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    Blood-Based Cardiac Biomarkers and the Risk of Cognitive Decline, Cerebrovascular Disease, and Clinical Events. Gyanwali Bibek,Lai Mitchell K P,Lui Benedict,Liew Oi Wah,Venketasubramanian Narayanaswamy,Richards Arthur Mark,Chen Christopher,Hilal Saima Stroke Background and Purpose:Cardiac biomarkers, NT-proBNP (N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide), hs-cTnT (high-sensitivity-cardiac troponin T), and GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor-15) have been proposed as important biomarkers of early vascular pathology. However, little is known of the longitudinal associations of these cardiac biomarkers with cerebrovascular disease and clinical events. We examine the association of blood-based cardiac biomarkers (NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and GDF-15) with cognitive decline, incident cerebrovascular disease, vascular events, and mortality. Methods:Four hundred thirty-four memory-clinic patients provided blood samples at baseline, underwent 3 annual neuropsychological assessments and brain magnetic resonance imaging scans at baseline and follow-up. NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and GDF-15 by quantitative sandwich immunoassay. Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were graded for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, cortical infarcts, and intracranial stenosis. Data on incident vascular events and mortality were obtained. Results:Patients with higher levels of NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT, and GDF-15 showed greater decline in memory domain. Additionally, hs-cTnT was associated with decline in global cognition, executive function, and visuomotor speed. Higher levels of NT-proBNP were associated with incident cerebral microbleeds and hs-cTnT with incident cortical infarcts. During a mean follow-up of 3 years, 26 (5.9%) patients died and 35 (8.1%) developed vascular events. Patients with higher levels of NTpro-BNP and hs-cTnT were at increased risk of vascular events whereas those with higher levels of NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were at risk of mortality. Conclusions:Higher levels of blood-based cardiac biomarkers were associated with decline in memory and risk of vascular events and mortality. Moreover, NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were associated with incident cerebral microbleeds and cortical infarcts. Thus, these biomarkers are potentially useful in identifying patients at risk of adverse vascular events and death. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032571