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    Brain, reward, and eating disorders: a matter of taste? Alonso-Alonso Miguel The American journal of psychiatry 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13070932
    Medial prefrontal cortex activity associated with symptom provocation in eating disorders. Uher Rudolf,Murphy Tara,Brammer Michael J,Dalgleish Tim,Phillips Mary L,Ng Virginia W,Andrew Christopher M,Williams Steven C R,Campbell Iain C,Treasure Janet The American journal of psychiatry OBJECTIVE:The authors sought to identify neural correlates of eating disorders in order to contribute to the debate on the genesis and classification of eating disorders and provide endophenotypes for genetic research. METHOD:Twenty-six female patients with eating disorders (10 with bulimia nervosa, 16 with anorexia nervosa) and 19 healthy female comparison subjects matched for age and education were presented with food and aversive emotional images while brain activity was recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS:Women with eating disorders identified the food stimuli as threatening and disgusting. In response to these stimuli, the women with eating disorders had greater activation in the left medial orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices and less activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellum, relative to the comparison group. In addition, women with bulimia nervosa had less activation in the lateral and apical prefrontal cortex, relative to the comparison group. Between-group differences in response to nonspecific emotional stimuli were found in the occipital cortex, parietal cortex, and cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS:A medial prefrontal response to symptom-provoking stimuli was identified as a common feature of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. This finding supports a conceptualization of eating disorders as being transdiagnostic at the neural level. The abnormal prefrontal reaction is associated with symptom-related material, whereas the occipital and cerebellar differences are nonspecific. An abnormal propensity to activate medial prefrontal circuits in response to inappropriate stimuli is common to eating, obsessive-compulsive, and addictive disorders and may account for the compulsive features of behavior in these conditions. 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.7.1238
    Functional disturbances within frontostriatal circuits across multiple childhood psychopathologies. Marsh Rachel,Maia Tiago V,Peterson Bradley S The American journal of psychiatry OBJECTIVE:Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory control processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant development of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psychopathologies. METHOD:The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging evidence for the presence of abnormalities in frontostriatal circuits in children and adults with Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as a more limited number of imaging studies of adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa that, together, implicate dysregulation of frontostriatal control systems in the pathogenesis of these eating disorders. RESULTS:The presence of an impaired capacity for self-regulatory control that derives from abnormal development of frontostriatal circuits likely interacts in similar ways with normally occurring somatic sensations and motor urges, intrusive thoughts, sensations of hunger, and preoccupation with body shape and weight to contribute, respectively, to the development of the tics of Tourette's syndrome, the obsessions of OCD, the binge eating behaviors of bulimia, and the self-starvation of anorexia. CONCLUSIONS:Analogous brain mechanisms in parallel frontostriatal circuits, or even in differing portions of the same frontostriatal circuit, may underlie the differing behavioral disturbances in these multiple disorders, although further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08091354
    Brain imaging studies of appetite in the context of obesity and the menstrual cycle. Van Vugt Dean A Human reproduction update BACKGROUND Obesity affects many aspects of health, including reproduction. Despite unrelenting warnings about the health consequences of obesity, its prevalence continues to rise. Beginning with the discovery of leptin in 1994, the endocrinology of energy homeostasis has been significantly advanced. More recently, brain imaging studies have been providing novel insights into homeostatic and hedonic aspects of human ingestive behavior. METHODS A comprehensive MEDLINE search was conducted on the topic of neuroendocrine control of ingestive behavior with an emphasis on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Additional articles were collected by hand searching the bibliographies of all relevant articles retrieved. RESULTS This review describes recent advances in our understanding of endocrine signals that respond to acute and chronic energy states and regulate ingestive behavior so as to achieve a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Recently published brain imaging studies, describing the neural networks that process endocrine signals of energy state and hedonic cues associated with highly palatable foods, are highlighted. Brain responses to food cues are described in the context of appetite changes during the menstrual cycle both in normal physiology and under the conditions anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of obesity belies the plethora of endocrine signals in place to ensure energy homeostasis. However, satiety signals appear to be counteracted by hedonic signals derived from highly palatable foods typical of today's diet. A better understanding of the interaction between homeostatic and hedonic signals is needed to devise effective strategies for dealing with obesity. Menstrual cycle dependent changes in brain responses to food cues may provide insight into the normal physiological control of ingestive behavior as well as dysfunctional regulation associated with disordered eating. 10.1093/humupd/dmp051
    An FMRI study of self-regulatory control and conflict resolution in adolescents with bulimia nervosa. Marsh Rachel,Horga Guillermo,Wang Zhishun,Wang Pengwei,Klahr Kristin W,Berner Laura A,Walsh B Timothy,Peterson Bradley S The American journal of psychiatry OBJECTIVE:The authors examined functional activity in the frontostriatal systems that mediate self-regulatory capacities and conflict resolution in adolescents with bulimia nervosa. METHOD:Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare blood-oxygen-level-dependent response in 18 female adolescents with bulimia nervosa and 18 healthy female age-matched subjects during performance on a Simon spatial incompatibility task. Bayesian analyses were used to compare the two groups on patterns of brain activation during correct responses to conflict stimuli and to explore the effects of antecedent stimulus context on group differences in self-regulation and conflict resolution. RESULTS:Adolescents with and without bulimia nervosa performed similarly on the task. During correct responses in conflict trials, frontostriatal circuits-including the right inferolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and putamen-failed to activate to the same degree in adolescents with bulimia nervosa as in healthy comparison subjects. Instead, deactivation was seen in the left inferior frontal gyrus as well as a neural system encompassing the posterior cingulate cortex and superior frontal gyrus. Group differences in cortical and striatal regions were driven by the differential responses to stimuli preceded by conflict and nonconflict stimuli, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:When engaging the self-regulatory control processes necessary to resolve conflict, adolescents with bulimia nervosa displayed abnormal patterns of activation in frontostriatal and default-mode systems. Their abnormal processing of the antecedent stimulus context conditioned their brain response to conflict differently from that of healthy comparison subjects, specifically in frontal regions. It is suspected that functional disturbances in frontal portions of frontostriatal systems may release feeding behaviors from regulatory control, thereby perpetuating the conflicting desires to consume fattening foods and avoid weight gain that characterize bulimia nervosa. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11010094
    Distinct functional and structural cerebral abnormalities in eating disorders in the light of diagnostic classification systems. Joos Andreas,Saum Barbara,Hartmann Armin,Tüscher Oliver,Tebartz van Elst Ludger,Zeeck Almut Psychotherapy and psychosomatics 10.1159/000337747
    Alterations in brain structures related to taste reward circuitry in ill and recovered anorexia nervosa and in bulimia nervosa. Frank Guido K,Shott Megan E,Hagman Jennifer O,Mittal Vijay A The American journal of psychiatry OBJECTIVE:The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. The authors assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which may be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. METHOD:The authors used structural MR imaging to study gray and white matter volumes in women with current restricting-type anorexia nervosa (N=19), women recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa (N=24), women with bulimia nervosa (N=19), and healthy comparison women (N=24). RESULTS:All eating disorder groups exhibited increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manual tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and volume predicted taste pleasantness ratings across all groups. Analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories. Antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes were increased on the right side in the anorexia nervosa and recovered anorexia nervosa groups and on the left side in the bulimia nervosa group relative to the healthy comparison group. Dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in the recovered anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa groups and predicted sensitivity to reward in all three eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas relative to the healthy comparison group. The results held when a range of covariates, such as age, depression, anxiety, and medications, were controlled for. CONCLUSION:Brain structure in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12101294
    Altered insula response to sweet taste processing after recovery from anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Oberndorfer Tyson A,Frank Guido K W,Simmons Alan N,Wagner Angela,McCurdy Danyale,Fudge Julie L,Yang Tony T,Paulus Martin P,Kaye Walter H The American journal of psychiatry OBJECTIVE:Recent studies suggest that altered function of higher-order appetitive neural circuitry may contribute to restricted eating in anorexia nervosa and overeating in bulimia nervosa. This study used sweet tastes to interrogate gustatory neurocircuitry involving the anterior insula and related regions that modulate sensory-interoceptive-reward signals in response to palatable foods. METHOD:Participants who had recovered from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were studied to avoid confounding effects of altered nutritional state. Functional MRI measured brain response to repeated tastes of sucrose and sucralose to disentangle neural processing of caloric and noncaloric sweet tastes. Whole-brain functional analysis was constrained to anatomical regions of interest. RESULTS:Relative to matched comparison women (N=14), women recovered from anorexia nervosa (N=14) had significantly diminished and women recovered from bulimia nervosa (N=14) had significantly elevated hemodynamic response to tastes of sucrose in the right anterior insula. Anterior insula response to sucrose compared with sucralose was exaggerated in the recovered group (lower in women recovered from anorexia nervosa and higher in women recovered from bulimia nervosa). CONCLUSIONS:The anterior insula integrates sensory reward aspects of taste in the service of nutritional homeostasis. One possibility is that restricted eating and weight loss occur in anorexia nervosa because of a failure to accurately recognize hunger signals, whereas overeating in bulimia nervosa could represent an exaggerated perception of hunger signals. This response may reflect the altered calibration of signals related to sweet taste and the caloric content of food and may offer a pathway to novel and more effective treatments. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.11111745
    Role of Sexuality in the Outcome of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study. Castellini Giovanni,Lelli Lorenzo,Corsi Elisa,Campone Beatrice,Ciampi Eleonora,Fisher Alessandra D,Mallardo Luca,Monteleone Alessio Maria,Rotella Francesco,Tofani Tommaso,Vignozzi Linda,Zamponi Francesco,Maggi Mario,Ricca Valdo Psychotherapy and psychosomatics 10.1159/000477176
    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders. Agras W Stewart,Bohon Cara Annual review of clinical psychology Research findings strongly suggest that cognitive behavioral therapy for the eating disorders (CBT-ED) is more effective than other treatments for bulimia nervosa (BN) and for binge eating disorder (BED), although interpersonal psychotherapy appears to be equally effective for BED. Evidence for the effectiveness of CBT-ED for the persistent (adult) form of anorexia nervosa (AN) is insufficient at present and is essentially absent for AN in adolescents except for some evidence from uncontrolled trials. This article begins with an overview of the early studies in the development of CBT-ED that showed a similar effectiveness of other symptom-focused psychotherapies-a finding that was neglected at the time. Later developments are then considered, including comparisons of CBT-ED with other psychotherapies, efforts to develop Internet-based training and treatment, and electronic applications for treatment. Finally, implications of the findings for future short- and long-term research and for clinical practice are considered. 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-081219-110907
    Characterising binge eating over the course of a feasibility trial among individuals with binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Chami Rayane,Reichenberger Julia,Cardi Valentina,Lawrence Natalia,Treasure Janet,Blechert Jens Appetite Binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa are eating disorders that are characterized by recurrent binge eating episodes. The highly contextualized nature of binge eating makes naturalistic research a particularly suitable means of understanding the context within which binge eating occurs. The present study aimed to characterise binge eating days with regards to the frequency and probability of negative affect, food craving, meal skipping, and dietary restriction. In addition, it aimed to examine whether a combined intervention that targets the experience of 'loss of control' over eating can decrease these potential maintenance factors that often precede binge eating episodes. Seventy-eight participants with bulimia nervosa (N = 40) or binge eating disorder (n = 38), who were randomly allocated to a food-specific or general intervention combining inhibitory control training and implementation intentions, completed mood and food diaries over four weeks. Results suggest that negative affect and food craving were elevated on binge eating days, but that dietary restraint and meal skipping did not characterise binge eating days. Moreover, meal skipping, binge eating, restriction, and compensation decreased throughout the intervention period, while negative affect and food craving did not. This suggests that some interventions may successfully reduce binge eating frequency without necessarily decreasing negative affect or food craving, thus pointing to the different routes to targeting binge eating and providing implications for future interventions. 10.1016/j.appet.2021.105248
    Preoccupation in bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, and higher weight. Lydecker Janet A,Simpson Lauren,Smith Shannon R,White Marney A,Grilo Carlos M The International journal of eating disorders OBJECTIVE:Preoccupation (excessive and constant thoughts) about shape/weight and food/eating is thought to be prominent in individuals with eating disorders but has received much less research than overt behavioral features. This study examined the significance and distinctiveness of different foci of preoccupation in individuals categorized with different forms of eating disorders and in individuals with higher weight. METHOD:Participants (N = 1,363) completed a web-based survey with established measures of eating-disorder psychopathology and depression. The current study compared preoccupation among individuals with core features of bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 144), binge-eating disorder (BED; n = 576), anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 48), and higher body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25) without eating-disorder features (higher weight [HW]; n = 595). Associations of each type of preoccupation with other eating-disorder psychopathology and depression were examined both between and within study groups. RESULTS:Preoccupation with shape/weight and with food/eating showed a graded pattern of statistically significant differences: AN and BN had higher preoccupation than BED, which was higher than HW. Within BN, BED, and AN study groups, correlation magnitudes of shape/weight and food/eating preoccupation with eating-disorder psychopathology and depression did not differ significantly. Within the HW group, shape/weight preoccupation was significantly more strongly correlated than food/eating preoccupation with overvaluation, body dissatisfaction, and depression. DISCUSSION:The preoccupation cognitive style, as well as focus, appears associated with other facets of eating-disorder psychopathology and depression. If results are confirmed among individuals with formal diagnoses, clinicians addressing maladaptive cognitions in cognitive-behavioral therapy should consider the role of preoccupation. Future research should investigate whether preoccupation predicts or moderates eating disorder treatment outcomes. 10.1002/eat.23630
    Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy added to usual care improves eating behaviors in patients with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder by decreasing the cognitive load of words related to body shape, weight, and food. Sala L,Gorwood P,Vindreau C,Duriez P European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists BACKGROUND:This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as a complementary approach in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED), and to assess how the reduction of the cognitive load of words related to eating disorders (ED) could constitute an intermediate factor explaining its global efficacy. METHODS:Eighty-eight women and men participated in clinical assessments upon inscription, prior to and following 8-week group MBCT. Mindfulness skills were assessed using the five facet mindfulness questionnaire; eating behaviors were assessed using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ); comorbid pathologies were assessed using the beck depression index and the state-trait anxiety inventory. The cognitive load of words associated with ED was assessed through a modified version of the Stroop color naming task. RESULTS:Mindfulness skills improved significantly (p < .05) after group MBCT. The improvement of TFEQ scores was accompanied by reduced levels of depressive mood and trait anxiety. The positive impact of MBCT on TFEQ score was directly related to an improvement of the performance in the Stroop task. CONCLUSIONS:MBCT represents an interesting complementary therapy for patients with either BN or BED, at least when cognitive and behavioral domains are concerned. Such efficacy seems to be mediated by the reduction of the cognitive load associated with ED stimuli, which offers a possible explanation of how MBCT could reduce binge-eating behaviors. Other studies are needed, in independent centers, to focus more directly on core symptoms and long-term outcome. 10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.2242
    Recent Research on Bulimia Nervosa. Wade Tracey D The Psychiatric clinics of North America Estimates of lifetime bulimia nervosa (BN) range from 4% to 6.7% across studies. There has been a decrease in the presentation of BN in primary care but an increase in disordered eating not meeting full diagnostic criteria. Regardless of diagnostic status, disordered eating is associated with long-term significant impairment to both physical and mental quality of life, and BN is associated with a significantly higher likelihood of self-harm, suicide, and death. Assessment should adopt a motivationally enhancing stance given the high level of ambivalence associated with BN. Cognitive behavior therapy specific to eating disorders outperforms other active psychological comparisons. 10.1016/j.psc.2018.10.002
    Comorbid depressive symptoms and self-esteem improve after either cognitive-behavioural therapy or family-based treatment for adolescent bulimia nervosa. Valenzuela Fabiola,Lock James,Le Grange Daniel,Bohon Cara European eating disorders review : the journal of the Eating Disorders Association This study examined the effect of family-based treatment for bulimia nervosa (FBT-BN) and cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents (CBT-A) on depressive symptoms and self-esteem in adolescents with BN. Data were collected from 110 adolescents, ages 12-18, who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, text revision criteria for BN or partial BN. Participants were randomly assigned to FBT-BN or CBT-A and completed measures of depressive symptoms and self-esteem before and after treatment and at 6- and 12-month follow-up assessments. Depressive symptoms and self-esteem significantly improved in both treatments, and neither treatment appeared superior on these clinical outcomes. Parents often worry whether FBT-BN addresses comorbid depressive symptoms and low self-esteem. Our findings address this concern, as they demonstrate that FBT-BN does not differ from CBT-A in improving depressive symptoms and self-esteem, and both treatments result in symptom improvement. These findings can help clinicians guide families to choose a treatment that addresses BN and depressive symptoms and low self-esteem. 10.1002/erv.2582
    Rapid improvements in emotion regulation predict intensive treatment outcome for patients with bulimia nervosa and purging disorder. MacDonald Danielle E,Trottier Kathryn,Olmsted Marion P The International journal of eating disorders OBJECTIVE:Rapid and substantial behavior change (RSBC) early in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for eating disorders is the strongest known predictor of treatment outcome. Rapid change in other clinically relevant variables may also be important. This study examined whether rapid change in emotion regulation predicted treatment outcomes, beyond the effects of RSBC. METHOD:Participants were diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or purging disorder (N = 104) and completed ≥6 weeks of CBT-based intensive treatment. Hierarchical regression models were used to test whether rapid change in emotion regulation variables predicted posttreatment outcomes, defined in three ways: (a) binge/purge abstinence; (b) cognitive eating disorder psychopathology; and (c) depression symptoms. Baseline psychopathology and emotion regulation difficulties and RSBC were controlled for. RESULTS:After controlling for baseline variables and RSBC, rapid improvement in access to emotion regulation strategies made significant unique contributions to the prediction of posttreatment binge/purge abstinence, cognitive psychopathology of eating disorders, and depression symptoms. DISCUSSION:Individuals with eating disorders who rapidly improve their belief that they can effectively modulate negative emotions are more likely to achieve a variety of good treatment outcomes. This supports the formal inclusion of emotion regulation skills early in CBT, and encouraging patient beliefs that these strategies are helpful. 10.1002/eat.22766
    Randomized Clinical Trial of Family-Based Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Bulimia Nervosa. Le Grange Daniel,Lock James,Agras W Stewart,Bryson Susan W,Jo Booil Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry OBJECTIVE:There is a paucity of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). Prior studies suggest cognitive-behavioral therapy adapted for adolescents (CBT-A) and family-based treatment for adolescent bulimia nervosa (FBT-BN) could be effective for this patient population. The objective of this study was to compare the relative efficacy of these 2 specific therapies, FBT-BN and CBT-A. In addition, a smaller participant group was randomized to a nonspecific treatment (supportive psychotherapy [SPT]), whose data were to be used if there were no differences between FBT-BN and CBT-A at end of treatment. METHOD:This 2-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial included 130 participants (aged 12-18 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for BN or partial BN (binge eating and purging once or more per week for 6 months). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, end of treatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. Treatments involved 18 outpatient sessions over 6 months. The primary outcome was defined as abstinence from binge eating and purging for 4 weeks before assessment, using the Eating Disorder Examination. RESULTS:Participants in FBT-BN achieved higher abstinence rates than in CBT-A at end of treatment (39% versus 20%; p = .040, number needed to treat [NNT] = 5) and at 6-month follow-up (44% versus 25%; p = .030, NNT = 5). Abstinence rates between these 2 groups did not differ statistically at 12-month follow-up (49% versus 32%; p = .130, NNT = 6). CONCLUSION:In this study, FBT-BN was more effective in promoting abstinence from binge eating and purging than CBT-A in adolescent BN at end of treatment and 6-month follow-up. By 12-month follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 treatments. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION:Study of Treatment for Adolescents With Bulimia Nervosa; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00879151. 10.1016/j.jaac.2015.08.008
    EEG Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents With Feeding and Eating Disorders: Current Evidence and Future Directions. Frontiers in psychiatry Introduction:Electroencephalography (EEG) represents a powerful tool to detect abnormal neural dynamics in child and adolescent psychiatry. Feeding and Eating Disorders (FEDs), such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) onset in childhood and adolescence. EEG has rarely been used to examine cortical brain activity in children and adolescents with FEDs. This review aims to summarize EEG findings in FEDs amongst children and adolescents, and to highlight areas deserving further research. Methods:We searched the literature for EEG studies on children and adolescents with FEDs using Google Scholar, PsycINFO, Medline, and PubMed. Results:Twelve studies were identified, the majority focusing on AN ( = 10). The identified studies suggest reduced action monitoring control (preparatory waves, N200, P300), specific perceptual-cognitive styles to body/face perception (late positive potentials/early posterior negativity), as well as fundamental changes in posterior theta oscillations in AN. Behavioral traits of BN/BED (i.e., loss of control eating, emotional eating), and AN seem to be associated with an increased attentional reactivity (P300) to visual food stimuli. Conclusion:Electroencephalography research in children and adolescents with FEDs is limited and mostly focused on AN. While EEG abnormalities seem consistent with a reduced top-down control and attentional allocation deficits in AN, altered attention specific to food cues emerges across FEDs. Overcoming conventional EEG analyses, and investigating spatial properties (i.e., electrical neuroimaging), will enhance our understanding of FEDs neurobiology. 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.882358
    Mood-induced changes in the cortical processing of food images in bulimia nervosa. Lutz Annika P C,Dierolf Angelika,van Dyck Zoé,Georgii Claudio,Schnepper Rebekka,Blechert Jens,Vögele Claus Addictive behaviors BACKGROUND:Negative mood often triggers binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN). We investigated motivational salience as a possible underlying mechanism using event-related potentials (ERPs) as indicators of motivated attention allocation (P300) and sustained processing (LPP). METHODS:We collected ERPs (P300: 350-400 ms; LPP: 600-1000 ms) from 21 women with full-syndrome or partially remitted BN and 21 healthy women (HC), matched for age and body mass index. Idiosyncratic negative and neutral situations were used to induce corresponding mood states (counterbalanced), before participants viewed images of high- and low-calorie foods and neutral objects, and provided ratings for pleasantness and desire to eat. RESULTS:P300 was larger for foods than objects; LPP was largest for high-calorie foods, followed by low-calorie foods, then objects. The BN group showed an increased desire to eat high-calorie foods under negative mood and stronger mood induction effects on ERPs than the HC group, with generally reduced P300 and a small increase in LPP for high-calorie foods. Effects were limited to circumscribed electrode positions. Exploratory analyses showed clearer effects when comparing high vs. low emotional eaters. CONCLUSION:We argue that negative mood decreased the availability of cognitive resources (decreased P300) in BN, thereby facilitating disinhibition and food cravings (increased desire-to-eat ratings). Increased sustained processing might be linked to emotional eating tendencies rather than BN pathology per se, and reflect approach motivation, conflict, or regulatory processes. Negative mood appears to induce complex changes in food image processing, whose understanding may contribute to the development of tailored interventions in the future. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106712
    Electrophysiological evidence for an attentional bias in processing body stimuli in bulimia nervosa. Mai Sandra,Gramann Klaus,Herbert Beate M,Friederich Hans-Christoph,Warschburger Petra,Pollatos Olga Biological psychology Empirical evidence suggests abnormalities in the processing of body stimuli in bulimia nervosa (BN). This study investigated central markers of processing body stimuli by means of event-related potentials in BN. EEG was recorded from 20 women with BN and 20 matched healthy controls while watching and evaluating underweight, normal and overweight female body pictures. Bulimics evaluated underweight bodies as less unpleasant and overweight bodies as bigger and more arousing. A higher P2 to overweight stimuli occurred in BN only. In contrast to controls, no N2 increase to underweight bodies was observed in BN. P3 was modulated by stimulus category only in healthy controls; late slow waves to underweight bodies were more pronounced in both groups. P2 amplitudes to overweight stimuli were correlated with drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. We present novel support for altered perceptual and cognitive-affective processing of body images in BN on the subjective and electrophysiological level. 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.03.013
    Resting-state synchrony between anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus relates to body shape concern in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Lee Seojung,Ran Kim Kyung,Ku Jeonghun,Lee Jung-Hyun,Namkoong Kee,Jung Young-Chul Psychiatry research Cortical areas supporting cognitive control and salience demonstrate different neural responses to visual food cues in patients with eating disorders. This top-down cognitive control, which interacts with bottom-up appetitive responses, is tightly integrated not only in task conditions but also in the resting-state. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key node of a large-scale network that is involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity of the dACC and hypothesized that altered connectivity would be demonstrated in cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity was analyzed in women with anorexia nervosa (N=18), women with bulimia nervosa (N=20) and age matched healthy controls (N=20). Between group comparisons revealed that the anorexia nervosa group exhibited stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and retrosplenial cortex, whereas the bulimia nervosa group showed stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Both groups demonstrated stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and precuneus, which correlated with higher scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire. The dACC-precuneus resting-state synchrony might be associated with the disorder-specific rumination on eating, weight and body shape in patients with eating disorders. 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2013.11.004