SiNiSan Ameliorates the Depression-Like Behavior of Rats That Experienced Maternal Separation Through 5-HT1A Receptor/CREB/BDNF Pathway.
Cao Kerun,Shen Chongkun,Yuan Yumei,Bai Shasha,Yang Lei,Guo Lili,Zhang Rong,Shi Yafei
Frontiers in psychiatry
Early adverse life stress is an important dangerous factor in the development of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression. Available clinical antidepressant agents, such as fluoxetine, [a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)], are unsatisfactory because of their side effects. SiNiSan (SNS) is a classic Chinese medicine prescription regarded to disperse stagnated liver qi to relieve qi stagnation. Therefore, this study was designed to detect the effects and molecular mechanism of SNS treatment in rats subjected to maternal separation (MS). Male neonatal Wistar rats were divided into six groups including control + ddHO, MS + ddHO, MS + fluoxetine (5 g/kg), MS + SNS -low dose (2.5 g/kg), MS + SNS -medium dose (5 g/kg), MS + SNS -high dose (10 g/kg). The volume of drugs and ddH2O in each group are according to the weight of rats every day (10 mL/kg). Each group comprised 16 pups with 8 young and 8 adult pups. Except for the control group, all MS groups were separated from their mothers for 4 h/day from 9:00 to 13:00 during postnatal days (PNDs) 1 to 21. After MS, the six groups were intragastrically administered with ddH2O, fluoxetine, and different doses of SNS until PND 28 (for young pups) and PND 56 (for adult pups). The pups were weighed every day, and depression-like behavior was assessed by sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swimming test. Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor, phosphorylated protein kinase A (p-PKA) substrate, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), p-CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were examined by Western blot, and 5-HT1A receptor expression was measured by IHC. Young and adult MS rats exhibited depression-like behavior. However, the depression-like behavior was ameliorated by SNS in both age groups. The levels of 5-HT1A receptor, p-CREB, and BDNF in the hippocampus were reduced in young and adult MS rats. SNS treatment significantly up-regulated the expression of 5-HT1A receptor, p-CREB, and BDNF in the hippocampus of adult MS rats. However, few significant effects on the protein expression were observed in the young MS rats. MS in infancy could develop depression-like behavior in young and adult. SNS treatment may perform antidepressant effects on young and adult MS rats through the BDNF/PKA/CREB pathway.
Early life stress disrupts intestinal homeostasis via NGF-TrkA signaling.
Wong Hoi Leong Xavier,Qin Hong-Yan,Tsang Siu Wai,Zuo Xiao,Che Sijia,Chow Chi Fung Willis,Li Xi,Xiao Hai-Tao,Zhao Ling,Huang Tao,Lin Cheng Yuan,Kwan Hiu Yee,Yang Tao,Longo Frank M,Lyu Aiping,Bian Zhao-Xiang
Early childhood is a critical period for development, and early life stress may increase the risk of gastrointestinal diseases including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In rodents, neonatal maternal separation (NMS) induces bowel dysfunctions that resemble IBS. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that NMS induces expansion of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their differentiation toward secretory lineages including enterochromaffin (EC) and Paneth cells, leading to EC hyperplasia, increased serotonin production, and visceral hyperalgesia. This is reversed by inhibition of nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) signalling, and treatment with NGF recapitulates the intestinal phenotype of NMS mice in vivo and in mouse intestinal organoids in vitro. Mechanistically, NGF transactivates Wnt/β-catenin signalling. NGF and serotonin are positively correlated in the sera of diarrhea-predominant IBS patients. Together, our findings provide mechanistic insights into early life stress-induced intestinal changes that may translate into treatments for gastrointestinal diseases.
Maternal separation modulates short-term behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response.
Litvin Yoav,Tovote Philip,Pentkowski Nathan S,Zeyda Thomas,King Lanikea B,Vasconcellos Amy J,Dunlap Christopher,Spiess Joachim,Blanchard D Caroline,Blanchard Robert J
Hormones and behavior
Early-life stress produces an anxiogenic profile in adulthood, presumably by activating the otherwise quiescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during the vulnerable 'stress hyporesponsive period'. While the long-term effects of such early-life manipulations have been extensively characterized, little is known of the short-term effects. Here, we compared the short-term effects of two durations of maternal separation stress and one unseparated group (US) on behavioral and physiological indices of the stress response in rat pups. Separations included 3h on each of 12days, from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 13 (MS2-13) and 3days of daily, 6-h separation from PND11-13 (MS11-13). On PND14 (Experiment 1), both MS2-13 and MS11-13 produced marked reductions in freezing toward an adult male conspecific along with reduced levels of glucocorticoid type 2 (GR) and CRF type-1 (CRF(1)) receptor mRNA in the hippocampus. Group MS2-13 but not MS11-13 produced deficits in stressor-induced corticosterone secretion, accompanied by reductions in body weight. Our results suggest that GR and/or CRF(1) levels, not solely the magnitude of corticosterone secretion, may be involved in the modulation of freezing. In a second experiment, we aimed to extend these findings by testing male and female separated and unseparated pups' unconditioned defensive behaviors to cat odor on PND26, and subsequent cue+context conditioning and extinction throughout postnatal days 27-32. Our results show that maternal separation produced reductions in unconditioned freezing on PND26, with MS2-13 showing stronger deficits than MS11-13. However, separation did not affect any other defensive behaviors. Furthermore, separated rats failed to show conditioned freezing, although they did avoid the no-odor block conditioned cue. There were no sex differences other than weight. We suggest that maternal separation may have produced these changes by disrupting normal development of hippocampal regions involved in olfactory-mediated freezing, not in mechanisms of learning and memory per se. These findings may have direct relevance for understanding the mechanisms by which early-life adverse experiences produce short-term and lasting psychopathologies.
The effects of neonatal procedural pain and maternal isolation on hippocampal cell proliferation and reelin concentration in neonatal and adult male and female rats.
Timmerman Brian M,Mooney-Leber Sean M,Brummelte Susanne
Preterm births accounted for over 10% of all U.S. live births in 2019 and the rate is rising. Neonatal stressors, especially procedural pain, experienced by preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) have been associated with neurodevelopmental impairments. Parental care can alleviate stress during stressful or painful procedures; however, infants in the NICU often receive reduced parental care compared with their peers. Animal studies suggest that decreased maternal care similarly impairs neurodevelopment but also influences the effects of neonatal pain. It is important to mimic both stressors in animal models of neonatal stress exposure. In this study, researchers investigated the individual and combined impact of neonatal pain and maternal isolation on reelin protein levels and cellular proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of 8 days old and adult rats. Exposure to either stressor individually, but not both, increased reelin levels in the dentate gyrus of adult females without significantly altering reelin levels in adult males. However, cell proliferation levels at either age were unaffected by the early-life stressors. These results suggest that each early-life stressor has a unique effect on markers of brain development and more research is needed to further investigate their distinct influences.