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    Evaluation of the BISAP scoring system in prognostication of acute pancreatitis - A prospective observational study. Hagjer Sumitra,Kumar Nitesh International journal of surgery (London, England) INTRODUCTION:Severe acute pancreatitis has a high mortality and its early identification is important for management and risk stratification. The bedside index for severity in acute pancreatitis (BISAP) is a simple scoring system done at admission which predicts the severity of pancreatitis. Procalcitonin is an inflammatory marker which is raised very early and helps in early prediction of the severity of disease. This study aims to evaluate the BISAP score and Procalcitonin in prognostication of acute pancreatitis. METHODS:A prospective observational study of 60 patients presenting with acute pancreatitis was done at XXX Medical College and Hospital from July 2015 to June 2016. BISAP, APACHE-II, Ranson criteria, and CT severity index (CTSI) of all patients were calculated. Procalcitonin card test was done for all patients. The patients were stratified according by BISAP score and procalcitonin positivity into categories of severe pancreatitis, organ failure and pancreatic necrosis, as well as the number of deaths. The comparison of BISAP with other scoring systems, Procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), hematocrit, and body mass index (BMI) was done by the area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) to prediction of severe acute pancreatitis, organ failure, necrosis, and death. RESULTS:Of the 60 patients, 14 (23.3%) developed severe acute pancreatitis, 11 (18.3%) Organ failure, 21 (35%) pancreatic necrosis and 7 (11.6%) died. A BISAP score of ≥3 was a statistically significant cutoff value. AUCs for predicting severe pancreatitis and death of BISAP were 0.875 and 0.740respectively, similar to those for Ranson criteria (0.802, 0.763) and APACHE-II (0.891, 0.769) and greater than AUCs for CTSI (0.641, 0.554). The AUC for prediction of organ failure were 0.906, 0.833, 0.874 and 0.623 for BISAP, Ranson criteria, APACHE-II, and CTSI respectively. AUCs for PCT predicting severity, organ failure, and death were 0.940, 0.923 and 0.769 respectively were similar to BISAP but greater than those for CRP (0.755, 0.719, 0.693), hematocrit (0.540, 0.570, 0.550), and BMI (0.493, 0.523, 0.497). CONCLUSION:The BISAP predicts severity, organ failure and death, in acute pancreatitis very well.It is as good as APACHE-II but better than Ranson criteria, CTSI, CRP, hematocrit, and BMI. PCT is a promising inflammatory marker with prediction rates similar to BISAP. 10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.04.026
    The risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis: A retrospective analysis. Zhang Weiwei,Zhang Min,Kuang Zhiming,Huang Zhenfei,Gao Lin,Zhu Jianlong Medicine ABSTRACT:Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is very common in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), the early interventions are essential to the prognosis of SAP patients. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for ARDS in SAP patients, to provide insights into the management of SAP.SAP patients treated in our hospital from June 1, 2018 to May 31, 2020 were included. The characteristics and lab test results were collected and compared, and we conducted the logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the potential risk factors for ARDS in patients with SAP.A total of 281 SAP patients were included finally, the incidence of ARDS in patients with SAP was 30.60%. There were significant differences on the respiratory rate, heart rate, APACHE II and Ranson score between 2 groups (all P < .05). And there were significant differences on the polymorphonuclear, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, albumin and PO2/FiO2 between 2 groups (all P < .05), and no significant differences on the K+, Na+, Ca+, white blood cell, neutrophils, urine and blood amylase, trypsin, lipase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, total bilirubin, fasting blood glucose, and pH were found (all P > .05). Respiratory rate >30/min (odds ratio [OR]: 2.405, 95% confidence interval[CI]: 1.163-4.642), APACHE II score >11 (OR: 1.639, 95% CI: 1.078-2.454), Ranson score >5 (OR: 1.473, 95% CI: 1.145-2.359), polymorphonuclear >14 × 109/L (OR: 1.316, 95% CI: 1.073-2.328), C-reactive protein >150 mg/L (OR: 1.127, 95% CI: 1.002-1.534), albumin ≤30 g/L (OR: 1.113, 95% CI: 1.005-1.489) were the independent risk factors for ARDS in patients with SAP (all P < .05).The incidence of ARDS in SAP patients is relatively high, and it is necessary to carry out targeted early prevention and treatment for the above risk factors. 10.1097/MD.0000000000023982
    Lung complications in acute pancreatitis. Raghu Maruti Govindappa,Wig Jai Dev,Kochhar Rakesh,Gupta Dheeraj,Gupta Rajesh,Yadav Thakur Deen,Agarwal Ritesh,Kudari Ashwini Kumar,Doley Rudra Prasad,Javed Amit JOP : Journal of the pancreas CONTEXT:Severe acute pancreatitis has long been known to be a cause of pulmonary dysfunction and multisystem organ failure. OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the spectrum of pulmonary dysfunction in acute pancreatitis. METHODS:Over a period of one year, 60 patients referred to us with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis on the basis of clinical findings, CT and elevated serum amylase level were studied prospectively. The computed tomography severe index (CTSI) was used to assess the severity of the pancreatitis. Arterial blood gas analysis and chest X-rays were performed in all patients at admission and at intervals, when clinically indicated. RESULTS:The mean age was 42.9+/-15.9 years (range: 18-80 years) and the etiology of the pancreatitis was gallstones in 29 patients, alcohol in 22 patients while no cause could be ascertained in 9. At presentation to our hospital, 48.3% had mild hypoxemia while 18.3% had moderate to severe hypoxemia (PaO2 less than 60 mmHg). The patients who were hypoxemic at presentation had a higher incidence of organ failure during the course of the disease. Pleural effusion at admission was noticed in 50%, atelectasis in 25%, and pulmonary infiltrates in 6.7%. Respiratory failure developed in 48.3% and the mean+/-SD CTSI in these patients was 8.20+/-2.29. Patients with more than 50% necrosis had more pulmonary dysfunction and needed ventilatory support. The development of consolidation during the course of the disease correlated with the occurrence of respiratory failure (P=0.068) but not with mortality (P=0.193). Similarly, the onset of adult respiratory distress syndrome also correlated with respiratory failure (P<0.001) but, unlike consolidation, adult respiratory distress syndrome correlated with mortality (P<0.001). On logistic regression analysis, the development of respiratory failure and other organ dysfunctions were independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION:Our study on patients who were referred to a tertiary care center points out that hypoxemia at presentation predicts a poor outcome which could be due to the high incidence of associated cardiac and renal failure. At presentation, the presence of pleural effusion but not atelectasis and consolidation correlates with the development of respiratory failure and mortality. Among the respiratory complications developing during the course of acute pancreatitis, consolidation and adult respiratory distress syndrome correlate with respiratory failure while adult respiratory distress syndrome alone leads to poor survival.
    Acute respiratory distress syndrome in acute pancreatitis. Shah Jimil,Rana Surinder S Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology Development of organ failure is one of the major determinants of mortality in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an important cause of respiratory failure in AP and is associated with high mortality. Pathogenesis of ARDS in AP is incompletely understood. Release of various cytokines plays an important role in development of ARDS in AP. Increased gut permeability due to various toxins, inflammatory mediators, and pancreatic enzymes potentiates lung injury by gut-lymph-lung axis leading on to increased translocation of bacterial endotoxins. Various scoring systems, serum levels of various cytokines and lung ultrasound have been evaluated for prediction of development of ARDS in AP with varying results. Various drugs have shown encouraging results in prevention of ARDS in animal models but these encouraging results in animal models are yet to be confirmed in clinical studies. There is no specific effective treatment for ARDS. Treatment of sepsis and local complications of AP should be done according to the standard management strategies. Lung protective ventilatory strategies are of paramount importance to improve outcome of patients of AP with ARDS and therefore effective coordination between gastroenterologists and intensivists is needed for effective management of these patients. 10.1007/s12664-020-01016-z
    The effects of fluid resuscitation according to PiCCO on the early stage of severe acute pancreatitis. Sun Yun,Lu Zhong-Hua,Zhang Xin-Shu,Geng Xiao-Ping,Cao Li-Jun,Yin Lu Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.] OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the therapeutic effect of early fluid resuscitation under the guidance of Pulse indicator Continuous Cardiac Output (PiCCO) on patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS:Clinical data of 18 SAP patients (the study group), who had undergone fluid resuscitation under the guidance of PiCCO from October 2011 to October 2013, were analyzed prospectively. Clinical data of 25 cases (control group) who had undergone fluid resuscitation without the guidance of PiCCO from January 2009 to September 2011 were collected. Then, retrospective and prospective case-control study was carried out. RESULTS:During the first 6 h, 0-24 h, 24-48 h, and 0-72 h of admission, the study group received more volume of fluid than the control group. There were significantly faster decline of APACHE II score and the value of blood lactate in study group, as well as the length of ICU stay and the proportion of renal failure at 72 h of admission. According to the 2012 Atlanta classification, six cases in study group turned into moderate SAP (33.30%), significantly higher than the control group (8.00%) (p = 0.0049). The volume of fluid infusion and clinical parameters were linearly relative. CONCLUSIONS:The PiCCO device may be a useful adjunct for fluid resuscitation monitoring in patients with SAP in the early stage. Early fluid resuscitation under the guidance of PiCCO can improve tissue perfusion, reduce the SIRS persistence time and the length of ICU stay. This program did not increase the risk of respiratory failure and influence the mortality. 10.1016/j.pan.2015.06.006