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    Noninvasive Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Using Circulating Tumor Cells. Xu Lei,Mao Xueying,Grey Alistair,Scandura Glenda,Guo Tianyu,Burke Edwina,Marzec Jacek,Abdu Semah,Stankiewicz Elzbieta,Davies Caitlin R,Rajan Prabhakar,Tipples Karen,Hines John,Chan Pui Ying,Campbell Diane,Wilkinson Karen,Kudahetti Sakunthala,Shamash Jonathan,Oliver Tim,Berney Daniel,Shaw Greg,Lu Yong-Jie The Journal of urology PURPOSE:Prostate specific antigen testing results in unnecessary biopsy and over diagnosis with consequent overtreatment. Tissue biopsy is an invasive procedure associated with significant morbidity. More accurate noninvasive or minimally invasive diagnostic approaches should be developed to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy and over diagnosis. We investigated the potential of using circulating tumor cell analysis in cancer diagnosis, particularly to predict clinically significant prostate cancer in prebiopsy cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We enrolled 155 treatment naïve patients with prostate cancer and 98 before biopsy for circulating tumor cell enumeration. RNA was extracted from circulating tumor cells of 184 patients for gene expression analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman rank tests, multivariate logistic regression and the random forest method were applied to assess the association of circulating tumor cells with aggressive prostate cancer. RESULTS:Of patients with localized prostate cancer 54% were scored as having positive circulating tumor cells, which was associated with a higher Gleason score (p=0.0003), risk group (p <0.0001) and clinically significant prostate cancer (p <0.0001). In the prebiopsy group a positive circulating tumor cell score combined with prostate specific antigen predicted clinically significant prostate cancer (AUC 0.869). A 12-gene panel prognostic for clinically significant prostate cancer was also identified. When combining the prostate specific antigen level, the circulating tumor cell score and the 12-gene panel, the AUC of clinically significant prostate cancer prediction was 0.927. Adding those data to cases with available multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging data significantly increased prediction accuracy (AUC 0.936 vs 0.629). CONCLUSIONS:Circulating tumor cell analysis has the potential to significantly improve patient stratification by prostate specific antigen and/or multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for biopsy and treatment. 10.1097/JU.0000000000000475
    Identification and Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells in Men Who have Undergone Prostatectomy for Clinically Localized, High Risk Prostate Cancer. Friedlander Terence W,Welty Christopher,Anantharaman Archana,Schonhoft Joseph D,Jendrisak Adam,Lee Jerry,Li Patricia,Hough Jeffrey,Stromlund Alise,Edwards Matthew,Sangar Sophia,Kobayashi Yasuko,Simko Jeffry,Farrokhian Nathan,Lindquist Karla,Greene Stephanie,Ontiveros Priscilla,Graf Ryon,Rodriquez Angel,Suraneni Mahipal,Wang Yipeng,Landers Mark,Carroll Peter,Cooperberg Matthew R,Dittamore Ryan,Paris Pamela L The Journal of urology PURPOSE:Approximately 15% of men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer have high risk features which increase the risk of recurrence and metastasis. Better predictive biomarkers could allow for earlier detection of biochemical recurrence and change surveillance and adjuvant treatment paradigms. Circulating tumor cells are thought to represent the earliest form of metastases. However, their role as biomarkers in men with high risk, localized prostate cancer is not well defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two to 5 months after prostatectomy we obtained blood samples from 37 patients with high risk, localized prostate cancer, defined as stage T3a or higher, Gleason score 8 or greater, or prostate specific antigen 20 ng/ml or greater. Circulating tumor cells were enumerated using a commercial platform. Matched tumor and single circulating tumor cell sequencing was performed. RESULTS:Circulating tumor cells were detected in 30 of 37 samples (81.1%) with a median of 2.4 circulating tumor cells per ml (range 0 to 22.9). Patients with detectable circulating tumor cells showed a trend toward shorter recurrence time (p=0.12). All patients with biochemical recurrence had detectable circulating tumor cells. Androgen receptor over expression was detected in 7 of 37 patients (18.9%). Patients with biochemical recurrence had more circulating tumor cell copy number aberrations (p=0.027). Matched tumor tissue and single circulating tumor cell sequencing revealed heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS:We noted a high incidence of circulating tumor cell detection after radical prostatectomy and shorter time to biochemical recurrence in men with a higher circulating tumor cell burden and more circulating tumor cell copy number aberrations. Genomic alterations consistent with established copy number aberrations in prostate cancer were detectable in circulating tumor cells but often discordant with cells analyzed in bulk from primary lesions. With further testing in appropriately powered cohorts early circulating tumor cell detection could be an informative biomarker to assist with adjuvant treatment decisions. 10.1097/JU.0000000000000393
    Association between Postoperative Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells and Recurrence in Patients with Prostate Cancer. Pak Sahyun,Suh Yoon Seok,Lee Dong-Eun,Kim Sung Han,Joung Jae Young,Park Weon Seo,Lee Sang-Jin,Lee Kang Hyun The Journal of urology PURPOSE:The clinical implications of postoperative detection of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer are largely unknown. We investigated the association between postoperative circulating tumor cell detection after radical prostatectomy and disease recurrence in prospectively enrolled patients with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 203 patients with an undetectable prostate specific antigen who had undergone radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Circulating tumor cell sampling was performed at a median of 4.5 months after surgery. The primary end point was biochemical recurrence-free survival. Detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood of patients was performed using a novel approach with a replication-competent adenovirus controlled by prostate specific antigen/prostate specific membrane antigen transcription regulatory elements (Ad5/35E1aPSESE4). RESULTS:Circulating tumor cells were detected in 73 (36.0%) patients with undetectable prostate specific antigen concentrations after surgery. The 3-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate from the time of surgery was significantly higher in circulating tumor cell-negative than in circulating tumor cell-positive cases (81.6% vs 48.9%, log rank p <0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that postoperative circulating tumor cell detection was independently associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (HR 5.42, 95% CI 3.24-9.06, p <0.001). C-index was increased in combinations of multivariable model and postoperative circulating tumor cell detection compared with the multivariable model alone. CONCLUSIONS:Circulating tumor cells in the blood were frequently detected in patients with undetectable prostate specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. Furthermore, circulating tumor cell detection was associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence, suggesting that circulating tumor cell detection precedes prostate specific antigen rise after surgery in cases of prostate cancer recurrence. Large-scale validation is needed in the future. 10.1097/JU.0000000000000704
    Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule: An Anchor to Isolate Clinically Relevant Circulating Tumor Cells. Eslami-S Zahra,Cortés-Hernández Luis Enrique,Alix-Panabières Catherine Cells In the last few decades, the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has received increased attention as the main membrane marker used in many enrichment technologies to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Although there has been a great deal of progress in the implementation of EpCAM-based CTC detection technologies in medical settings, several issues continue to limit their clinical utility. The biology of EpCAM and its role are not completely understood but evidence suggests that the expression of this epithelial cell-surface protein is crucial for metastasis-competent CTCs and may not be lost completely during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In this review, we summarize the most significant advantages and disadvantages of using EpCAM as a marker for CTC enrichment and its potential biological role in the metastatic cascade. 10.3390/cells9081836
    Using single-cell sequencing technology to detect circulating tumor cells in solid tumors. Xu Jiasheng,Liao Kaili,Yang Xi,Wu Chengfeng,Wu Wei,Han Shuwen Molecular cancer Circulating tumor cells are tumor cells with high vitality and high metastatic potential that invade and shed into the peripheral blood from primary solid tumors or metastatic foci. Due to the heterogeneity of tumors, it is difficult for high-throughput sequencing analysis of tumor tissues to find the genomic characteristics of low-abundance tumor stem cells. Single-cell sequencing of circulating tumor cells avoids interference from tumor heterogeneity by comparing the differences between single-cell genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenetic groups among circulating tumor cells, primary and metastatic tumors, and metastatic lymph nodes in patients' peripheral blood, providing a new perspective for understanding the biological process of tumors. This article describes the identification, biological characteristics, and single-cell genome-wide variation in circulating tumor cells and summarizes the application of single-cell sequencing technology to tumor typing, metastasis analysis, progression detection, and adjuvant therapy. 10.1186/s12943-021-01392-w