Role of oxidative stress, inflammation, hypoxia and angiogenesis in the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Al-Kharashi Abdullah S
Saudi journal of ophthalmology : official journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal disease which is one of the most severe complications occuring due to diabetes mellitus and is a major cause of blindness. Patients who have diabetes mellitus for number of years develop characteristic group of lesions in the retina which leads to Diabetic retinopathy. It is a multifactorial condition occuring due to complex cellular interactions between biochemical and metabolic abnormalities taking place in all retinal cells. Considerable research efforts in the past 20 years have suggested that the microvasculature of the retina responds to hyperglycemia through a number of biochemical changes, which includes polyol pathway, protein kinase C activation, upregulation of advanced glycation end products formation and renin angiotensin system activation. Various previous studies had suggest that interaction of these biochemical changes may cause a cascade of events, such as apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis which can lead to the damage of a diabetic retina, causing DR. This highlights that oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis-related factors triggers the occurrence of retinal complication in diabetes are highlighted.
Pathological Perturbations in Diabetic Retinopathy: Hyperglycemia, AGEs, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways.
Sahajpal Nikhil Shri,Goel Rajesh Kumar,Chaubey Alka,Aurora Rohan,Jain Subheet Kumar
Current protein & peptide science
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged adults around the world. The proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are the severe vision threatening stages of the disorder. Although, a huge body of research exists in elaborating the pathological mechanisms that lead to the development of DR, the certainty and the correlation amongst these pathways remain ambiguous. The complexity of DR lies in the multifactorial pathological perturbations that are instrumental in both the disease development and its progression. Therefore, a holistic perspective with an understanding of these pathways and their correlation may explain the pathogenesis of DR as a unifying mechanism. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are the crucial components that are implicated in the pathogenesis of DR. Of these, hyperglycemia appears to be the initiating central component around which other pathological processes operate. Thus, this review discusses the role of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of DR, and highlights the cross-talk amongst these pathways in an attempt to understand the complex interplay of these mechanisms. Further, an effort has been made to identify the knowledge gap and the key players in each pathway that may serve as potential therapeutic drug targets.