Advanced glycation end products and diabetic retinopathy.
Chen M,Curtis T M,Stitt A W
Current medicinal chemistry
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has a complex pathogenesis which is impacted by a raft of systemic abnormalities and tissue-specific alterations occurring in response to the diabetes milieu. Many pathogenic processes play key roles in retinal damage in diabetic patients. One such pathway is the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) which are relevant modifications with roles in the initiation and progression of pathology. In this review, AGE/ALE formation in the diabetic retina is discussed alongside their impact on retinal cell function. In addition, various inhibitors of the AGE-RAGE system and their therapeutic utility for DR will also be evaluated.
Involvement of Advanced Glycation End Products in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy.
Xu Jing,Chen Lin-Jiang,Yu Jian,Wang Han-Jing,Zhang Fan,Liu Qiong,Wu Jing
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common and devastating microvascular complication of diabetes and a major cause of acquired blindness in young adults. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulated under hyperglycemic conditions are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DR. AGEs can exert their deleterious effects by acting directly to induce aberrant crosslinking of extracellular matrix proteins, to increase vascular stiffness, altering vascular structure and function. Moreover, AGEs binding to the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) evokes intensive intracellular signaling cascades that leading to endothelial dysfunction, elaboration of key proinflammatory cytokines and proangiogenic factors, mediating pericyte apoptosis, vascular inflammation and angiogenesis, as well as breakdown of the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB), the end result of all these events is damage to the neural and vascular components of the retina. Elucidation of AGE-induced mechanisms will help in the understanding of the complex cellular and molecular pathogenesis associated with DR. Novel anti-AGEs agents or AGE crosslink "breakers" are being investigated, it is hoped that in next few years, some of these promising therapies will be successfully applied in clinical context, aiming to reduce the major economical and medical burden caused by DR.