospitalization, and presence of osteomyelitis. Patients with diabetes were 31 times more likely to have neuropathy (91.6% versus 25.8%, p < .001, confidence interval [CI] 10.2 to 95.3), 8 times more likely to have PAD (34.9% versus 6.5%, p = .002, CI 1.7 to 35), and 7 times more likely to have kidney disease (19.3% versus 3.2%, p < .05, CI 0.9 to 56.5). They also took longer before presenting to the hospital (mean 20.1 ± 36.3 versus 18.8 ± 34.8 days, p = .09, CI 13 to 26.5); however, this result was not statistically significant. Patients with diabetes were 9 times more likely to have osteomyelitis (37.3% versus 6.5%, p = .001, CI 1.9 to 38.8). In addition, they were more likely to require surgery (95% versus 77%, p < .001, CI 1.6 to 21.4), required more surgeries (2.7 ± 1.3 versus 1.3 ± 0.8, p < .00001, CI 2.1 to 2.5), were 14 times more likely to have amputations (48.2% versus 6.5%, p < .0001, CI 3.0 to 60.2), and had 2 times longer hospital stays (16.2 ± 10.6 versus 7.5 ± 9 days, p = .0001, CI 11.9 to 15.9. Infected puncture wounds in patients with diabetes often fair much worse with more detrimental outcomes than those in patients without diabetes. 10.1053/j.jfas.2019.08.013
    Infection and Complications After Low-velocity Intra-articular Gunshot Injuries. Nguyen Mai P,Reich Michael S,OʼDonnell Jeffrey A,Savakus Jonathan C,Prayson Nicholas F,Golob Joseph F,McDonald Amy A,Como John J,Vallier Heather A Journal of orthopaedic trauma OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study is to characterize the demographics, interventions, infection rates, and other complications after intra-articular (IA) gunshot wounds. DESIGN:Retrospective review. SETTING:Level I trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS:Fifty-three patients with 55 civilian low-velocity IA gunshot injuries with a minimum of 4 weeks follow-up were included in the study. Seven patients had associated vascular injuries. INTERVENTIONS:Most patients (84.9%) received antibiotic prophylaxis, consisting most often of cefazolin (93.3%). Based on injury pattern and surgeon preference, joint injuries were either treated nonoperatively (43.6%), with surgical debridement only (20.0%), with surgical debridement plus fracture fixation and/or neurovascular repair (32.7%), or with percutaneous fracture fixation without debridement (3.6%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Incidence of deep infection. RESULTS:Two joints (3.6%) developed deep infections. Both had associated vascular injuries. Patients with vascular injuries were at higher risk of infection compared with those without vascular injury (28.6% vs. 0.0%, P = 0.02). Two of 24 (8.3%) injuries that were originally managed nonoperatively required delayed surgical procedures, 1 for bullet removal and 1 for ulnar nerve allograft. No patient treated nonoperatively developed an infection. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of infection after IA gunshot injuries is low with the routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis. In the absence of IA pathology, IA gunshot injuries do not appear to necessitate surgical debridement to decrease the risk of infection. Patients with vascular injury deserve special attention, as they are at higher risk of infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. 10.1097/BOT.0000000000000823
    Risk factors of wound infection after open reduction and internal fixation of calcaneal fractures. Su Jun,Cao Xuecheng Medicine The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of wound infection after open reduction and internal fixation of calcaneal fractures.In all, 299 patients with 318 calcaneal fractures who underwent open reduction and internal fixation by a single surgeon were grouped according to different outcomes. We gathered the data on each patient including sex, age, injury mechanism, body mass index (BMI), time to operation, fracture type, associated injuries, treatment course, tourniquet time, blood loss, bone graft (yes or no), diabetes (yes or no), smoking history, and complications. Univariate analysis and multivariable analysis were used to determine the association between risk factors and wound infection.Patients who met the entry criteria included 267 males and 32 females with a mean age of 38.6 years. Among them, 5.3% (n = 17) suffered wound infection, and all of the wounds healed after different treatments. According to the univariate analysis, the patients who developed wound infections were active smokers, more obese (higher BMI), had a longer time from injury to operation, and longer tourniquet time. Multivariate analysis indicated that a higher BMI, delayed operation, and active smoking were independent risk factors for wound infection after open reduction and internal fixation of calcaneal fractures.Patients with calcaneal fractures who were smokers and had a higher BMI had a high risk of wound infections. We suggested that surgeons wait to operate until swellings of the injured foot improved, and we also suggested the operation should be within 14 days after the injury. 10.1097/MD.0000000000008411
    Psoriasis and wound healing outcomes: A retrospective cohort study examining wound complications and antibiotic use. Young Paulina M,Parsi Kory K,Schupp Clayton W,Armstrong April W Dermatology online journal Little is known about wound healing in psoriasis. We performed a cohort study examining differences in wound healing complications between patients with and without psoriasis. Psoriasis patients with traumatic wounds were matched 1:3 to non-psoriasis patients with traumatic wounds based on age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). We examined theincidence of wound complications including infection, necrosis, and hematoma as well as incident antibiotic use within three months following diagnosis of a traumatic wound. The study included 164 patients with traumatic wounds, comprised of 41 patients with psoriasis matched to 123 patients without psoriasis. No statistically significant differences were detected in the incidence of overall wound complications between wound patients with psoriasis and wound patients without psoriasis (14.6% versus. 13.0%, HR 1.18, CI 0.39-3.56). After adjustment for diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and smoking, no statistically significant differences were detected in the incidence of overall wound complications between patients with and without psoriasis (HR 1.11, CI 0.34-3.58). Specifically, the adjusted rates of antibiotic use were not significantly different between those with and without psoriasis (HR 0.65, CI 0.29-1.46). The incidence of wound complications following traumatic wounds of the skin was found to be similar between patients with and without psoriasis.
    Factors Affecting the Quality of Life of Hospitalized Persons with Chronic Foot and Lower Leg Wounds. Ozkan Sultan,Yilmaz Emel,Baydur Hakan,Ertugrul M Bulent Advances in skin & wound care OBJECTIVE:To determine the factors affecting the quality of life of patients with chronic wounds. METHODS:This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in a university hospital wound care unit in western Turkey with 134 patients. The data were collected via personal information form, Barthel Index for activities of daily living, visual analog scale, and Short Form-12 questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation were used for data analysis. RESULTS:The mean age of the participants was 60.4 ± 10.7 years; 79.9% of the research group had diabetic foot wounds, and 56.7% had wounds on their right/left big toe. The mean duration of wounds was 9.4 ± 11.4 months, and 68.7% had previously been hospitalized because of wounds. The average visual analog scale pain level was 3.5 ± 2.5, and 45.5% of the patients were PEDIS (perfusion, extent, depth, infection, and sensation) classification grade II. A positive correlation was detected between Short Form-12 physical summary score and activities of daily living score. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with chronic wounds have a poor quality of life. Patient quality of life decreases as pain and PEDIS score increase and increases with their level of independence. 10.1097/01.ASW.0000797956.61055.87
    A Clinicoepidemiological Profile of Chronic Wounds in Wound Healing Department in Shanghai. Sun Xiaofang,Ni Pengwen,Wu Minjie,Huang Yao,Ye Junna,Xie Ting The international journal of lower extremity wounds The aim of the study was to update the clinical database of chronic wounds in order to derive an evidence based understanding of the condition and hence to guide future clinical management in China. A total of 241 patients from January 1, 2011 to April 30, 2016 with chronic wounds of more than 2 weeks' duration were studied in wound healing department in Shanghai. Results revealed that among all the patients the mean age was 52.5 ± 20.2 years (range 2-92 years). The mean initial area of wounds was 30.3 ± 63.0 cm (range 0.25-468 cm). The mean duration of wounds was 68.5 ± 175.2 months (range 0.5-840 months). The previously reported causes of chronic wounds were traumatic or surgical wounds (n = 82, 34.0%), followed by pressure ulcers (n = 59, 24.5%). To study the effects of age, patients were divided into 2 groups: less than 60 years (<60), and 60 years or older (≥60). The proportion of wounds etiology between the 2 age groups was analyzed, and there was significant statistical difference ( P < .05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.076-0.987). To study the associations between outcome and clinical characteristics in chronic wounds, chi-square test was used. There were significant differences in the factor of wound infection. ( P = .035, 95% CI = 0.031-0.038) Regarding therapies, 72.6% (n = 175) of the patients were treated with negative pressure wound therapy. Among all the patients, 29.9% (n = 72) of them were completely healed when discharged while 62.7% (n = 150) of them improved. The mean treatment cost was 12055.4 ± 9206.3 Chinese Yuan (range 891-63626 Chinese Yuan). In conclusion, traumatic or surgical wounds have recently become the leading cause of chronic wounds in Shanghai, China. Etiology of the 2 age groups was different. Infection could significantly influence the wound outcome. 10.1177/1534734617696730
    Factors associated with surgical site infection of the lower extremity: A retrospective cohort study. Nathan Neera R,O'Connor Daniel M,Tiger Jeffrey B,Sowerby Laura M,Olbricht Suzanne M,Luo Su Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.060
    Peroneal artery perforator flap for the treatment of chronic lower extremity wounds. Cheng Liang,Yang Xiaqing,Chen Tingxiang,Li Zhijie Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research BACKGROUND:Reconstruction of chronic lower extremity wounds remains challenging. These wounds are mainly associated with diabetes mellitus, infections, and osteomyelitis. Although several reconstructive techniques are available, the peroneal artery perforator flap has unique advantages. METHODS:In this study, we discuss our experiences with peroneal artery perforator flaps in 55 patients who had suffered from chronic lower limb wounds. The size of the defect, comorbidities, etiology, flap size, and complications were recorded and analyzed based on a retrospective chart review. RESULTS:All 55 flaps survived. In two cases, small superficial necrosis occurred, one of which healed with conservative treatment and the other was reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts. Partial necrosis was observed in nine cases, seven of which were covered with split thickness skin grafts and the remaining two sutured directly after adequate debridement. Vascular compromise was observed in one patient, which was salvaged successfully by performing an exploratory procedure and releasing a few sutures. No complications were seen in the remaining 44 cases. CONCLUSION:The peroneal artery perforator flap is a reliable option for reconstruction of chronic lower extremity wounds. 10.1186/s13018-017-0675-z
    One-stage debridement and bone transport versus first-stage debridement and second-stage bone transport for the management of lower limb post-traumatic osteomyelitis. Zhou Chun-Hao,Ren Ying,Song Hui-Juan,Ali Abdulnassir Adem,Meng Xiang-Qing,Xu Lei,Zhang Hong-An,Fang Jia,Qin Cheng-He Journal of orthopaedic translation Background:Treatment of lower limb post-traumatic osteomyelitis used to be a staged process, with radical debridement of bone and soft tissues at first stage, followed by a second-stage limb reconstruction operation to restore the limb integrity. Some studies recently reported that achieving infection eradication and limb reconstruction at single-stage seems to be an effective method for lower limb infection, but a comparative study remains lacking. This study aims to compare the results of radical debridement combined with a first/second-staged osteotomy and bone transport, for the management of lower limb post-traumatic osteomyelitis. Methods:From January 2013 to June 2018, a total of 102 patients with lower limb post-traumatic osteomyelitis met the criteria were included for analysis, in which 70 patients received one-stage debridement, antibiotic-loaded implantation, metaphysis osteotomy and bone transport were named as one-stage group, while 32 patients with first-stage debridement and antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate implantation, second-stage osteotomy and bone transport were devised as two-stage group. The outcomes of hospitalization (hospital stay, costs of treatment, surgical time, antibiotic usage) and follow-up (infection-free, treatment failure, infection recurrence, external fixation index (EFI) and docking site union) between the two groups were retrospectively compared. Results:For outcomes of hospitalization, patients in the one-stage group had batter results on hospital stay (18.2 days versus 28.9 days, P ​< ​0.05), surgical time (164.8 ​min versus 257.4 ​min, P ​< ​0.05), cost of treatment (¥101726.1 versus ¥126718.8, P ​< ​0.05) and the course of antibiotic usage (10.3 days versus 12.0 days, P ​< ​0.05). During the follow-up, 87.1% (61/70) patients in the one-stage group compared to 93.8% (30/32) patients in the two-stage group achieved infection-free (P ​> ​0.05) without any additional debridement operation. 94.3% (66/70) patients in the one-stage group earned wound healing after the operation, comparing to 96.9% (31/32) patients healed in the two-stage group (P ​> ​0.05). Uncontrolled infection was observed on 4 (5.7%) patients in the one-stage group and 1 (3.1%) patients in the two-stage group (P ​> ​0.05), with a result of three achieved infection free in the one-stage group and one patient suffered from amputation in each group respectively. 5 (7.2%) patients in the one-stage group and 1 (3.2%) patient in the two-stage group encountered with infection recurrence (P ​> ​0.05) and were well-managed with re-debridement and antibiotics usage. Significance was not found between two groups on EFI (74.8 days/cm versus 69.0 days/cm, P ​> ​0.05) and docking site nonunion rate (14.5% versus 18.9%, P ​> ​0.05), indicating that bone transport in different stages played a less essential role on bone generation process. The other complications, such as prolonged aseptic drainage [24.3% (17/70) versus 21.9% (7/32)], re-fracture [5.8% (4/69) versus 3.2% (1/31)], pin-tract infection [23.2% (16/69) versus 19.4% (6/31)], joint stiffness and deformity [26.1% (18/69) versus 32.3% (10/31)], also showed less significance when comparing between two groups (P ​> ​0.05), suggesting that different transport stages play little role on complications formation. Conclusions:One-stage radical debridement and bone transport was proven to be a safe and effective method for treating static (or near static) lower limb osteomyelitis. Translational potential statement:Translational potential statement One-stage debridement and bone transport is sample, effective and time-saving, with similar complications compared to conventional two-stage protocol. This treatment protocol might provide an alternative for the treatment of static (or near static) lower limb osteomyelitis. 10.1016/j.jot.2020.12.004
    Factors affecting the outcome of lower extremity osteomyelitis treated with microvascular free flaps: an analysis of 65 patients. Thai Duy Quang,Jung Yeon Kyo,Hahn Hyung Min,Lee Il Jae Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research BACKGROUND:Free flaps have been a useful modality in the management of lower extremity osteomyelitis particularly in limb salvage. This study aimed to determine the factors affecting the outcome of free flap reconstruction in the treatment of osteomyelitis. METHODS:This retrospective study assessed 65 osteomyelitis patients treated with free flap transfer from 2015 to 2020. The treatment outcomes were evaluated in terms of the flap survival rate, recurrence rate of osteomyelitis, and amputation rate. The correlation between outcomes and comorbidities, causes of osteomyelitis, and treatment modalities was analyzed. The following factors were considered: smoking, peripheral artery occlusive disease, renal disease, diabetic foot ulcer, flap types, using antibiotic beads, and negative pressure wound therapy. RESULT:Among the 65 patients, 21 had a severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Osteomyelitis developed from diabetic foot ulcers in 28 patients. Total flap failure was noted in six patients, and osteomyelitis recurrence was noted in eight patients, for which two patients underwent amputation surgery during the follow-up period. Only end-stage renal disease had a significant correlation with the recurrence rate (odds ratio = 16.5, p = 0.011). There was no significant relationship between outcomes and the other factors. CONCLUSION:This study showed that free flaps could be safely used for the treatment of osteomyelitis in patients with comorbidities and those who had osteomyelitis developing from diabetic foot ulcers. However, care should be taken in patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease. 10.1186/s13018-021-02686-x
    Traumatic lower limb injury and microsurgical free flap reconstruction with the use of negative pressure wound therapy: is timing crucial? Raju Ashvin,Ooi Adrian,Ong Yee Siang,Tan Bien Keem Journal of reconstructive microsurgery BACKGROUND: The timing of microsurgical free flap reconstruction for traumatic lower limb injury has been described as being optimal if conducted within the early period following injury, as higher rates of infection and flap loss were reported in the subsequent time period. However, for various reasons, reconstruction of these defects may be delayed. The aim of this article is to show that adequate debridement, negative pressure wound dressing, and sound reconstructive principles has led to increased free flap success rates regardless of the period between injury and reconstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 10-year retrospective single-center analysis of 50 traumatic lower limb cases from 2002 to 2012 was conducted. All patients had microsurgical free flap reconstruction after a period of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Patient factors and reconstructive methods were analyzed and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Mean interval between admission and free flap coverage was 17.5 days, and patients underwent NPWT for an average of 12 days (range, 1-35). Approximately 8% of patients had postoperative infections. Overall free flap success rate was 96%. Approximately 90% of patients were able to return to their premorbid footwear, with 96% able to mobilize independently approaching the end of their follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that traumatic lower limb reconstruction in the delayed period is no longer associated with high rates of flap failure. Improvements in microsurgery and the advent of NPWT have made timing no longer crucial in free flap coverage of traumatic lower limb injuries. 10.1055/s-0034-1371510
    Early definitive internal fixation for infected nonunion of the lower limb. Yoon Yong-Cheol,Oh Chang-Wug,Cho Jae-Woo,Oh Jong-Keon Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research BACKGROUND:The management of an infected nonunion of long bones is difficult and challenging. A staged procedure comprising radical debridement followed by definitive internal fixation was favored. However, no standard treatment has been established to determine the appropriate waiting period between initial debridement and definitive internal fixation. We propose a management method that incorporates early definitive internal fixation in infected nonunion of the lower limb. METHODS:Thirty-four patients (28 men and 6 women; mean age 46.09 years; range 25-74 years) with infected nonunion of the tibia or femur were included. Initial infected bone resection and radical debridement were performed in each patient in accordance with the preoperative plans. Definitive surgery was performed 2-3 weeks after the resection (4 weeks after flap surgery was required), and a third surgery was performed to fill the bone defect through bone grafting or transport (three-stage surgery). In cases of unplanned additional surgery, the reason for the requirement was analyzed, and radiological and functional results were investigated in accordance with the Association for the Study and Application of the Method of Ilizarov criteria. RESULTS:Bone union was achieved in all patients, and treatment was conducted as planned preoperatively in 28 patients (28/34, 82.35%). The mean interval between primary debridement and secondary definitive fixation was 2.76 weeks (range 2-4 weeks). Six unplanned additional surgeries were performed, and the infection relapsed in two cases. The radiological and functional outcomes were good or better in 32 and 31 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Early definitive surgery can be performed to treat infected nonunion by thorough planning and implementation of radical resection, active response to infection, restoration of defective bones, and soft tissue healing through a systemic approach. 10.1186/s13018-021-02785-9
    Predictors of lower limb amputations in patients with diabetic foot ulcers presenting to a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association OBJECTIVE:To assess the risk factors for lower limb amputations in diabetic patients presenting with foot ulcers. METHODS:The analytical cross-sectional study was conducted at the Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2019, to May 31, 2020, and comprised patients of either gender having type 1 or type 2 diabetes and foot ulcers. The wounds were assessed according to Wagner wound staging and wound sepsis was evaluated in terms of local infection of the wound, leucocytosis and osteomyelitis of the bone. The glycaemic control of these patients was assessed on presentation by measuring glycated haemoglobin levels. Data was analysed using SPSS 26. RESULTS:Of the 135 patients, 82(60.7%) were males and 53(39.2%) were females. Majority patients 59(43.7%) were aged 50-60 years. All 135(100%) patients underwent some type of amputation. Of all the amputations, 91(67.4%) were done in patients with poor glycaemic control on presentation, and 56(41.5%) in those with stage 4 wound. Local wound infection, increased total leukocyte count and bone showing features of osteomyelitis were significantly associated with increased risk of lower extremity amputations (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:With proper glycaemic control and early presentation and treatment, majority of amputations could be avoided in diabetic patients with foot ulcers. 10.47391/JPMA.06-932
    Lower Limb Amputation Rates in Patients With Diabetes and an Infected Foot Ulcer: A Prospective Observational Study. Chaudhary Natasha,Huda Farhanul,Roshan Ravi,Basu Somprakas,Rajput Deepak,Singh Sudhir Kumar Wound management & prevention BACKGROUND:Lower extremity amputation is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and occurs most commonly in persons who have a foot ulcer. PURPOSE:To examine variables that affect the rate of lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes and infected foot ulcers. METHODS:A prospective observational study was performed including all consecutive patients who were 18 to 65 years, had a diagnosis of diabetes, and a foot ulcer showing clinical signs of infection. Patients were followed for 6 months or until ulcer healing, minor, or major amputation. A total of 81 persons were enrolled. Demographic variables were obtained, and clinical assessments, blood tests, and radiological investigations were performed. Ulcers were categorized using the Perfusion, Extent, Depth, Infection and Sensation classification system. Differences between variables and outcomes were assessed using the Wilcoxon test, Fisher's exact test, Chi-square test, and t-test. RESULTS:Mean patient age was 54.58 ± 9.04 years, and the majority (61, 75%) were male. After 6 months, 33 (41%) were healed, 2 patients died, and 17 (21%) underwent major and 24 (30%) minor amputations. Major amputation rates were significantly higher in patients with a high Perfusion, Extent, Depth, Infection and Sensation score (6.92 ± 1.36; P = .005), elevated HbA1c (%) (9.43 ± 2.19; P = .049), presence of growth on wound culture (41 [64.1%]; P = .016), culture sensitivity to beta lactam (20 [31.2%]; P = .012), and presence of peripheral arterial disease seen on arterial Doppler ultrasound (P < .001). Minor amputation rates were higher in men (P = .02) and in the presence of peripheral arterial disease (P = .01). CONCLUSION:The presence of the above factors in persons with diabetes and foot ulcer with clinical signs of infection should alert the clinician to the need for focused and individualized treatment to attempt to prevent amputation.
    Characteristics of Lower Extremity Infection Rates Following Mohs Micrographic Surgery. Niklinska Eva B,Hicks Alexander,Wheless Lee,Hanlon Allison Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.] BACKGROUND:Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication for Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Lower extremity surgical sites are at an increased risk for developing SSI. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to evaluate lower extremity SSI rates post-MMS based on closure type and antibiotic usage. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective review was performed of all lower extremity MMS cases from 2011 to 2016 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Patient history, surgical details, and follow-up appointments were reviewed. RESULTS:Six hundred twenty MMS lower extremity surgeries were eligible. Review identified an overall lower extremity SSI rate of 7.4%. Infection rates were significantly increased in wound closed by flaps/grafts (p < .001). Although wound size and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis were initially associated with increased infection rate (p = .03, p = .015), the associations were fully attenuated when adjusting for closure type. CONCLUSION:More complicated repair techniques (flap/graft) for larger wound sizes contribute to increased SSI risk among lower extremity MMS cases. Providers can use this information to guide antibiotic prophylaxis. 10.1097/DSS.0000000000003260
    Plastic Surgical Procedures for Lower Limb Reconstruction at a Tertiary Hospital in Nepal. Gharti Magar Mangal,Giri Piyush,Nagarkoti Krishna Kumar,Karki Bishal,Basnet Surendra Jung,Nakarmi Kiran Kishor,Rai Shankar Man Journal of Nepal Health Research Council BACKGROUND:This study assessed the lower limb reconstruction outcome so that it will provide a baseline evidence to enable data-driven decision making to improve outcome in the future. METHODS:In this study, hospital records from 1st January to 31st December 2019 were collected retrospectively. Complete data of all patients' records treated for lower limb defects at Kirtipur Hospital were included and incomplete data were excluded. Univariate and Bivariate analyses were performed Results: In total 110 patients were included in this study with a male predominance of 66.4% (n=73). The mean age of the patients was 38.7 years (+/- 20). The majority of the patients were from outside Kathmandu valley 79.1% (n=87) and referred 55.5% (n=61). The commonest cause of lower limb defects was trauma 69.1% (n=76), the procedure performed was skin graft 48.5% (n=72), and complication was wound infections, 43% (n=13) of total complications. The hospital stay of more than two weeks was more common among the referred patients 63.9% (n=39) as compared to non-referred patients 30.6% (n=15) and trauma etiology 34.2% (n=26) had more complications than other etiology. The mean age of patients with complications (32.4 years) was lower than those without complications (41.1 years). More number of referred patients (n=43) required multiple surgeries than non-referred patients (n=21). CONCLUSIONS:Referred cases were more likely to have multiple surgeries and a longer hospital stay than non-referred cases. Infection was the commonest complication and the majority of complications were seen in trauma and younger age group. 10.33314/jnhrc.v18i4.2948
    Risk factors for reoperation in primary hand infections: a multivariate analysis. Arsalan-Werner A,Grisar P,Sauerbier M Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery INTRODUCTION:Severe hand infection might cause severe morbidity including stiffness, contracture and possibly amputation. The purpose of this study was to analyse the current epidemiology of adult acute hand infections in a European Hand Surgery Centre and to identify risk factors for secondary surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 369 consecutive patients with primary infection of the hand that were admitted to our department and required operative treatment. The following variables were recorded: demographics, medical history, cause and location of infection, laboratory values, cultured microorganisms and reoperation rate. Univariate logistical regression was used to identify variables associated with reoperation and backward selection was applied to identify the final multiple variable model. RESULTS:The mean age at the time of operation was 50.5 years (SD 16.1, range 19-91) and 65.6% of patients were male. Sharp cuts or lacerations were the most common cause (29.0%) for hand infections. 81 different species were cultivated and in 47 patients (12.7%), the cultures were positive for more than one organism. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cultured organism (19.5%). There were relatively few cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (2.2%). 80 patients (21.7%) needed more than one operation. We identified three risk factors for reoperation in a multivariate analysis: an elevated value of C-reactive protein at the time of admission, involvement of multiple sites and bacterial growth in culture. CONCLUSION:The rate of infections with MRSA in this European cohort was lower compared to reports from the USA. Thus, hand surgeons should choose their empiric antibiotic therapy depending on their patient population. The knowledge of risk factors for severe hand infections might help surgeons to identify patients at risk for additional surgery early. 10.1007/s00402-019-03306-4
    Surgical site infection in a Greek general surgery department: who is at most risk? Bekiari Anna,Pappas-Gogos George,Dimopoulos Dimitrios,Priavali Efthalia,Gartzonika Konstantina,Glantzounis Georgios K Journal of wound care OBJECTIVE:Surgical site infections (SSIs) are associated with protracted hospitalisation, antibiotics administration, and increased morbidity and mortality. This work investigated the incidence rate of SSIs in the Department of General Surgery at the University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece, the associated risk factors and pathogens responsible. METHOD:In this prospective cohort study, patients who underwent elective procedures under general anaesthesia were enrolled. Risk factors monitored included age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, preoperative length of stay, chemoprophylaxis, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) basic SSI risk index. RESULTS:Of the 1058 enrolled patients, 80 (7.6%) developed SSIs. Of the total cohort, 62.5% of patients received chemoprophylaxis for >24 hours. A total of 20 different pathogens, each with multiple strains (n=108 in total), were identified, 53 (49.5%) Gram-negative rods, 46 (42%) Gram-positive cocci, and nine (8.4%) fungi ( spp.). was the prevalent microorganism (24.3%). SSI-related risk factors, as defined by univariate analysis, included: ICU stay, ASA score >2 (p<0.001), NNIS score >0, and wound classes II, III, and IV. Also, serum albumin levels <3.5g/dl were associated with increased rate of SSIs. The multivariate model identified an NNIS score of >0 and wound classes II, III, and IV as independent SSI-related risk factors. CONCLUSION:This study showed high SSI rates. Several factors were associated with increased SSI rates, as well as overuse of prophylactic antibiotics. The results of the present study could be a starting point for the introduction of a system for recording and actively monitoring SSIs in Greek hospitals, and implementation of specific guidelines according to risk factors. 10.12968/jowc.2021.30.4.268
    Surgical and remote site infections after reconstructive surgery of the head and neck: A risk factor analysis. Schuderer Johannes G,Spörl Steffen,Spanier Gerrit,Gottsauner Maximilian,Gessner André,Hitzenbichler Florian,Meier Johannes K,Reichert Torsten E,Ettl Tobias Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical (SSI) and remote site (RSI) infections, pathogens and antibiotic resistances in patients after pedicled and free flap reconstruction in the head and neck area. SSI criteria implicated infections affecting superficial or deep tissue in the flap area with purulent discharge, fistula, abscess formation and local infections signs. RSI criteria were defined as infections remote from the surgical site presenting with systemic symptoms like fever, leucocytosis, increase in C-reactive protein, purulent tracheobronchial secretion or deterioration of blood gases. Focus adequate specimen sampling and aerobic and anaerobic incubation and cultivation was performed. Epidemiological data, factors directly related to surgery or reconstruction, perioperative antibiotic regimen, length of stay, autologous blood transfusion and microbiological aspects were retrospectively analysed in 157 patients. 10.8% of patients presented SSI, 12.7% RSI. Cultivated bacteria were sampled from flap sites, blood cultures, central catheters and sputum including mainly gram-negative bacteria (70.3%) being frequently resistant against penicillin (85%) and third generation cephalosporine derivates (48%). Autologous blood transfusion (p = 0.018) and perioperative clindamycin use (p = 0.002) were independent risk factors for overall (SSI and RSI combined) infections. Prior radiation (p = 0.05), autologous blood transfusion (p = 0.034) and perioperative clindamycin use (p = 0.004) were predictors for SSIs. ASA >2 (p = 0.05) was a risk factor for remote site infections and prolonged ICU stay (p = 0.002) was associated with overall infections, especially in irradiated patients. Efforts need to be made in improving patient blood management, antibiotic stewardship and accurate postoperative care to avoid postoperative infections after head and neck reconstructive surgery. 10.1016/j.jcms.2021.11.002
    [Risk factors for multiple debridements of the patients with deep incisional surgical site infection after spinal surgery]. Zhou B L,Li W S,Sun C G,Qi Q,Chen Z Q,Zeng Y Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences OBJECTIVE:To investigate the risk factors that contribute to multiple debridements in patients suffering from deep incisional surgical site infection after spinal surgery and advise medical personnel to pay special attention to these risk factors. METHODS:We retrospectively enrolled 84 patients who got deep incisional surgical site infection after spinal surgery from Jan. 2012 to Dec. 2017. The infections occurred within 30 days after the surgery, and the identification met the criteria of deep incisional surgical site infection of Centers of Disease Control (CDC). Early debridement with first stage closure of the wound and a continuous inflow-outflow irrigation system was used, and reasonable antibiotics were chosen according to the bacterial culture results. During the treatment, the vital signs, clinical manifestations, blood test results, drainage fluid colour and bacterial culture results were acquired. If the infection failed to be controlled or relapsed, a second debridement was performed. Of the 84 cases, 60 undergwent single debridement which included 36 male cases and 24 female cases, and the age ranged from 36 to 77 years, with a mean of 57.2 years. Twenty four had multiple debridements (twice in 14 cases, three times in 6 cases, four times in 1 case, five times in 2 cases, six times in 1 cases) which included 17 male cases and 7 female cases, and the age ranged from 21 to 70 years, with a mean of 49.5 years. Risk factors that predispose patients to multiple debridements were identified using univariate analysis. Risk factors with values less than 0.05 in univariate analysis were included together in a multivariate Logistic regression model using back-forward method. RESULTS:Multiple debridements were performed in 28.6% of all cases. The hospital stay of multiple debridements group was (82.4±46.3) days compared with (40.4±31.5) days in single debridement group (=0.018). Instrumentation was removed in 6 cases in multiple debridements group and 4 cases in single debridement group (=0.049). Flap transplantation was performed in 7 cased in multiple debridements group while none in single debridement group ( < 0.001). Diabetes, primary operation duration longer than 3 hours, primary operation blood loss more than 400 mL, bacteriology examination results, distant site infection were significantly different between the two groups in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, primary operation duration longer than 3 hours (=3.60, 95%: 1.12-11.62), diabetes (=3.74, 95%: 1.06-13.22), methicillin-resistant (MRSA) infected (=16.87, 95%: 2.59-109.73) were the most important risk factors related to multiple debridements in the patients with deep incisional surgical site infection after spinal surgery. CONCLUSION:Diabetes, primary operation duration more than 3 hours, MRSA infected are independent risk factors for multiple debridements in patients suffering from deep incisional surgical site infection after spinal surgery. Special caution and prophylaxis interventions are suggested for these factors.
    Evaluation of mortality risk factors in diabetic foot infections. Sen Pinar,Demirdal Tuna International wound journal Identifying risk factors for mortality is crucial in the management of diabetic foot syndrome. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for mortality in patients with diabetic foot infection (DFI). A retrospective chart review was conducted on 401 patients from 2010 through 2019. Our primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Patients were divided into two groups according to the outcome (survival or death). Clinical data were compared between the two groups statistically. A total of 401 patients were enrolled in the study, 280 (69.8%) of them were male and the mean age was 59.6 ± 11.1 years. The mean follow-up period was 23.7 ± 22.9 months. In-hospital mortality rate was 3%. Univariate analysis indicated that ischaemic wound (P = .023), hindfoot infection (P = .038), whole foot infection (P = .010), peripheral arterial disease (P = .024), high leucocyte levels (>12 040 K/μL) (P = .001), high thrombocyte levels (>378 000 K/μL) (P < 0.001), high C-reactive protein levels (>8.81 mg/dL) (P = .022), and polymicrobial growth in deep tissue culture (P = .041) were significant parameters in predicting mortality. In multivariate analysis, peripheral arterial disease (odds ratio [OR]: 13.430, 95% confidence interval [Cl]: 1.129-59.692; P = .040), high thrombocyte levels (OR: 1.000, 95% Cl: 1.000-1.000; P = .022), and polymicrobial growth in deep tissue culture (OR: 7.790, 95% Cl: 1.592-38.118; P = .011) were independent risk factors for mortality. In conclusion, peripheral arterial disease, high thrombocyte levels, and polymicrobial growth in deep tissue culture were independent risk factors for mortality in DFI. 10.1111/iwj.13343
    Risk factors for treatment failure of fracture-related infections. Horton Steven A,Hoyt Benjamin W,Zaidi Syed M R,Schloss Michael G,Joshi Manjari,Carlini Anthony R,Castillo Renan C,O'Toole Robert V Injury OBJECTIVE:Infection after fracture fixation is a potentially devastating outcome, and surgical management is frequently unsuccessful at clearing these infections. The purpose of this study is to determine if factors can be identified that are associated with treatment failure after operative management of a deep surgical site infection. METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the billing system at a Level I trauma center between March 2006 and December 2015. We identified 451 patients treated for deep surgical site infection after fracture fixation at our center. A multivariate regression analysis was then performed to evaluate for factors associated with treatment failure. RESULTS:Mean follow-up was 2.3 years. One hundred fifty-six patients (35%) failed initial surgical management. Risk factors associated with treatment failure included initial culture results positive for polymicrobial organisms (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.4), removal of implants (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), or Gustilo-Anderson IIIB/IIIC injury (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7). Increased body mass index and fulfilling the criteria to have a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal swab screening showed a trend toward increased risk of failure. CONCLUSION:Treatment failure after deep surgical site infection was relatively common. Three distinct factors (polymicrobial infection, removal of implants, and IIIB/C fracture) were associated with failure to eradicate the infection in the first series of surgeries and antibiotics. These data might help guide clinicians as they counsel patients on the risk of treatment failure and might focus efforts to improve treatment toward patients at higher risk of treatment failure. 10.1016/j.injury.2021.03.057
    Risk factors for serious infections in inpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Wang Xiujiao,Zuo Xiaoxia,Xie Xiaoyun,Luo Hui,Zhang Weiru,Duan Liping,Zhao Hongjun,Li Yisha,Zhou Ya'ou,Li Tong,Xie Yanli,Liu Sijia,Jiang Ying,Wu Shiyao,Huang Jing,Zhu Honglin,Wu Junjiao,Ning Wangbin Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences OBJECTIVES:To investigate the risk factors for serious infections among hospitalized systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and to provide the advice for preventing serious infections in SLE patients. METHODS:Information of SLE patients hospitalized from March 2017 to February 2019 at the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University was obtained. The patients were assigned into a serious infection group and a non-serious infection group. The risk factors for serious infections among SLE inpatients were identified by comparison between the 2 groups and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:There were 463 SLE inpatients in total, and 144 were in the serious infection group and 319 in the non-serious infection group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age ≥54.50 years old (OR=4.958, <0.001), cardiovascular involvement (OR=6.287, <0.001), hematologic involvement (OR=2.643, =0.003), serum albumin <20 g/L (OR=2.340, =0.036), C-reaction protein (CRP)/erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)≥0.12 (OR=2.430, =0.002), glucocorticoid dose ≥8.75 mg/d prednisone-equivalent (OR=2.465, =0.002), and the combined use of immunosuppressive agents (OR=2.847, =0.037) were the risk factors for serious infections in SLE inpatients. CONCLUSIONS:SLE patients with older age, cardiovascular involvement, hematologic involvement, low serum albumin are prone to suffering serious infections. Increased CRP/ESR ratio indicates serious infections in SLE inpatients. High-dose glucocorticoid and the combined use of immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of serious infections in SLE inpatients. 10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2021.200631
    Retrospective analysis of risk factors for deep infection in lower limb Gustilo-Anderson type III fractures. Ukai Taku,Hamahashi Kosuke,Uchiyama Yoshiyasu,Kobayashi Yuka,Watanabe Masahiko Journal of orthopaedics and traumatology : official journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology BACKGROUND:Open fractures are among the most severe injuries observed in orthopedic patients. Treating open fractures is difficult because such patients with infections may require multiple operations and amputations. Furthermore, only a few studies have focused on antibiotic prophylaxis in open fractures and evaluated how to cover lost soft tissue to increase the success rate of reconstruction. We evaluated the risk factors for deep infection in lower limb Gustilo-Anderson (G-A) type III fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This retrospective study investigated patients who underwent surgical procedures for lower limb G-A type III fractures between January 2007 and January 2017 at our institution. We enrolled 110 patients with 114 lower limb G-A type III fractures (77 G-A type IIIA fractures and 37 G-A type IIIB fractures) who were followed up for at least 2 years. We compared patients presenting infections with those without infections by assessing the following factors: severe contamination, diabetes, smoking, Injury Severity Scale, segmental fracture, location of fracture, G-A classification, damage control surgery, methods of surgery, timing of fixation, combination of antibiotics used, duration of antibiotic prophylaxis, timing of wound closure, and soft-tissue reconstruction failure. RESULTS:Eighteen fractures presented deep infections. Compared with patients without infections, patients developing infections differed significantly in terms of severe contamination (P < 0.01), G-A classification (P < 0.01), duration of antibiotic prophylaxis (P < 0.01), timing of wound closure (P < 0.01), and incidence of soft-tissue reconstruction failure (P < 0.01). Skin grafting was associated with significantly higher failure rates than muscle and free flap reconstructions (P = 0.04). Treatment with antibiotics was significantly longer in patients with drug-resistant bacterial infections than in those without infections (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION:Early flaps rather than skin grafting should be used to cover G-A type IIIB fractures, because skin grafting resulted in the highest failure rate among soft-tissue reconstructions in open fractures. Longer duration of antibiotic use had a significant impact not only on deep infection rates but also on the presence of drug-resistant bacteria. These findings suggest that prolonged use of antibiotics should be avoided in cases of open fractures. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV retrospective observational study. 10.1186/s10195-020-00549-5
    A Retrospective Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection Following Lung Transplant. Moraes Josiane Luzia Sibioni,Oliveira Ramon Antonio,Samano Marcos Naoyuki,Poveda Vanessa de Brito Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif.) BACKGROUND:Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the leading health care-associated infections as well as a major problem in the postoperative period of lung transplant recipients. Little is known about the risk factors in this specific population. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of SSI following lung transplant. METHODS:Digital medical records of adult recipients subjected to lung transplant from July 2011 and June 2016 in a large Brazilian referral teaching public center were analyzed in this retrospective cohort follow-up. RESULTS:Among the 121 recipients analyzed, 19 (15.7%) had SSI; of these, 11 (57.8%) had superficial incisional infections, 1 (5.2%) had a deep incisional infection, and 7 (36.8%) had organ/space infection. Recipient-related risk factors for SSI were high body mass index ( = .041), prolonged surgery time ( = .043), and prolonged duration of chest drain placement ( = .009). At the multiple logistic regression was found that each hour elapsed in the surgical time increased the odds of SSI by around 2 times (odds ratio 2.34; 95% CI, 1.46-4.53; = .002). Donor-related risk factors included smoking status ( = .05) and positive bronchoalveolar lavage ( < .001). Having an SSI was associated with an increased length of stay in intensive care units ( = .003), reoperation ( = .014), and a higher 1-year mortality rate ( = .02). CONCLUSIONS:The identified incidence rate was higher to that observed in the previous studies. The risk factors duration of chest tube placement and donor smoking status are different from those reported in the scientific literature. 10.1177/1526924820958133
    Predictable risk factors for infections in proximal femur fractures. Basilico M,Vitiello R,Oliva M S,Covino M,Greco T,Cianni L,Dughiero G,Ziranu A,Perisano C,Maccauro G Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents Proximal femur fractures are increasing, together with the aging of world population. One of the complications worsening this condition is infection. In this study, we try to identify risk factors that can lead to infection. We identified 122 patients with femoral neck fracture. The occurrence of infectious events were recorded (respiratory, urinary, superficial wound and periprostethic infection). There were 15 infections, mostly urinary and pulmonary, and all were treated using antibiotics. No statistical differences were found between infection and control group regarding waiting time for surgery, mean time of surgery, age, kind of fracture, type of surgery. Fever onset >38° within 72 hours from surgery was statistically correlated with early infections. Future studies must be led to identify risk factors for infection and to create a strategy to prevent this possibly lethal complication.
    Incidence and risk factors of urinary tract infections in hospitalised patients with spinal cord injury. Kim Yielin,Cho Mi Hwa,Do Kyungmin,Kang Hye Jin,Mok Jin Ju,Kim Mi Kyoung,Kim Gwang Suk Journal of clinical nursing AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To investigate the incidence of urinary tract infection and analyse its risk factors among hospitalised patients with spinal cord injury. BACKGROUND:While the incidence of urinary tract infection varies widely according to the healthcare setting and patients' clinical characteristics, formal reports are limited in quantity. There has been no consensus regarding the risk factors for urinary tract infection. DESIGN:A retrospective descriptive study. METHODS:Electronic medical records of 964 subjects between 2010-2017 were reviewed. Urinary tract infection status was examined to identify newly occurred cases. Data included demographic and clinical characteristics, hydration status and length of hospitalisation. The reporting of the study followed the EQUATOR Network's STROBE checklist. RESULTS:Of the sample, 31.7% had urinary tract infection (95% confidence interval: 1.288 to 1.347, p < .001). Sex, completeness of injury, type of bladder emptying, detrusor function and urethral pressure were significant factors affecting urinary tract infection. Patients who were male and those with injury classifications A, B and C had higher risk of urinary tract infection. Patients with urinary or suprapubic indwelling catheters, as well as those with areflexic detrusor combined with normotonic urethral pressure or overactive detrusor combined with normotonic urethral pressure, showed higher risk. Length of hospitalisation in patients with urinary tract infection was greater than that in uninfected patients, which implies the importance of prevention of urinary tract infection. CONCLUSIONS:Nurses should carefully assess risk factors to prevent urinary tract infection in patients with spinal cord injury in the acute and sub-acute stages of the disease trajectory and provide individualised nursing care. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:This study contributes evidence for up-to-date clinical nursing practice for the comprehensive management of urinary tract infection. This can lead to improvements in nursing care quality and patient outcomes, including length of hospitalisation. 10.1111/jocn.15763
    Efficacy of prophylactic application of vancomycin powder in preventing surgical site infections after instrumented spinal surgery: A retrospective analysis of patients with high-risk conditions. Oktay Kadir,Özsoy Kerem Mazhar,Çetinalp Nuri Eralp,Erman Tahsin,Güzel Aslan Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to determine the efficacy of prophylactic use of vancomycin powder against surgical site infections in patients with high-risk conditions who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation. METHODS:Data obtained from 209 patients who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation at a single institution from 2014 to 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were then divided into two groups: control group, including 107 patients (61 females, 46 males; mean age=54 years; age range=16-85 years), and treatment group, including 102 patients (63 females, 39 males; mean age=53 years; age range=14-90 years). All patients received the same standard prophylactic antibiotic regimen. In addition to the prophylactic antibiotic, vancomycin powder was applied locally to the surgical site in the treatment group. All patients were followed up for at least 90 days postoperatively. Infections were categorized as superficial and deep infections. Subgroup analysis of high-risk patients (Syrian refugees) was also performed. RESULTS:The infection rates were 1.96% (two patients) in the treatment group and 6.54% (seven patients) in the control group. A significant decrease in the infection rates was observed with local vancomycin powder application. Advanced age (>46 years) and prolonged surgical duration (>140 min) were found to be the main risk factors for surgical site infections (p=0.004 and p=0.028, respectively). The infection rates were 3.22% and 8.11% in the treatment and control groups of refugees, respectively. There were three superficial and four deep infections in the control group and one superficial and one deep infection in the treatment group. A dominance of staphylococcus infections was observed in the control group, whereas no significant dominance was observed in the treatment group. Three patients in the control group and one patient in the treatment group received implant removal. CONCLUSION:Evidence from this study has revealed that local application of vancomycin powder reduces the rate of surgical site infections after instrumented spinal surgery. The benefit of vancomycin application may be most appreciated in higher risk populations or in clinics with high baseline rates of infection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III, Therapeutic Study. 10.5152/j.aott.2021.18372
    Clinical characteristics and risk factors of infections in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Hou Chengcheng,Jin Ou,Zhang Xi Clinical rheumatology To investigate the clinical characteristics of infection in SLE patients and analyze the risk factors of infection. A retrospective analysis method was used and the data were collected from 173 case times of 142 hospitalized patients. We found the incidence rate of infections in SLE was 50.7%. The most common infection sites were lungs, followed by upper respiratory tracts and urinary tracts. The most common pathogens were bacteria, followed by fungi. The infection-associated risk factors were duration of hospitalization, lupus activity state, the use of high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, the low serum level of complements 3 and 4 (C3 and C4), fever, the high level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), the abnormality of white blood cell (< 4 × 10/L or > 10 × 10/L), and the low level of albumin (P < 0.05 or P < 0.001). The independent risk factors for SLE patients with infection consist of the abnormality of white blood cells, the high level of CRP, the low serum level of C4, and longtime hospitalization. Attention should be paid to the risk factors of infection, and treatment to enhance immunity should be carried out to reduce the chance of infection. 10.1007/s10067-018-4198-8
    Risk Stratifying and Prognostic Analysis of Subclinical Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices Infection: Insight From Traditional Bacterial Culture. Lin Gaofeng,Zou Tong,Dong Min,Liu Junpeng,Cui Wen,Tong Jiabin,Shi Haifeng,Chen Hao,Chong Jia,Lyu You,Wu Sujuan,Wang Zhilei,Jin Xin,Gao Xu,Sun Lin,Qu Yimei,Yang Jiefu Journal of the American Heart Association Background Subclinical infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) is a common condition and increases the risk of clinical infection. However, there are limited studies focused on risk stratifying and prognostic analysis of subclinical CIED infection. Methods and Results Data from 418 consecutive patients undergoing CIED replacement or upgrade between January 2011 and December 2019 were used in the analysis. Among the patients included, 50 (12.0%) were detected as positive by bacterial culture of pocket tissues. The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci (76.9%). Compared with the noninfection group, more patients in the subclinical infection group were taking immunosuppressive agents, received electrode replacement, or received CIED upgrade and temporary pacing. Patients in the subclinical infection group had a higher PADIT (Prevention of Arrhythmia Device Infection Trial) score. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis found that use of immunosuppressive agents (odds ratio [OR], 6.95 [95% CI, 1.44-33.51]; =0.02) and electrode replacement or CIED upgrade (OR, 6.73 [95% CI, 2.23-20.38]; =0.001) were significantly associated with subclinical CIED infection. Meanwhile, compared with the low-risk group, patients in the intermediate/high-risk group had a higher risk of subclinical CIED infection (OR, 3.43 [95% CI, 1.58-7.41]; =0.002). After a median follow-up time of 36.5 months, the end points between the subclinical infection group and noninfection group were as follows: composite events (58.0% versus 41.8%, =0.03), rehospitalization (54.0% versus 32.1%, =0.002), cardiovascular rehospitalization (32.0% versus 13.9%, =0.001), CIED infection (2.0% versus 0.5%, =0.32), all-cause mortality (28.0% versus 21.5%, =0.30), and cardiovascular mortality (10.0% versus 7.6%, =0.57). Conclusions Subclinical CIED infection was a common phenomenon. The PADIT score had significant value for stratifying patients at high risk of subclinical CIED infection. Subclinical CIED infection was associated with increased risks of composite events, rehospitalization, and cardiovascular rehospitalization. 10.1161/JAHA.121.022260
    Risk factors and management of pulmonary infection in elderly patients with heart failure: A retrospective analysis. Peng Qi,Yang Qin Medicine ABSTRACT:Pulmonary infection is common in patients with heart failure, yet the risk factors remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary infection in elderly patients with heart failure, to provide reference to the prevention of pulmonary infection.This study was a retrospective study design. We included elderly heart failure patient admitted to our hospital from April 1, 2018 to August 31, 2020. The characteristics and clinical data of pulmonary infection and no infection patients were assessed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the risk factors of pulmonary infections in patients with heart failure.A total of 201 patients were included. The incidence of pulmonary infection in patients with heart failure was 23.88%. There were significant differences in the age, diabetes, New York Heart Association (NYHA) grade, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), C-reactive protein (CRP) between infection and no infection group (all P < .05), and there were not differences in the sex, body mass index, alcohol drinking, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, length of hospital stay between 2 groups (all P > .05). Logistic regression analyses indicated that age ≥70 years, diabetes, NYHA grade III, LVEF ≤55%, and CRP ≥10 mg/L were the independent risk factors of pulmonary infections in patients with heart failure (all P < .05). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (34.48%), Staphylococcus aureus (19.57%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.22%) were the most common 3 pathogens in patients with pulmonary infection.Heart failure patients with age ≥70 years, diabetes, NYHA grade III, LVEF ≤55%, and CRP ≥10 mg/L have higher risks of pulmonary infections, preventive measures targeted on those risk factors are needed to reduce pulmonary infections. 10.1097/MD.0000000000027238
    Decompressive Craniectomy and Risk of Wound Infection After Microsurgical Treatment of Ruptured Aneurysms. Rumalla Kavelin,Catapano Joshua S,Srinivasan Visish M,Lawson Abby,Labib Mohamed A,Baranoski Jacob F,Cole Tyler S,Nguyen Candice L,Rutledge Caleb,Rahmani Redi,Zabramski Joseph M,Lawton Michael T World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Owing to prolonged hospitalization and the complexity of care required for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), these patients have a high risk of complications. The risk for wound infection after microsurgical treatment for aSAH was analyzed. METHODS:All patients who underwent microsurgical treatment for aSAH between August 1, 2007, and July 31, 2019, and were recorded in the Post-Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial database were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were analyzed for risk factors for wound infection after treatment. RESULTS:Of 594 patients who underwent microsurgical treatment for aSAH, 23 (3.9%) had wound infections. There was no significant difference in age between patients with wound infection and patients without infection (mean, 52.6 ± 12.2 years vs. 54.2 ± 4.0 years; P = 0.45). The presence of multiple comorbidities (including diabetes, tobacco use, and obesity), external ventricular drain, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, pneumonia, or urinary tract infection was not associated with an increased risk for wound infection. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in mean operative time between patients with wound infection and those without infection (280 ± 112 minutes vs. 260 ± 92 minutes; P = 0.38). Patients who required decompressive craniectomy (DC) were at increased risk of wound infection (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-14.1; P = 0.002). Among the 23 total infections, 9 were diagnosed following cranioplasty after DC. CONCLUSIONS:Microsurgical treatment for aSAH is associated with a relatively low risk of wound infection. However, patients undergoing DC may be at an increased risk for infection. Additional attention and comprehensive wound care are warranted for these patients. 10.1016/j.wneu.2021.07.004
    Risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy under endoscope. Xu Yifan,He Yuxin,Xu Wu,Lu Tianyu,Liang Weibang,Jin Wei Ideggyogyaszati szemle Background and purpose:Background - Up to now, the risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy remain controversial. Purpose - To analyze the risk factors related to intracranial infections after transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy under an endoscope, and to provide evidence for preventing and controlling the occurrence and development of infections. Methods:A total of 370 patients receiving endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy in our hospital from January 2014 to October 2017 were selected. The risk factors related to postoperative intracranial infections were analyzed. The hospitalization lengths and expenditures of patients with and without intracranial infections were compared. Results:Of the 370 patients, 18 underwent postoperative intracranial infections, with the infection rate of 4.86%. Intraoperative blood loss >120 mL, cerebrospinal leakage, diabetes, preoperative use of hormones, macroadenoma as well as surgical time >4 h all significantly increased the infection rate (P<0.05). Preoperative use of antibacterial agents prevented intracranial infection. Compared with patients without intracranial infections, the infected ones had significantly prolonged hospitalization length and increased expenditure (P<0.05). Discussion - It is of great clinical significance to analyze the risk factors related to intracranial infection after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy, aiming to prevent and to control the onset and progression of infection. Conclusion:Intracranial infections after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary adenomectomy were affected by many risk factors, also influencing the prognosis of patients and the economic burden. 10.18071/isz.73.0399
    Assessment of infection in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients: risk factors and main characteristics. Lin Chenyao,Shen Hui,Zhou Shuimei,Liu Minghui,Xu Anjie,Huang Shuang,Shen Changxin,Zhou Fuling BMC infectious diseases BACKGROUND:Infection is a leading cause of morbidity and death in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The increased susceptibility to infection is complicated and multifactorial. However, no studies have explored the spectrum and risk factors of infections in newly diagnosed MM patients at the first admission. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide ideas for the assessment, prevention and treatment of infection in newly diagnosed MM patients when admitted for the first time. METHODS:Retrospectively, the data from electronic medical records for 161 patients newly diagnosed with MM from May 2013 to December 2018 were analysed. All the information was collected at the time of admission, and the patients had received no antineoplastic therapy previously. Independent risk factors of infection in multiple myeloma were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:Newly diagnosed patients with MM were highly susceptible to viruses (43.9%), especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (24.4%) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) (17.1%). Advanced stage (ISS stage III, P = 0.040), more severe anaemia (Hb < 90 g/L, P = 0.044) and elevated CRP (> 10 mg/L, P = 0.006) were independent risk factors for infection. Moreover, infections represented a major survival threat to patients with newly diagnosed MM (P = 0.033), and the existence of risk factors for infection was significantly correlated with poor prognosis (P = 0.011), especially ISS stage III (P = 0.008) and lower haemoglobin level (P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS:Newly diagnosed MM patients are highly susceptible to viruses. Advanced ISS stage, more severe anaemia and the elevation of CRP are independent risk factors of infection, which also have a strong impact on prognosis. Our results suggest that viral infection should be taken into account if antibacterial drugs are not effective, and the prevention of infection and improvement of prognosis should be paid more attention in newly diagnosed patents with advanced stage and more severe anaemia. 10.1186/s12879-020-05412-w
    Risk Factors for Enterococcal Intra-Abdominal Infections and Outcomes in Intensive Care Unit Patients. Luo Xingzheng,Li Lulan,Xuan Jiabin,Zeng Zhenhua,Zhao Hengrui,Cai Shumin,Huang Qiaobing,Guo Xiaohua,Chen Zhongqing Surgical infections To investigate the risk factors for enterococcal intra-abdominal infections (EIAIs) and the association between EIAIs and outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We reviewed retrospectively the records of patients with intra-abdominal infections admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine at Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, China, from January 2011 to December 2018. Patients with intra-abdominal infections were divided into enterococcal and non-enterococcal groups based on whether enterococci were isolated from intra-abdominal specimens. A total of 431 patients with intra-abdominal infections were included, of whom 119 were infected with enterococci and 312 were infected with non-enterococci. Enterococci were isolated in 27.6% of patients, accounting for 24.5% (129/527) of all clinical bacterial isolates. Post-operative abdominal infection (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.361; p = 0.004), intestinal infection (adjusted OR, 2.703; p < 0.001), Mannheim Peritonitis Index score (MPI; adjusted OR, 1.052; p = 0.015), and use of antibiotic agents within the previous 90 days (adjusted OR, 1.880; p = 0.025) were associated with an increased risk of EIAIs. Compared with patients without enterococcal infection, ICU patients with enterococcal infection had a higher risk of failure of initial clinical therapy (49.6% vs. 24.2%; p < 0.001) and longer hospital stays (33 days [19, 48] vs. 18 days [12, 29]; p < 0.001). Enterococcal infection was associated with increased 28-day mortality, in-hospital mortality, and ICU mortality. However, no difference was found in length of ICU stay between the two groups. Additionally, there was no difference in ICU mortality, hospital mortality, or 28-day mortality in patients infected with enterococcus who did or did not receive empirical anti-enterococcal therapy. Post-operative abdominal infection, intestinal infection, MPI score, and use of antibiotic agents within the previous 90 days were independent risk factors for enterococcal infection. Enterococcal infection was associated with reduced short-term survival in ICU patients. 10.1089/sur.2020.417
    Outcomes, Microbiology and Antimicrobial Usage in Pressure Ulcer-Related Pelvic Osteomyelitis: Messages for Clinical Practice. Russell Clark D,Tsang Shao-Ting Jerry,Simpson Alasdair Hamish R W,Sutherland Rebecca K Journal of bone and joint infection : Pressure ulcer-related pelvic osteomyelitis is a relatively under-studied entity in the field of bone infection. We sought to add to the limited evidence base for managing this challenging syndrome. : Cases were identified retrospectively from a surgical database and hospital discharge codes at a U.K. tertiary centre (2009-2018). Risk factors associated with outcomes were analysed by logistic regression. : We identified 35 patients (mean age 57.4 years), 69% managed with a combined medical and surgical approach, with mean follow-up of 3.7 years from index admission. Treatment failure (requiring further surgery or intravenous antimicrobials) occurred in 71% and eventual ulcer healing in 36%. One-year mortality was 23%. Lack of formal care support on discharge, post-traumatic (asensate) neurological deficit and index CRP (>184mg/L) were associated with treatment failure (p=0.001). Age (>59.5 years), lack of attempted soft tissue coverage, haemoglobin (<111g/L) and albumin (<25g/L) were associated with non-healing ulcers (p=0.003). Superficial wound swabs had low sensitivity and specificity compared to deep bone microbiology. Infection (based on deep bone microbiology from 46 infection episodes) was usually polymicrobial (87%), commonly involving , Enterococci, GNB and anaerobes. Antimicrobial duration ranged from 0-103 days (mean 54) and was not associated with subsequent treatment failure. : Attempted soft tissue coverage after surgical debridement, ensuring appropriate support for personal care after discharge and nutritional optimisation could improve outcomes. Superficial wound swabs are uninformative and deep bone sampling should be pursued. Long antimicrobial courses do not improve outcomes. Clinicians should engage patients in anticipatory care planning. 10.7150/jbji.41779
    [Effect of modified double negative-pressure wound therapy combined with debridement and tension-reduced suture in treatment of patients with stage 4 pressure sores and infection in sacrococcygeal region and its surrounding area]. Miao Y Y,Zhang W C,Han X B,Wang Z X Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns To investigate the effect of modified double negative-pressure wound therapy combined with debridement and tension-reduced suture in treatment of stage 4 pressure sores and infection in sacrococcygeal region and its surrounding area. From January 2015 to June 2019, 20 patients with stage 4 pressure sores and infection in sacrococcygeal region and its surrounding area were admitted to Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology of Linyi People's Hospital. Among them, there were 11 males and 9 females, aged 48 to 88 years. The wounds of 13 patients were located in the sacrococcygeal region, and 8 of them had exposed sacrococcyx. The wounds of 4 patients were located in the greater trochanter area of femur, and the wounds of 3 patients were located in the ischial tuberosity area. All the patients had fever in different degree, bacterial infection, hypoproteinemia, and electrolyte imbalance, etc. at admission. After thorough debridement and dressing change, routine negative-pressure wound therapy with negative pressure value of -16.6 kPa was performed according to the scope of lesions in period Ⅰ. When granulation tissue was fresh with less exudate and without residual necrotic tissue, modified double negative-pressure wound therapy in combination with debridement and tension-reduced suture was performed immediately in period Ⅱ. Modified double negative-pressure wound therapy were persistently performed through negative pressure drainage tube inserted into deep part of wounds and negative pressure drainage tube on surface at the same time, with superficial negative pressure value of -19.9 kPa. Meanwhile, systemic anti-infection and nutritional supports were given. The wounds were monitored for the grade of wound healing and whether skin necrosis, split, or fluid accumulation develop at the suture site. The patients were followed up for 1 to 6 months after discharge to monitor wound healing. Length of hospital stay, infection condition before and after the debridement and tension-reduced suture, and complications during treatment were recorded. All wounds achieved first grade healing, with the skin at the suture site healed without split, fluid accumulation, or necrosis. The patients were followed up for 1 to 6 months after discharge, with good shape of surgical incision, little pigmentation on the skin, no hypertrophic scar or contracture, and no recurrence of pressure sores. Length of hospital stay of patients was 24 to 33 d, with an average of 28.5 d. Before debridement and tension-reduced suture, 2 cases were infected with 1 case was infected with and and 1 case was infected with . The results of bacterial culture were all negative after debridement and tension-reduced suture. During the treatment, all patients were not complicated with bone or joint infection, necrotizing fasciitis, septicemia, etc. Modified double negative-pressure wound therapy combined with debridement and tension-reduced suture for treatment of patients with stage 4 pressure sores and infection in sacrococcygeal region and its surrounding area is easy to operate with minimal injury, easy for patients to accept with a very high level of satisfaction, and is suitable to popularize and applicate for primary hospitals. 10.3760/cma.j.cn501120-20200304-00118
    Fever in a paraplegia patient with a pressure ulcer. Rabadi Meheroz H Radiology case reports The incidence rates of pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with SCI in the United States varies by clinical setting, ranging from 0.4%-38% in acute care, 2.2%-23.9% in long-term care, and 0%-17% in home care [1,2]. Unrelieved pressure is the most important factor in the development of PUs. Other factors associated with PUs in patients with SCI include age at the time of injury, men, blacks, completeness of the injury, functional dependence, behavioral protective factors such as frequent pressure relief, self-positioning, daily skin monitoring, nutritional state, cigarette smoking, alcohol (ab)use, and being depressed [3]. Presence of PUs affects functional physical outcomes; thus, prevention of PUs is the key [4]. Infection is a common complication of PUs which can be local such as cellulitis or osteomyelitis or systemic such as septicemia with a greater than 50% mortality. We present a case of a 58-year-old paraplegic man with pressure ulcer who presented with fever in the presence of an osteomyelitis and had a pelvic abscess on magnetic resonance imaging which needed surgical drainage. 10.1016/j.radcr.2021.05.065
    Adverse outcomes after major surgery in patients with pressure ulcer: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. Chou Chia-Lun,Lee Woan-Ruoh,Yeh Chun-Chieh,Shih Chun-Chuan,Chen Ta-Liang,Liao Chien-Chang PloS one BACKGROUND:Postoperative adverse outcomes in patients with pressure ulcer are not completely understood. This study evaluated the association between preoperative pressure ulcer and adverse events after major surgeries. METHODS:Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study of 17391 patients with preoperative pressure ulcer receiving major surgery in 2008-2010. With a propensity score matching procedure, 17391 surgical patients without pressure ulcer were selected for comparison. Eight major surgical postoperative complications and 30-day postoperative mortality were evaluated among patients with pressure ulcer of varying severity. RESULTS:Patients with preoperative pressure ulcer had significantly higher risk than controls for postoperative adverse outcomes, including septicemia, pneumonia, stroke, urinary tract infection, and acute renal failure. Surgical patients with pressure ulcer had approximately 1.83-fold risk (95% confidence interval 1.54-2.18) of 30-day postoperative mortality compared with control group. The most significant postoperative mortality was found in those with serious pressure ulcer, such as pressure ulcer with local infection, cellulitis, wound or treatment by change dressing, hospitalized care, debridement or antibiotics. Prolonged hospital or intensive care unit stay and increased medical expenditures were also associated with preoperative pressure ulcer. CONCLUSION:This nationwide propensity score-matched retrospective cohort study showed increased postoperative complications and mortality in patients with preoperative pressure ulcer. Our findings suggest the urgency of preventing and managing preoperative pressure ulcer by a multidisciplinary medical team for this specific population. 10.1371/journal.pone.0127731
    Random pattern hatchet flap as a reconstructive tool in the treatment of pressure sores: clinical experience with 36 patients. Alfeehan M J,Aljodah Ma-A,Al-Zajrawee M Z,Marzook A A Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England INTRODUCTION:Pressure sores represent a reconstructive challenge, and the high recurrence rate and need for reoperations should always be considered. Sacrifice of muscle and fascia in primary reconstruction may compromise options for future repairs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of muscle- and fascia-sparing random pattern hatchet flap reconstruction of pressure sores in different body regions. METHODS:From November 2017 to December 2019, 36 participants with grade III and IV pressure sores underwent random pattern hatchet flap reconstruction. Early postoperative complications and flap survival were evaluated in follow up for 6-12 months. RESULTS:Thirty-six participants with an age range of 15 to 67 years who presented with pressure sores (13 sacral, 12 ischial, 10 trochanteric, and 1 scapular) underwent surgery. Complete healing of sores was observed within 21 days of surgery in 32 cases and within 30 days for the remaining four cases. Postoperative complications (11.2%) were recorded in only four participants: two experienced partial wound dehiscence, one seroma developed in a trochanteric case, and there was one infection in a sacral sore. CONCLUSIONS:Random pattern hatchet flap is a reliable tool that results in minimal complications for treatment of pressure sores of limited dimensions. 10.1308/rcsann.2020.7077
    A Systematic Review Comparing Outcomes of Local Flap Options for Reconstruction of Pressure Sores. Vathulya Madhubari,Praveen A J,Barik Sitanshu,Jagtap Manish Pradip,Kandwal Pankaj Annals of plastic surgery INTRODUCTION:Pressure sores are agonizing complications of chronically bedridden patients. The management of these lesions particularly with respect to grades III and IV lesions are chiefly surgical and involves a multidisciplinary approach. Although there are a variety of local flap options, like fasciocutaneous flaps, musculocutaneous flaps, perforator flaps, and combinations of these to choose from, there is a paucity of literature regarding which flap is better among these in terms of complication and recurrence rates. METHODS:The databases searched were as follows: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (January 2000 to July 2020), MEDLINE (January 2000 to July 2020), and EMBASE (January 2000 to August of 2020). Key words used were "pressure ulcer," "flaps," "surgery," "pressure sore" with limits, "human," and "English." Primary outcomes were "overall complication rates" and "recurrence rates." Overall complication was further categorized as flap necrosis, flap dehiscence, infection, and others. RESULTS:Thirty-nine articles were included in the final analysis. There was a statistically significant difference among the various types of flaps for overall complication, flap dehiscence, infection, flap necrosis, and recurrence rates. CONCLUSIONS:Our study indicates that musculocutaneous flaps have lower recurrence rates, and combined flaps have lower complication rates. However, various other factors, like donor site morbidity, initial defect size, operating time, intraoperative blood loss, salvage options in case of recurrence, should also be considered while choosing a flap to reconstruct a defect. 10.1097/SAP.0000000000002941