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    The clinical, structural, and biological features of neovaginas: a comparison of the Frank and the McIndoe techniques. Hayashida Sylvia A,Soares José Maria,Costa Elaine M F,da Fonseca Angela M,Maciel Gustavo A R,Mendonça Berenice B,Baracat Edmund C European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology OBJECTIVE:To compare two methods of neovagina construction, the Frank and McIndoe techniques, in terms of structural and biological aspects. STUDY DESIGN:A total of 55 subjects were included in this retrospective study: 43 underwent the Frank technique (FT) and 12 underwent the McIndoe technique (MT). A clinical evaluation and a comparison of the structural (color, shine, presence of hair, and histology) and biological (bacteriological, pH, and hormonal determinations) features were performed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS:The time to achieve a functional neovagina using the FT was longer than when using the MT (9.8±5.3 versus 5.8±2.9 months) (p=0.01). The neovaginal wall of the MT skin grafts was more rigid and drier, and it did not exhibit a shine in the way that the FT skin grafts did. The lining of the cavity formed by the FT in all subjects was similar to that of vaginal mucosa, whereas the lining formed by the MT persisted as a skin graft in 83.3% of the cases. The pH was lower for the FT (p<0.01), and Döderlein bacilli were present in 90% of the FT neovaginas but absent from the MT neovaginas. In the latter, flora with anaerobic bacteria was present. Hormonal cytology showed estrogen activity in 100% of the FT neovaginas, but there was no such activity in the MT neovaginas. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that the FT may be clinically, structurally, and biologically superior to the MT for the creation of neovaginas and is also less costly. 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.12.025
    Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: A Potential Tool for Treatment of Human Female Reproductive Tract Diseases. Quaranta Gianluca,Sanguinetti Maurizio,Masucci Luca Frontiers in immunology The gastro-intestinal tract is an extensive organ involved in several activities, with a crucial role in immunity. Billions of commensal and transient microorganisms, known as the gut microbiota, and potential pathogens, which are constantly stimulating intestinal immunity, colonize the intestinal epithelial surface. The gut microbiota may be regarded as analogous to a solid organ with multiple different functions. In the last decade, many studies have demonstrated that intestinal bacteria can be a decisive factor in the health-disease balance of the intestine, and they can also be responsible for illnesses in other locations. For this reason, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents an important therapeutic option for infections and hold promise for different clinical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, autism, obesity, and other systemic diseases. FMT consists of the infusion of a fecal suspension from a healthy donor to a recipient in order to restore gut flora alterations. Similar to the gut, the female reproductive tract is an example of a very complex biological ecosystem. Recent studies indicate a possible relationship between the gut and female tract microbiota, associating specific intestinal bacteria patterns with genital female diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). FMT could represent a potential innovative treatment option in this field. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02653