Epigenetic modification and therapeutic targets of diabetes mellitus.
Singh Rajveer,Chandel Shivani,Dey Dhritiman,Ghosh Arijit,Roy Syamal,Ravichandiran Velayutham,Ghosh Dipanjan
The prevalence of diabetes and its related complications are increasing significantly globally. Collected evidence suggested that several genetic and environmental factors contribute to diabetes mellitus. Associated complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and other cardiovascular complications are a direct result of diabetes. Epigenetic factors include deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation and histone post-translational modifications. These factors are directly related with pathological factors such as oxidative stress, generation of inflammatory mediators and hyperglycemia. These result in altered gene expression and targets cells in the pathology of diabetes mellitus without specific changes in a DNA sequence. Environmental factors and malnutrition are equally responsible for epigenetic states. Accumulated evidence suggested that environmental stimuli alter the gene expression that result in epigenetic changes in chromatin. Recent studies proposed that epigenetics may include the occurrence of 'metabolic memory' found in animal studies. Further study into epigenetic mechanism might give us new vision into the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and related complication thus leading to the discovery of new therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the possible epigenetic changes and mechanism that happen in diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 separately. We highlight the important epigenetic and non-epigenetic therapeutic targets involved in the management of diabetes and associated complications.