A Review on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Linked to the Development of Diabetes Complications.
Babel Rishabh A,Dandekar Manoj P
Current diabetes reviews
Modern lifestyle, changing eating habits and reduced physical work have been known to culminate into making diabetes a global pandemic. Hyperglycemia during the course of diabetes is an important causative factor for the development of both microvascular (retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular (coronary artery disease, stroke and peripheral artery disease) complications. In this article, we summarize several mechanisms accountable for the development of both microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. Several metabolic and cellular events are linked to the augmentation of oxidative stress like the activation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) pathway, polyol pathway, Protein Kinase C (PKC) pathway, Poly-ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) and hexosamine pathway. Oxidative stress also leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) like hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and peroxides. Enhanced levels of ROS rescind the anti-oxidant defence mechanisms associated with superoxide dismutase, glutathione and ascorbic acid. Moreover, ROS triggers oxidative damages at the level of DNA, protein and lipids, which eventually cause cell necrosis or apoptosis. These physiological insults may be related to the microvascular complications of diabetes by negatively impacting the eyes, kidneys and the brain. While underlying pathomechanism of the macrovascular complications is quite complex, hyperglycemia associated atherosclerotic abnormalities like changes in the coagulation system, thrombin formation, fibrinolysis, platelet and endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle are well proven. Since hyperglycemia also modulates the vascular inflammation, cytokines, macrophage activation and gene expression of growth factors, elevated blood glucose level may play a central role in the development of macrovascular complications of diabetes. Taken collectively, chronic hyperglycemia and increased production of ROS are the miscreants for the development of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes.