Role of Serotonin in the Maintenance of Inflammatory State in Crohn's Disease.
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal inflammation considered to be a major entity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), affecting different segments of the whole gastrointestinal tract. Peripheral serotonin (5-HT), a bioactive amine predominantly produced by gut enterochromaffin cells (ECs), is crucial in gastrointestinal functions, including motility, sensitivity, secretion, and the inflammatory response. These actions are mediated by a large family of serotonin receptors and specialized serotonin transporter (SERT) located on a variety of cell types in the gut. Several studies indicate that intestinal 5-HT signaling is altered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Paraformaldehyde-fixed intestinal tissues, obtained from fifteen patients with Crohn's disease were analyzed by immunostaining for serotonin, Langerin/CD207, and alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA). As controls, unaffected (normal) intestinal specimens of seven individuals were investigated. This study aimed to show the expression of serotonin in dendritic cells (DCs) and myofibroblast which have been characterized with Langerin/CD207 and α-SMA, respectively; furthermore, for the first time, we have found the presence of serotonin in goblet cells. Our results show the correlation between different types of intestinal cells in the maintenance of the inflammatory state in CD linked to the recall of myofibroblasts.
Beyond a neurotransmitter: The role of serotonin in inflammation and immunity.
Wu Hera,Denna Travis H,Storkersen Jordan N,Gerriets Valerie A
Serotonin (5-HT), a well-known neurotransmitter in the brain, also plays an important role in peripheral tissues, including the immune system. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that many different types of immune cells express the machinery to generate, store, respond to and/or transport serotonin, including T cells, macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells and platelets. In addition, there is emerging evidence of a possible connection between T cells, serotonin and mood disorders. How 5-HT interacts with the peripheral immune system and if this signaling is associated with behavioral phenotypes found in mood disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD) is not well understood. In this review, we summarize the existing literature on what is known about the link between 5-HT and the immune system and the effects of 5-HT signaling on different cells of the peripheral immune system, with a particular focus on T cells. In addition, we review the current evidence that peripheral immune system alterations and CNS function may be interrelated and the possible implications of these findings for drug discovery.