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    Production and characterization of bactericidal wound dressing material based on gelatin nanofiber. İnal Murat,Mülazımoğlu Gökçe International journal of biological macromolecules Gelatin is a biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer obtained by collagen. Gelatin nanofibers meet all the necessary requirements when used as wound dressing material. However, their lack of antimicrobial properties limits their use. The purpose of this study is to expand the field of use of gelatin by providing it with antimicrobial properties. For this purpose, poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride) (PMETAC), was used. In this study, the polymers were dissolved in formic acid-acetic acid and nanofibers were synthesized by electrospinning. The obtained nanofibers were characterized with SEM, FTIR, and TGA. The antibacterial effect, degradation tests, and cell viability, adhesion and proliferation were investigated. The SEM studies show that the nanofibers are homogeneous and smooth. At the end of 14 days, all nanofibers lost >90% of their mass. The nanofibers containing PMETAC showed good bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. MTT test demonstrated that low doses of the nanofibers were biocompatible. The cell adhesion study has been shown that many cells attachment and proliferate on the surface of nanofibers. It has been found that the obtained nanofibers can be used safely and effectively as antimicrobial wound dressing material. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.119
    Nano-hydroxyapatite incorporated gelatin/zein nanofibrous membranes: Fabrication, characterization and copper adsorption. Deng Lingli,Li Yang,Zhang Aiping,Zhang Hui International journal of biological macromolecules In this study, the gelatin/zein nanofibrous membranes with incorporation of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) were fabricated via electrospinning. The gelatin/zein/nHA solutions as the spinning dispersions showed the viscoelastic property with a shear-thinning non-Newtown behavior. The incorporated nHA particles in the composite nanofibrous membranes did not affect the average fiber diameter significantly, but induced agglomeration and nodules at higher contents. It was found that nHA was dispersed within the gelatin/zein nanofibers by the formed hydrogen bonding, resulting in a more extensional structure of the proteins. The addition of nHA significantly increased the hydrophobicity of the nanofibrous membranes, due to the lower ratio of polar groups exposed outside. However, the incorporation of nHA improved the mechanical property at a low content of 10%, but resulted in a more brittle and fragile property at higher contents. The copper adsorption capacity of the gelatin/zein nanofibrous membrane increased from 27.2 to 67.8 mg/g after the addition of up to 50% nHA. This work suggests the potentials of the electrospun gelatin/zein/nHA nanofibrous membranes as desirable materials for metal removal applications. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.11.029
    Electrospinning Live Cells Using Gelatin and Pullulan. Nosoudi Nasim,Oommen Anson Jacob,Stultz Savannah,Jordan Micah,Aldabel Seba,Hohne Chandra,Mosser James,Archacki Bailey,Turner Alliah,Turner Paul Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland) Electrospinning is a scaffold production method that utilizes electric force to draw a polymer solution into nanometer-sized fibers. By optimizing the polymer and electrospinning parameters, a scaffold is created with the desired thickness, alignment, and pore size. Traditionally, cells and biological constitutes are implanted into the matrix of the three-dimensional scaffold following electrospinning. Our design simultaneously introduces cells into the scaffold during the electrospinning process at 8 kV. In this study, we achieved 90% viability of adipose tissue-derived stem cells through electrospinning. 10.3390/bioengineering7010021
    Preparation of Electrospun Gelatin Mat with Incorporated Zinc Oxide/Graphene Oxide and Its Antibacterial Activity. Li Honghai,Chen Yu,Lu Weipeng,Xu Yisheng,Guo Yanchuan,Yang Geng Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) Current wound dressings have poor antimicrobial activities and are difficult to degrade. Therefore, biodegradable and antibacterial dressings are urgently needed. In this article, we used the hydrothermal method and side-by-side electrospinning technology to prepare a gelatin mat with incorporated zinc oxide/graphene oxide (ZnO/GO) nanocomposites. The resultant fibers were characterized by field emission environment scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results indicated that the gelatin fibers had good morphology, and ZnO/GO nanocomposites were uniformly dispersed on the fibers. The loss of () and () viability were observed to more than 90% with the incorporation of ZnO/GO. The degradation process showed that the composite fibers completely degraded within 7 days and had good controllable degradation characteristics. This study demonstrated the potential applicability of ZnO/GO-gelatin mats with excellent antibacterial properties as wound dressing material. 10.3390/molecules25051043
    Synthetic/natural blended polymer fibrous meshes composed of polylactide, gelatin and glycosaminoglycan for cartilage repair. Zhao Wenwen,Du Zhiyun,Fang Jiajin,Fu Lei,Zhang Xin,Cai Qing,Yang Xiaoping Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition Electrospinning is a common and effective technology used for the fabrication of biomimetic nanofibers targeting tissue regeneration applications. As for cartilage regeneration, nanofibers containing natural components derived from cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) are preferred. However, it is not easy an task to electrospin glycosaminoglycan (GAG) like hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) by themselves. In this study, HA and/or CS were co-electrospun with poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) or PLLA/gelatin (1:1 in weight ratio) to obtain GAG-containing composite nanofibers. All the prepared composite nanofibers were non-cytotoxic, able to support cell attachment, spread and proliferation. In the differentiation studies, the PLLA/GAG and the PLLA/gelatin/GAG nanofibers demonstrated stronger capacities in promoting the chondrogenic differentiation of both the bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and chondrocytes than the respective PLLA and PLLA/gelatin nanofibers, even in the proliferation medium without extra inductive factors. The incorporation of gelatin greatly improved the hydrophilicity of the fibrous meshes. At the meantime, the PLLA/gelatin/GAG nanofibers were more efficient than the PLLA/GAG nanofibers in enhancing the chondrogenic differentiation. It was found that the PLLA/gelatin/HA/CS (HA and CS in 1:1 weight ratio) nanofibers demonstrated a stronger synergetic effect on up-regulating chondrogenesis than both the PLLA/gelatin/HA and the PLLA/gelatin/CS nanofibers, when the GAG amounts in all the preparations were controlled as 3 wt.%. Herein, GAG-containing composite nanofibers were successfully electrospun and their potentials for cartilage repair were proved. 10.1080/09205063.2020.1760701
    Antimutagenic and Antiproliferative Activity of the Coccoloba uvifera L. Extract Loaded in Nanofibers of Gelatin/Agave Fructans Elaborated by Electrospinning. Cruz-Salas Carla N,Prieto Cristina,Calderón-Santoyo Montserrat,Lagarón José M,Ramos-Hernández Jorge Alberto,Ragazzo-Sánchez Juan Arturo Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry BACKGROUND:The Coccoloba uvifera L. species is currently considered an important source of compounds of high biological value such as lupeol, this is related to different biological activities of importance to human health. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to encapsulate the C. uvifera extract in nanofibers made with the biopolymers gelatin (G)/high-grade polymerization agave fructans (HDPAF) in the proportions 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 0:1, through the electrospinning process, in addition to evaluating the antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of the encapsulated extract. METHOD:The physicochemical characteristics of the nanofibers were evaluated, as well as the antiproliferative and antimutagenic activities of the encapsulated and unencapsulated extract. SEM evaluation shows nanofibers of smooth, continuous morphology and nanometric size (50-250 nm). The TGA, FTIR-ATR, HPLC-MS analyzes reveal the presence of the extract in the nanofibers. RESULTS:The extract did not show a mutagenic effect during the development of the Ames test, on the other hand, the MTT test showed the antiproliferative effect at the concentrations of 50 and 100 µg/mL of extract. CONCLUSION:the extract of C. uvifera loaded in nanofibers elaborated by electrospinning with the G/HDPAF biopolymers, conserves its antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties. 10.2174/1871520622666220316161957
    Electrospinning of gelatin for tissue engineering--molecular conformation as one of the overlooked problems. Sajkiewicz P,Kołbuk D Journal of biomaterials science. Polymer edition Gelatin is one of the most promising materials in tissue engineering as a scaffold component. This biopolymer indicates biocompatibility and bioactivity caused by the existence of specific amino acid sequences, being preferred sites for interactions with cells, with high similarity to natural extracellular matrix. The present paper does not aspire to be a full review of electrospinning of gelatin and gelatin containing nanofibers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. It is focused on the still open question of the role of the higher order structures of gelatin in scaffold's bioactivity/functionality. Gelatin molecules can adopt various conformations depending on temperature, solvent, pH, etc. Our review indicates the potential ways for formation of α-helix conformation during electrospinning and the methods of further structure stabilization. It is intuitively expected that the native α-helix conformation appearing as a result of partial renaturation of gelatin can be beneficial from the viewpoint of bioactivity of scaffolds, providing thus a much cheaper alternative approach as opposed to expensive electrospinning of native collagen. 10.1080/09205063.2014.975392
    Electrospinning of PVA/chitosan nanocomposite nanofibers containing gelatin nanoparticles as a dual drug delivery system. Fathollahipour Shahrzad,Abouei Mehrizi Ali,Ghaee Azadeh,Koosha Mojtaba Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Nanofibrous core-sheath nanocomposite dual drug delivery system based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/chitosan/lidocaine hydrochloride loaded with gelatin nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospinning method. Gelatin nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation and were then loaded with erythromycin antibiotic agent with the average particle size of ∼175 nm. The morphology of gelatin nanoparticles observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was shown to be optimal at the concentration of 1.25 wt % of gelatin in aqueous phase by addition of 20 µL of glutaraldehyde 5% as the crosslinking agent. The nanoparticles were also characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The best bead free morphology for the PVA/chitosan nanofibrous mats were obtained at the solution weight ratio of 96/4. The nanofibrous mats were analyzed by swelling studies, FTIR and antibacterial tests. In vitro dual release profile of the core-sheath nanofibers was also studied within 72 h and showed the release efficiency equal to 84.69 and 75.13% for lidocaine hydrochloride and erythromycin, respectively. According to release exponent n, the release of lidocaine hydrochloride from the sheath part of the matrix is quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism, while the release of erythromycin is based on anomalous or non-Fickian mechanisms. 10.1002/jbm.a.35529
    The Preparation of Chitosan Oligosaccharide/Alginate Sodium/Gelatin Nanofibers by Spiral-Electrospinning. Lu Weipeng,Xu Haitao,Zhang Bing,Ma Ming,Guo Yanchuan Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology A spiral-electrospinning was used to mass-produce gelatin nanofibers with a content of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and alginate sodium (AS). Multiple jets were observed to form on the edges of the helix slice-spinneret simultaneously. Important electrospinning parameters, such as concentration of COS/gelatin aqueous solution, rotational velocity of spinneret and spinning distance, were examined to investigate the electrospinnability of COS/gelatin solution and the morphology of COS/gelatin nanofiber membranes. Due to the poor miscibility between COS and AS, COS/AS/gelatin nanofiber membranes were obtained from COS/gelatin solution and AS/gelatin solution by mixing electrospinning with multi-spinnerets. The novel needleless electrospinning not only avoided the possibility of nozzle-clogging, but also prepared COS/AS/gelatin nanofibers on a large scale for a wide variety of applications. 10.1166/jnn.2016.10910
    Study on the Electrospinning of Gelatin/Pullulan Composite Nanofibers. Wang Yuanduo,Guo Ziyang,Qian Yongfang,Zhang Zhen,Lyu Lihua,Wang Ying,Ye Fang Polymers In this study, gelatin and pullulan were successfully prepared as a novel type of protein-polysaccharide composite nanofibrous membrane by electrospinning at room temperature with deionized water as the solvent. The effects of gelatin content on the properties of the solution, as well as the morphology of the resultant nanofibers, were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the surface morphology. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the interaction between gelatin and pullulan. Incorporation of pullulan with gelatin will improve the spinnability of the mixed aqueous solution due to lower surface tension. Moreover, the conductivity of the solution had a greater effect on the fiber diameters, and the as-spun fibers became thinner as the viscosity and the surface tension increased due to the addition of the polyelectrolyte gelatin. Gelatin and pullulan formed hydrogen bonds, and the intermolecular hydrogen bonds increased while the intramolecular hydrogen bond decreased, which resulted in better mechanical properties. The electrospun gelatin/pullulan nanofibers could mimic both the structure and the composition of the extracellular matrix, and thus could be applied in tissue engineering. 10.3390/polym11091424
    Electrospun Gelatin Fiber Mats Mixed With C.carandas Extract and its Enhanced Stability and Bioactivity. Rongthong Wiphada,Niamnont Nakorn,Srisuwannaket Choladda,Paradee Nophawan,Mingvanish Withawat Journal of pharmaceutical sciences Crude C. carandas fruits ethanol extract (CCE) constituents important bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamin C. Its biological activities include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, etc. The present work was carried out to study the optimal conditions for fabricating electrospun gelatin fiber mats (GFM) loaded with CCE (CCE-GFM) and to evaluate the release capacity and stability of these bioactive compounds loaded into GFM. The optimal conditions for electrospinning GFM were the electrospinning 30% (w/v) gelatin solution prepared in 25% (v/v) ethanol solution containing 30% (v/v) acetic acid, under the fixed electrostatic field strength of 20 kV and at a distance between noodle tip and ground of 15 cm. The feed rate of an electrospinning solution was 1.5 mL/h. The electrospun gelatin fibers were smooth and continuous under the optimized electrospinning conditions, with an average diameter of 235.69 ± 10.45 nm. Additionally, at the loading of 15% (w/w) CCE in GFM, CCE-GFM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with 88.22 ± 2.62% and the highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity with 38.17 ± 1.86%. Compared with free CCE, CCE-GFM was more thermally stable upon the heating and cooling cycle testing. CCE-GFM had the percent reductions in total contents of phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C togethering with the percent reductions of DPPH scavenging and anti-tyrosinase activities slower than pure CCE had. Furthermore, the drug release efficiency from CCE-GFM of 15% (w/w) CCE loading that was tested using modified Franz diffusion cell in an acetate buffer solution of pH 5.5 was 30%. CCE-GFM has shown the potential to utilize a facial mask sheet containing CCE valuable in high antioxidant activity for cosmetic applications. 10.1016/j.xphs.2020.12.031
    Instant Tissue Repair by Biodegradable PLA/Gelatin Nanofibrous Membrane Using a 3D Printed Handheld Electrospinning Device. Chen Hongrang,Zhang Haitao,Shen Yun,Dai Xingliang,Wang Xuanzhi,Deng Kunxue,Long Xiaoyan,Liu Libiao,Zhang Xinzhi,Li Yongsheng,Xu Tao Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology This study aims to design a 3D printed handheld electrospinning device and evaluate its effect on the rapid repair of mouse skin wounds. The device was developed by Solidworks and printed by Object 350 photosensitive resin printer. The polylactic acid (PLA)/gelatin blend was used as the raw material to fabricate degradable nanofiber scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and water vapor permeability test were used to evaluate the material properties of the scaffolds; cytotoxicity test was performed to evaluate material/residual solvent toxicity, and tissue repair experiments in Balb/c mouse were performed. The 3D printed handheld electrospinning device successfully fabricates PLA/gelatin nanofibrous membrane with uniformly layered nanofibers and good biocompatibility. Animal experiments showed that the mice in the experimental group had complete skin repair. The 3D printed handheld device can achieve repair of full-thickness defects in mouse skin. 10.3389/fbioe.2021.684105