Penetrating spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical features and treatment outcomes.
OBJECTIVE:To systematically review the literature on penetrating spinal cord injury (PSCI) and evaluate current management strategies, their impact on patient functional outcomes, and treatment complications. METHODS:PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane were searched based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic-Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to include studies on penetrating spinal cord injury (PSCI). RESULTS:We included 10 articles comprising 1754 cases of PSCI. Mean age was 19.2 years (range, 16-70), and most patients were male (89.9%). Missile spinal cord injury (MSCI) was the most common type, affecting 1623 patients (92.6%), while non-missile spinal cord injury (NMSCI) accounted for only 131 cases (7.4%). Gunshots were the most common cause of MSCI, representing 87.2%, while knife stabs were the most common cause of NMSCI, representing 72.5%. A total of 425 patients (28.0%) underwent surgical intervention, and 1094 (72.0%) underwent conservative management. The conservative group had a higher rate of complete spine cord injury compared with the surgical group (61.5% vs. 49.2; p < 0.001). Although surgery yielded a higher score improvement rate compared with the conservative management (41.5% vs. 20.5%, p < 0.001), neither treatment strategy displayed superiority in improving neurological outcomes for neither complete SCIs (OR:0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.64; I = 44%, p = 0.13) nor for incomplete SCIs (OR:1.15, 95% CI, 0.64-2,06; I = 40%, p = 0.12). CONCLUSION:Surgical and conservative management strategies proved to be equally effective on PSCI, irrespective of injury severity. Therefore, tailored treatment strategies for each patient and careful surgical selection is advised.
Intraoperative ultrasonography in laminectomy for degenerative cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a clinical and radiological evaluation.
BACKGROUND:The incidence of cervical myelopathy due to spinal stenosis is constantly growing in an aging population. Especially in multisegmental disease, dorsal laminectomy is the intervention of choice. Intraoperative imaging with ultrasound might provide additional information about extent and sufficiency of spinal cord decompression. METHODS:In this prospective study, the width of the subarachnoid space was systematically measured by intraoperative ultrasound at predefined sites at the cranial and caudal edge of decompression in axial and sagittal reconstruction. These data were compared with corresponding sites on postoperative T2-weighted MRI imaging. In addition, the functional outcome was assessed by modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score. A historical patient cohort treated without ultrasound-guided laminectomy served as control group. RESULTS:Altogether, 29 patients were included. According to mJOA score at last follow-up, 7/29 patients reported stable symptoms and 21/29 patients showed a substantial benefit with no or minor residual neurological deficits. One patient suffered from a new C5 palsy. Intraoperative ultrasound-guided posterior decompression provided excellent overview in all cases. Measurement of the width of the subarachnoid space acquired by intraoperative ultrasound and postoperative MRI images showed a very high correlation, especially at the cranial level (p < 0.001, r = 0.880). Bland-Altman analysis showed that most patients were within the 1.96 × SD limits of agreement throughout all measurements. No ultrasound procedure-related complications were observed. Compared to a historical cohort of 27 patients, no significant differences were found regarding functional outcome (p = 0.711). CONCLUSION:Intraoperative sonography visualises the surgically achieved restoration of the subarachnoid space in good correlation with postoperative MRI and might serve as a fast, precise and reliable tool for intraoperative imaging in cervical laminectomy. However, we could not demonstrate a clinical benefit with regard to functional outcome.
Predicting the Risk of Postoperative Complications of Schwannoma Surgery: Development and Assessment of a New Predictive Nomogram.
Journal of neurological surgery. Part A, Central European neurosurgery
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to develop and internally validate a risk nomogram for postoperative complications of schwannoma surgery. METHODS: From 2016 to 2020, we reviewed 83 patients who underwent schwannoma resection with a total number of 85 schwannomas. A predictive model was developed based on the dataset of this group. During model construction, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to determine the independent predictors of postoperative complications. Assessment of the discriminative function, calibrating proficiency, and clinical usefulness of the predicting model was performed using C-index, calibration plot, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and decision curve analysis. Internal validation was assessed using bootstrapping validation. RESULTS: Predictors contained in the prediction nomogram included age, tumor location, symptoms, and surgical approach. The model displayed satisfying abilities of discrimination and calibration, with a C-index of 0.901 (95% confidence [CI]: 0.837-0.965). A high C-index value of 0.853 was achieved in the interval verification. Decision curve analysis showed that the nomogram was clinically useful when intervention was decided at the complication possibility threshold of 2%. CONCLUSION: This new risk nomogram for postoperative complications of schwannoma surgery has taken age, tumor location, symptoms, and surgical approach into account. It has reasonable predictive accuracy and can be conveniently used. It shall help patients understand the risk of postoperative complications before surgery, and offer guidance to surgeons in deciding on the surgical approach.
Advancements in our understanding of circular and long non-coding RNAs in spinal cord injury.
Neural regeneration research
Spinal cord injury (SCI), either from trauma or degenerative changes, can result in severe disability and impaired quality of life. Understanding the cellular processes and molecular mechanisms that underlie SCI is imperative to identifying molecular targets for potential therapy. Recent studies have shown that non-coding RNAs, including both long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs), regulate various cellular processes in SCI. In this review, we will describe the changes in lncRNA and circRNA expression that occur after SCI and how these changes may be related to SCI progression. Current evidence for the roles of lncRNAs and circRNAs in neuronal cell death and glial cell activation will also be reviewed. Finally, the possibility that lncRNAs and circRNAs are novel modulators of SCI pathogenesis will be discussed.
The Role of Exosomes and Exosomal Noncoding RNAs From Different Cell Sources in Spinal Cord Injury.
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
Spinal cord injury (SCI) not only affects the quality of life of patients but also poses a heavy burden on their families. Therefore, it is essential to prevent the occurrence of SCI; for unpreventable SCI, it is critical to develop effective treatments. In recent years, various major breakthroughs have been made in cell therapy to protect and regenerate the damaged spinal cord various mechanisms such as immune regulation, paracrine signaling, extracellular matrix (ECM) modification, and lost cell replacement. Nevertheless, many recent studies have shown that the cell therapy has many disadvantages, such as tumorigenicity, low survival rate, and immune rejection. Because of these disadvantages, the clinical application of cell therapy is limited. In recent years, the role of exosomes in various diseases and their therapeutic potential have attracted much attention. The same is true for exosomal noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), which do not encode proteins but affect transcriptional and translational processes by targeting specific mRNAs. This review focuses on the mechanism of action of exosomes obtained from different cell sources in the treatment of SCI and the regulatory role and therapeutic potential of exosomal ncRNAs. This review also discusses the future opportunities and challenges, proposing that exosomes and exosomal ncRNAs might be promising tools for the treatment of SCI.
Evaluation Of Cervical Sagittal Parameters On Supine Magnetic Resonance Imaging In Patients With Chiari I Malformation Without Syringomyelia.
OBJECTIVE:. The current study aimed to assess the effects of tonsillar herniation on cervical alignment in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia using new cervical sagittal alignment parameters, such as C0-2 Cobb angle, C2-7 cobb angle, T1 slope, and C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA). METHODS:Two spinal surgeons independently evaluated midline T2-weighted sagittal magnetic resonance imaging findings of 28 Chiari I patients without syringomyelia and 40 patients without tonsillar herniation but with similar complaints. Thereafter, the measured C0-2 Cobb angle, C2-7 Cobb angle T1 slope, and C2-7 SVA were compared using the t-test. RESULTS:Differences in the mean values for C2-7 Cobb angle, T1 slope, and C2-7 SVA were found between Chiari I patients and those without tonsillar herniation Conclusion: The current study showed that Chiari I patients were less lordotic (kyphotic) compared to subjects without tonsillar herniation.