Oxidative stress and epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
Kowluru Renu A,Kowluru Anjan,Mishra Manish,Kumar Binit
Progress in retinal and eye research
Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of blindness among working age adults. Although a number of metabolic abnormalities have been associated with its development, due to complex nature of this multi-factorial disease, a link between any specific abnormality and diabetic retinopathy remains largely speculative. Diabetes increases oxidative stress in the retina and its capillary cells, and overwhelming evidence suggests a bidirectional relationship between oxidative stress and other major metabolic abnormalities implicated in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Due to increased production of cytosolic reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membranes are damaged and their membrane potentials are impaired, and complex III of the electron transport system is compromised. Suboptimal enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defense system further aids in the accumulation of free radicals. As the duration of the disease progresses, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is damaged and the DNA repair system is compromised, and due to impaired transcription of mtDNA-encoded proteins, the integrity of the electron transport system is encumbered. Due to decreased mtDNA biogenesis and impaired transcription, superoxide accumulation is further increased, and the vicious cycle of free radicals continues to self-propagate. Diabetic milieu also alters enzymes responsible for DNA and histone modifications, and various genes important for mitochondrial homeostasis, including mitochondrial biosynthesis, damage and antioxidant defense, undergo epigenetic modifications. Although antioxidant administration in animal models has yielded encouraging results in preventing diabetic retinopathy, controlled longitudinal human studies remain to be conducted. Furthermore, the role of epigenetic in mitochondrial homeostasis suggests that regulation of such modifications also has potential to inhibit/retard the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Oxidative stress and diabetic retinopathy: Molecular mechanisms, pathogenetic role and therapeutic implications.
Kang Qingzheng,Yang Chunxue
Oxidative stress, a cytopathic outcome of excessive generation of ROS and the repression of antioxidant defense system for ROS elimination, is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, including diabetes and its complications. Retinopathy, a microvascular complication of diabetes, is the primary cause of acquired blindness in diabetic patients. Oxidative stress has been verified as one critical contributor to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Oxidative stress can both contribute to and result from the metabolic abnormalities induced by hyperglycemia, mainly including the increased flux of the polyol pathway and hexosamine pathway, the hyper-activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Moreover, the repression of the antioxidant defense system by hyperglycemia-mediated epigenetic modification also leads to the imbalance between the scavenging and production of ROS. Excessive accumulation of ROS induces mitochondrial damage, cellular apoptosis, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and structural and functional alterations in retina. Therefore, it is important to understand and elucidate the oxidative stress-related mechanisms underlying the progress of diabetic retinopathy. In addition, the abnormalities correlated with oxidative stress provide multiple potential therapeutic targets to develop safe and effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy. Here, we also summarized the main antioxidant therapeutic strategies to control this disease.