Shuxuening injection facilitates neurofunctional recovery via down-regulation of G-CSF-mediated granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis pathway in a subacute stroke mouse model.
Li Zhixiong,Xiao Guangxu,Lyu Ming,Wang Yule,He Shuang,Du Hongxia,Wang Xintong,Feng Yuxin,Zhu Yan
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Post-stroke neural damage is a serious health concern which does not yet have an effective treatment. We have shown previously that Shuxuening injection (SXNI), a Ginkgo biloba extract-based natural medicine, protects brain after an acute ischemic stroke, but its efficacy for post-stroke recovery is not known. This study was to investigate whether SXNI can improve the prognosis of stroke at a subacute phase. Mice with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) were established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and drugs or saline were injected by the tail vein every 12 h after reperfusion. The therapeutic effect of SXNI was evaluated by survival rate, modified neurologic severity scores (mNSS), open-field test, locomotive gait patterns, cerebral infarction volume, brain edema and histopathological changes. Subsequently, a combined method of RNA-seq and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed to identify key targets and pathways of SXNI facilitating the prognosis of stroke in mouse brain. The results of the transcriptome analysis were verified by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The experimental results showed that in the new subacute stroke model, SXNI markedly improves the survival rate, neurological and motor functions and histopathological changes, and significantly reduces cerebral infarction and edema volume. RNA-seq analysis of subacute stroke mice with or without SXNI (3 mL/kg) indicated 963 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a fold change ≥ 1.5 and a P-value ≤ 0.01. IPA analysis of DEGs showed that granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis ranked first in the pathway ranking, and the most critical gene regulated by SXNI was G-csf. Simultaneously, RT-PCR, ELISA, WB and IHC results demonstrated that SXNI not only obviously reduced the mRNA expression levels of key genes G-csf, Sele and Mac-1 in this pathway, but also significantly decreased the protein expression levels of G-CSF in serum and E-selectin and MAC-1 in brain tissues. In summary, our research suggested that SXNI can exert a remarkable neurofunctional therapeutic effect on stroke mice via down-regulating G-CSF to inhibit granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis. This study provides experimental evidence that SXNI may fulfill the need for stroke medicine targeting specifically at the recovery stage.
Role of Mac-1 integrin in generation of extracellular vesicles with antibacterial capacity from neutrophilic granulocytes.
Lőrincz Ákos M,Bartos Balázs,Szombath Dávid,Szeifert Viktória,Timár Csaba I,Turiák Lilla,Drahos László,Kittel Ágnes,Veres Dániel S,Kolonics Ferenc,Mócsai Attila,Ligeti Erzsébet
Journal of extracellular vesicles
Production of extracellular vesicles (EVs) involved in intercellular communication is a common capacity of most cell types. Upon encountering opsonized microorganisms, neutrophilic granulocytes release EVs that compromise bacterial growth. We carried out a systematic investigation of the involvement of potential opsonin receptors in EV-generation from human and murine neutrophils. Applying flow cytometric, proteomic and functional analysis as well as using genetically modified mice, we demonstrate that formation of antibacterial EVs depends upon stimulation of the multifunctional Mac-1 integrin complex, also called as complement receptor 3 (CR3), whereas activation of immunoglobulin binding Fc receptors or pattern recognition receptors alone or in combination is ineffective. Mac-1/CR3 stimulation and downstream tyrosine kinase signalling affect both the numbers, the cargo content and the antibacterial capacity of the produced vesicles. In contrast, Mac-1/CR3 signalling is not required for spontaneous EV formation, clearly indicating the existence of separate molecular pathways in EV biogenesis. We propose that EVs are "tailor-made" with different composition and functional properties depending on the environmental circumstances.