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    A Novel Formononetin Derivative Promotes Anti-ischemic Effects on Acute Ischemic Injury in Mice. Zhao Lin,Han Jing,Liu Jiaqi,Fan Kechen,Yuan Tianjie,Han Ju,Chen Liangliang,Zhang Sen,Zhao Ming,Duan Jinao Frontiers in microbiology Natural flavonoids, formononetin and ononin, possess antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Many complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 make patients difficult to recover. Flavonoids, especially formononetin and ononin, have the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 and improve myocardial injury. However, their poor water solubility, poor oral absorption, high toxicity, and high-cost purification limit industrial practical application. Succinylation modification provides a solution for the above problems. Formononetin-7--β-(6″--succinyl)-D-glucoside (FMP), a new compound, was succinyl glycosylated from formononetin by the organic solvent tolerant bacteria FJ18 in a 10.0% DMSO (v/v) system. The water solubility of the new compound was improved by over 106 times compared with formononetin, which perfectly promoted the application of formononetin and ononin. The conversion rate of formononetin (0.5 g/L) was almost 94.2% at 24 h, while the yield of formononetin-7--β-(6″--succinyl)-D-glucoside could achieve 97.2%. In the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute ischemia mice model, the myocardial injury was significantly improved with a high dose (40 mg/kg) of formononetin-7--β-(6″--succinyl)-D-glucoside. The lactate dehydrogenase level was decreased, and the catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were increased after formononetin-7--β-(6″--succinyl)-D-glucoside treatment. Thus, formononetin-7--β-(6″--succinyl)-D-glucoside has high water solubility, low toxicity, and shows significant antimyocardial ischemia effects. 10.3389/fmicb.2021.786464
    Formononetin protects against inflammation associated with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by targeting the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie BACKGROUND:Formononetin is a type of phytoestrogen obtained from the Chinese medical herb Red Clover. It exhibits anti-neoplastic hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of formononetin in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been reported. OBJECTIVE:To explore the potential mechanism of action of formononetin in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury with regard to the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. METHODS:Male SD rats were used to establish a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and randomly divided into 5 groups: Sham, MCAO, JAK2 Inhibitor (Ag490), Formononetin, Inhibitor + Formononetin. The protective effect of formononetin in MCAO rats was detected by performing neurological deficit testing, TTC staining, H&E staining, Nissl staining, ELISA, RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. RESULTS:Formononetin significantly alleviated the neurological deficit and the pathological state of brain tissues, and reduced the volume of cerebral infarction, levels of IL-18 and TNF-α inflammatory factors in plasma, mRNA levels of IL-6 and IL-1β in rat brain tissue, and the protein levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, NLRP3, ASC, cl-Caspase-1, and cl-IL-1β in the MCAO rat brain tissue. CONCLUSION:Formononetin has anti-inflammatory effects. It may inhibit the relevant targets in the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway, thereby having a certain protective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. 10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112836
    Plant Natural Product Formononetin Protects Rat Cardiomyocyte H9c2 Cells against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation and Reoxygenation via Inhibiting ROS Formation and Promoting GSK-3β Phosphorylation. Cheng Yuanyuan,Xia Zhengyuan,Han Yifan,Rong Jianhui Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is a major cause of cell death in ischemia reperfusion injury. Based on our pilot experiments, plant natural product formononetin enhanced the survival of rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells during oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation. For mechanistic studies, we focused on two major cellular factors, namely, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), in the regulation of mPTP opening. We found that formononetin suppressed the formation of ROS and superoxide in a concentration-dependent manner. Formononetin also rescued OGD/reoxygenation-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. Further studies suggested that formononetin induced Akt activation and GSK-3β (Ser9) phosphorylation, thereby reducing GSK-3β activity towards mPTP opening. PI3K and PKC inhibitors abolished the effects of formononetin on mPTP opening and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed that formononetin increased the binding of phosphor-GSK-3β to adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) while it disrupted the complex of ANT with cyclophilin D. Moreover, immunofluorescence revealed that phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) was mainly deposited in the space between mitochondria and cell nucleus. Collectively, these results indicated that formononetin protected cardiomyocytes from OGD/reoxygenation injury via inhibiting ROS formation and promoting GSK-3β phosphorylation. 10.1155/2016/2060874
    Formononetin may protect aged hearts from ischemia/reperfusion damage by enhancing autophagic degradation. Huang Zhengxin,Liu Yingfeng,Huang Xianping Molecular medicine reports Myocardial infarction is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, and timely blood/oxygen reperfusion may substantially improve the outcome of infarction. However, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) may cause severe side effects through excess reactive oxygen species generation. To develop novel methods to relieve I/R induced cell damage, the present study used a component of traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, isolated heart tissue from aged mice and H9C2 cells with chemically‑induced aging were used as experimental subjects, and it was demonstrated that formononetin was able to alleviate I/R‑induced cell or tissue apoptosis. By applying formononetin to I/R‑damaged tissue or cells, it was demonstrated that formononetin was able to enhance autophagy and thus alleviate I/R‑induced cell damage. Furthermore, it was observed that I/R was able to inhibit lysosomal degradation processes in aged tissues or cells by impairing the lysosome acidification level, and formononetin was able to reverse this process via the re‑acidification of lysosomes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that formononetin was able to alleviate I/R‑induced cellular apoptosis in aged cells by facilitating autophagy. 10.3892/mmr.2018.9544
    Formononetin ameliorates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats by suppressing the ROS-TXNIP-NLRP3 pathway. Wang Dan-Shu,Yan Liu-Yan,Yang De-Zhi,Lyu Yang,Fang Lian-Hua,Wang Shou-Bao,Du Guan-Hua Biochemical and biophysical research communications Formononetin (FN), a methoxy isoflavone abundant in many plants and herbs, has been evidently proven to possess multiple medicinal properties. Our study aimed to clarify the impact of FN on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (MIRI) and the involved mechanism. A rat model of MIRI was produced by ligation and loosening of the left anterior descending (LAD) branch of the coronary artery. Rats received 10 and 30 mg/kg of FN when the reperfusion started. At 24 h after surgery, cardiac function, infarct size, and sera levels of the cardiac markers and inflammatory mediators were measured. To mimic the inflammasome activation in cardiomyocytes, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) were cultured and treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus nigericin. Cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined. Myocardial expression and activation of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in rats were examined by western blotting. The level of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP)-NLRP3 interaction was assessed. FN notably attenuated cardiac dysfunction, infarct size, release of cardiac markers, and elevation of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. FN alleviated LPS plus nigericin-induced injury and ROS increase in NRCMs. Western blotting revealed that FN suppressed the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and TXNIP-NLRP3 interaction in rats. These findings indicate that FN ameliorated MIRI in rats and inhibited the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, at least partially, attributable to suppression of the ROS-TXNIP-NLRP3 pathway. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.02.147
    Mechanism of Zhen Wu Decoction in the Treatment of Heart Failure Based on Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking. Ma Chen-Yu,Ma Yu-Qian,Deng Min Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM Heart failure (HF) is a serious manifestation or advanced stage of various cardiovascular diseases, and its mortality and rehospitalization rate are still on the rise in China. Based on the network pharmacology method, 59 components of Zhen Wu decoction (ZWD) and 83 target genes related to HF were obtained. Through the PPI network, four potential therapeutic targets were identified: AKT1, IL6, JUN, and MAPK8. The beneficial components of ZWD might intervene HF through the AGE-RAGE signalling pathway in the diabetes component, fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis, the TNF signalling pathway, TB, and Kaposi sarcoma related herpesvirus infection, according to a KEGG enrichment study. The protein interaction network of candidate targets was constructed by the STRING database, and the protein interaction network was clustered by MEODE software. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were performed on the core modules obtained by clustering. Finally, AutoDock Vina software was used for molecular docking verification of key targets and active ingredients. The result was that 75 active ingredients and 109 genes were screened as potential active ingredients and potential targets of Shengjie Tongyu decoction for CHF treatment. The main active components were quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, dehydrated icariin, isorhamnetin, formononetin, and other flavonoids. Il-6, MAPK1, MAPK8, AKT1, VEGFA, and JUN were selected as the core targets. Molecular docking showed that the key components were well connected with the target. GO enrichment analysis showed that Shengjie Tongyu decoction could play a role through multiple biological pathways including angiogenesis, regulation of endothelial cell proliferation, binding of cytokine receptors, negative regulation of apoptotic signalling pathways, regulation of nitric oxide synthase activity, and reactive oxygen metabolism. Key pathways mainly focus on the toll-like receptor signalling pathway, nod-like receptor signalling pathway, MAPK signalling pathway, mTOR signalling pathway, JAK-STAT signalling pathway, VEGF signalling pathway, and other pathways. Through molecular docking technology, it was found that a variety of effective components in ZWD, such as kaempferol. Molecular docking technology has preliminatively verified the network pharmacology and laid a foundation for the follow-up pharmacological research. 10.1155/2022/4877920
    [Formononetin stimulates thermogenesis of brown adipocytes by promoting the expression of uncoupling protein 1]. Tao Jin,Tao Lei,Huang Wenhua Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology Objective To investigate the mechanism of formononetin regulating the heat production of brown adipocytes via decoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Methods The brown preadipocytes was isolated from wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice and differentiated into mature fat cells in vitro. Moreover, the mRNA levels of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and adiponectin were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). To confirm formononetin could induce the expression of thermogenic genes, we first prepared WT mature brown adipocytes and treated them with DMSO and formononetin separately. The mRNA and protein levels of thermogenic genes, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), UCP1 and iodothyronine deiodinase 2 (Dio2), were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis. To investigate the role of UCP1 in mediating differentiation of brown preadipocytes, Fabp4 and adiponectin mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-qPCR in WT and UCP1 mutation differentiated brown adipocytes. To determine cellular oxygen consumption, isolated WT and UCP1 mutation brown preadipocytes were plated in an XF24-well microplate and differentiated into mature brown adipocytes treated with formononetin or DMSO, followed by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurement using XF24 analyser. Results Both WT and UCP1 KO brown preadipocytes could be differentiated into adipocyte. The expression of thermogenic genes, including PGC-1α, Dio2, PPARγ and UCP1, induced by formononetin was similar in UCP1 KO adipocytes and WT cells. But the ability of formononetin to increase cellular respiration was inhibited in Ucp1 KO cells. Conclusion Formononetin mediated stimulation of thermogenesis and oxygen consumption via UCP1 in brown fat cells.
    Formononetin attenuates atherosclerosis via regulating interaction between KLF4 and SRA in apoE mice. Ma Chuanrui,Xia Ronglin,Yang Shu,Liu Lipei,Zhang Jing,Feng Ke,Shang Yuna,Qu Jingtian,Li Lingwei,Chen Ning,Xu Shixin,Zhang Wenwen,Mao Jingyuan,Han Jihong,Chen Yuanli,Yang Xiaoxiao,Duan Yajun,Fan Guanwei Theranostics : Atherosclerosis is an underlying cause of coronary heart disease. Foam cell, a hallmark of atherosclerosis, is prominently derived from monocyte-differentiated macrophage, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through unlimitedly phagocytizing oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Therefore, the inhibition of monocyte adhesion to endothelium and uptake of oxLDL might be a breakthrough point for retarding atherosclerosis. Formononetin, an isoflavone extracted from , has exhibited multiple inhibitory effects on proatherogenic factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in different animal models. However, its effect on atherosclerosis remains unknown. In this study, we determined if formononetin can inhibit atherosclerosis and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. : ApoE deficient mice were treated with formononetin contained in high-fat diet for 16 weeks. After treatment, mouse aorta, macrophage and serum samples were collected to determine lesions, immune cell profile, lipid profile and expression of related molecules. Concurrently, we investigated the effect of formononetin on monocyte adhesion, foam cell formation, endothelial activation, and macrophage polarization and . : Formononetin reduced and aortic root sinus lesions size. Formononetin enhanced lesion stability by changing the composition of plaque. VSMC- and macrophage-derived foam cell formation and its accumulation in arterial wall were attenuated by formononetin, which might be attributed to decreased SRA expression and reduced monocyte adhesion. Formononetin inhibited atherogenic monocyte adhesion and inflammation. KLF4 negatively regulated the expression of SRA at transcriptional and translational level. : Our study demonstrate that formononetin can substantially attenuate the development of atherosclerosis via regulation of interplay between KLF4 and SRA, which suggests the formononetin might be a novel therapeutic approach for inhibition of atherosclerosis. 10.7150/thno.38115
    Natural Killer Cells in Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Frontiers in immunology Ischemia-reperfusion injury can be divided into two phases, including insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients in the first stage and then organ injury caused by immune inflammation after blood flow recovery. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion is an important cause of liver injury post-surgery, consisting of partial hepatectomy and liver transplantation, and a central driver of graft dysfunction, which greatly leads to complications and mortality after liver transplantation. Natural killer (NK) cells are the lymphocyte population mainly involved in innate immune response in the human liver. In addition to their well-known role in anti-virus and anti-tumor defense, NK cells are also considered to regulate the pathogenesis of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury under the support of more and more evidence recently. The infiltration of NK cells into the liver exacerbates the hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, which could be significantly alleviated after depletion of NK cells. Interestingly, NK cells may contribute to both liver graft rejection and tolerance according to their origins. In this article, we discussed the development of liver NK cells, their role in ischemia-reperfusion injury, and strategies of inhibiting NK cell activation in order to provide potential possibilities for translation application in future clinical practice. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.870038
    PIWI-Interacting RNA HAAPIR Regulates Cardiomyocyte Death After Myocardial Infarction by Promoting NAT10-Mediated ac C Acetylation of Tfec mRNA. Wang Kai,Zhou Lu-Yu,Liu Fang,Lin Liang,Ju Jie,Tian Peng-Chao,Liu Cui-Yun,Li Xin-Min,Chen Xin-Zhe,Wang Tao,Wang Fei,Wang Shao-Cong,Zhang Jian,Zhang Yu-Hui,Tian Jin-Wei,Wang Kun Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are abundantly expressed in heart. However, their functions and molecular mechanisms during myocardial infarction remain unknown. Here, a heart-apoptosis-associated piRNA (HAAPIR), which regulates cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10)-mediated N4-acetylcytidine (ac C) acetylation of transcription factor EC (Tfec) mRNA transcript, is identified. HAAPIR deletion attenuates ischemia/reperfusion induced myocardial infarction and ameliorate cardiac function compared to WT mice. Mechanistically, HAAPIR directly interacts with NAT10 and enhances ac C acetylation of Tfec mRNA transcript, which increases Tfec expression. TFEC can further upregulate the transcription of BCL2-interacting killer (Bik), a pro-apoptotic factor, which results in the accumulation of Bik and progression of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The findings reveal that piRNA-mediated ac C acetylation mechanism is involved in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. HAAPIR-NAT10-TFEC-BIK signaling axis can be potential target for the reduction of myocardial injury caused by cardiomyocyte apoptosis in ischemia heart diseases. 10.1002/advs.202106058
    Targeting CaMKII-δ9 Ameliorates Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Myocardial Inflammation. Circulation research BACKGROUND:CaMKII (Ca/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) plays a central role in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-an important therapeutic target for ischemic heart disease. In the heart, CaMKII-δ is the predominant isoform and further alternatively spliced into 11 variants. In humans, CaMKII-δ9 and CaMKII-δ3, the major cardiac splice variants, inversely regulate cardiomyocyte viability with the former pro-death and the latter pro-survival. However, it is unknown whether specific inhibition of the detrimental CaMKII-δ9 prevents cardiac I/R injury and, if so, what is the underlying mechanism. Here, we aim to investigate the cardioprotective effect of specific CaMKII-δ9 inhibition against myocardial I/R damage and determine the underlying mechanisms. METHODS:The role and mechanism of CaMKII-δ9 in cardiac I/R injury were investigated in mice in vivo, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. RESULTS:We demonstrate that CaMKII-δ9 inhibition with knockdown or knockout of its feature exon, exon 16, protects the heart against I/R-elicited injury and subsequent heart failure. I/R-induced cardiac inflammation was also ameliorated by CaMKII-δ9 inhibition, and compared with the previously well-studied CaMKII-δ2, CaMKII-δ9 overexpression caused more profound cardiac inflammation. Mechanistically, in addition to IKKβ (inhibitor of NF-κB [nuclear factor-κB] kinase subunit β), CaMKII-δ9, but not δ2, directly interacted with IκBα (NF-κB inhibitor α) with its feature exon 13-16-17 combination and increased IκBα phosphorylation and consequently elicited more pronounced activation of NF-κB signaling and inflammatory response. Furthermore, the essential role of CaMKII-δ9 in myocardial inflammation and damage was confirmed in human cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS:We not only identified CaMKII-δ9-IKK/IκB-NF-κB signaling as a new regulator of human cardiomyocyte inflammation but also demonstrated that specifically targeting CaMKII-δ9, the most abundant CaMKII-δ splice variant in human heart, markedly suppresses I/R-induced cardiac NF-κB activation, inflammation, and injury and subsequently ameliorates myocardial remodeling and heart failure, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for various ischemic heart diseases. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.319478
    Macrophage-produced VEGFC is induced by efferocytosis to ameliorate cardiac injury and inflammation. The Journal of clinical investigation Clearance of dying cells by efferocytosis is necessary for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction (MI). Recent reports have suggested a protective role for vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) during acute cardiac lymphangiogenesis after MI. Here, we report that defective efferocytosis by macrophages after experimental MI led to a reduction in cardiac lymphangiogenesis and Vegfc expression. Cell-intrinsic evidence for efferocytic induction of Vegfc was revealed after adding apoptotic cells to cultured primary macrophages, which subsequently triggered Vegfc transcription and VEGFC secretion. Similarly, cardiac macrophages elevated Vegfc expression levels after MI, and mice deficient for myeloid Vegfc exhibited impaired ventricular contractility, adverse tissue remodeling, and reduced lymphangiogenesis. These results were observed in mouse models of permanent coronary occlusion and clinically relevant ischemia and reperfusion. Interestingly, myeloid Vegfc deficiency also led to increases in acute infarct size, prior to the amplitude of the acute cardiac lymphangiogenesis response. RNA-Seq and cardiac flow cytometry revealed that myeloid Vegfc deficiency was also characterized by a defective inflammatory response, and macrophage-produced VEGFC was directly effective at suppressing proinflammatory macrophage activation. Taken together, our findings indicate that cardiac macrophages promote healing through the promotion of myocardial lymphangiogenesis and the suppression of inflammatory cytokines. 10.1172/JCI140685
    Left Ventricular Thrombus Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology The incidence of left ventricular (LV) thrombus following acute myocardial infarction has markedly declined in recent decades caused by advancements in reperfusion and antithrombotic therapies. Despite this, embolic events remain the most feared complication of LV thrombus necessitating systemic anticoagulation. Mechanistically, LV thrombus development depends on Virchow's triad (ie, endothelial injury from myocardial infarction, blood stasis from LV dysfunction, and hypercoagulability triggered by inflammation, with each of these elements representing potential therapeutic targets). Diagnostic modalities include transthoracic echocardiography with or without ultrasound-enhancing agents and cardiac magnetic resonance. Most LV thrombi develop within the first 2 weeks post-acute myocardial infarction, and the role of surveillance imaging appears limited. Vitamin K antagonists remain the mainstay of therapy because the efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants is less well established. Only meager data support the routine use of prophylactic anticoagulation, even in high-risk patients. 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.01.011
    MicroRNA-210 Controls Mitochondrial Metabolism and Protects Heart Function in Myocardial Infarction. Circulation BACKGROUND:Ischemic heart disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide. In this study, we test the hypothesis that microRNA-210 protects the heart from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury by controlling mitochondrial bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species (ROS) flux. METHODS:Myocardial infarction in an acute setting of IR was examined through comparing loss- versus gain-of-function experiments in microRNA-210-deficient and wild-type mice. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Myocardial mitochondria bioenergetics was examined using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. RESULTS:MicroRNA-210 deficiency significantly exaggerated cardiac dysfunction up to 6 weeks after myocardial IR in male, but not female, mice. Intravenous injection of microRNA-210 mimic blocked the effect and recovered the increased myocardial IR injury and cardiac dysfunction. Analysis of mitochondrial metabolism revealed that microRNA-210 inhibited mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased glycolytic activity, and reduced mitochondrial ROS flux in the heart during IR injury. Inhibition of mitochondrial ROS with MitoQ consistently reversed the effect of microRNA-210 deficiency. Mechanistically, we showed that mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a novel target of microRNA-210 in the heart, and loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments revealed that glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase played a key role in the microRNA-210-mediated effect on mitochondrial metabolism and ROS flux in the setting of heart IR injury. Knockdown of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase negated microRNA-210 deficiency-induced increases in mitochondrial ROS production and myocardial infarction and improved left ventricular fractional shortening and ejection fraction after the IR treatment. CONCLUSIONS:MicroRNA-210 targeting glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase controls mitochondrial bioenergetics and ROS flux and improves cardiac function in a murine model of myocardial infarction in the setting of IR injury. The findings suggest new insights into the mechanisms and therapeutic targets for treatment of ischemic heart disease. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.056929
    Novel CaMKII-δ Inhibitor Hesperadin Exerts Dual Functions to Ameliorate Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Inhibit Tumor Growth. Circulation BACKGROUND:Cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has emerged as an important therapeutic target for ischemic heart disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. At present, there is no effective therapy for reducing cardiac I/R injury. CaMKII (Ca/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of severe heart conditions, including I/R injury. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII is an important strategy in the protection against myocardial damage and cardiac diseases. To date, there is no drug targeting CaMKII for the clinical therapy of heart disease. Furthermore, at present, there is no selective inhibitor of CaMKII-δ, the major CaMKII isoform in the heart. METHODS:A small-molecule kinase inhibitor library and a high-throughput screening system for the kinase activity assay of CaMKII-δ9 (the most abundant CaMKII-δ splice variant in human heart) were used to screen for CaMKII-δ inhibitors. Using cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, and in vivo mouse models, in conjunction with myocardial injury induced by I/R (or hypoxia/reoxygenation) and CaMKII-δ9 overexpression, we sought to investigate the protection of hesperadin against cardiomyocyte death and cardiac diseases. BALB/c nude mice with xenografted tumors of human cancer cells were used to evaluate the in vivo antitumor effect of hesperadin. RESULTS:Based on the small-molecule kinase inhibitor library and screening system, we found that hesperadin, an Aurora B kinase inhibitor with antitumor activity in vitro, directly bound to CaMKII-δ and specifically blocked its activation in an ATP-competitive manner. Hesperadin functionally ameliorated both I/R- and overexpressed CaMKII-δ9-induced cardiomyocyte death, myocardial damage, and heart failure in both rodents and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. In addition, in an in vivo BALB/c nude mouse model with xenografted tumors of human cancer cells, hesperadin delayed tumor growth without inducing cardiomyocyte death or cardiac injury. CONCLUSIONS:Here, we identified hesperadin as a specific small-molecule inhibitor of CaMKII-δ with dual functions of cardioprotective and antitumor effects. These findings not only suggest that hesperadin is a promising leading compound for clinical therapy of cardiac I/R injury and heart failure, but also provide a strategy for the joint therapy of cancer and cardiovascular disease caused by anticancer treatment. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055920
    ACKR3 regulates platelet activation and ischemia-reperfusion tissue injury. Nature communications Platelet activation plays a critical role in thrombosis. Inhibition of platelet activation is a cornerstone in treatment of acute organ ischemia. Platelet ACKR3 surface expression is independently associated with all-cause mortality in CAD patients. In a novel genetic mouse strain, we show that megakaryocyte/platelet-specific deletion of ACKR3 results in enhanced platelet activation and thrombosis in vitro and in vivo. Further, we performed ischemia/reperfusion experiments (transient LAD-ligation and tMCAO) in mice to assess the impact of genetic ACKR3 deficiency in platelets on tissue injury in ischemic myocardium and brain. Loss of platelet ACKR3 enhances tissue injury in ischemic myocardium and brain and aggravates tissue inflammation. Activation of platelet-ACKR3 via specific ACKR3 agonists inhibits platelet activation and thrombus formation and attenuates tissue injury in ischemic myocardium and brain. Here we demonstrate that ACKR3 is a critical regulator of platelet activation, thrombus formation and organ injury following ischemia/reperfusion. 10.1038/s41467-022-29341-1
    CIRKIL Exacerbates Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Interacting With Ku70. Circulation research BACKGROUND:Ku70 participates in several pathological processes through mediating repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Our previous study has identified a highly conserved long noncoding RNA cardiac ischemia reperfusion associated Ku70 interacting lncRNA (CIRKIL) that was upregulated in myocardial infarction. The study aims to investigate whether CIRKIL regulates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) through binding to Ku70. METHODS:CIRKIL transgenic and knockout mice were subjected to 45-minute ischemia and 24-hour reperfusion to establish myocardial I/R model. RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation assay were used to detect the interaction between CIRKIL and Ku70. RESULTS:The expression of CIRKIL was increased in I/R myocardium and HO-treated cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of CIRKIL increased the expression of γHA.X, a specific marker of DNA double-strand breaks and aggravated cardiomyocyte apoptosis, whereas knockdown of CIRKIL produced the opposite changes. Transgenic overexpression of CIRKIL aggravated cardiac dysfunction, enlarged infarct area, and worsened cardiomyocyte damage in I/R mice. Knockout of CIRKIL alleviated myocardial I/R injury. Mechanistically, CIRKIL directly bound to Ku70 to subsequently decrease nuclear translocation of Ku70 and impair DNA double-strand breaks repair. Concurrent overexpression of Ku70 mitigated CIRKIL overexpression-induced myocardial I/R injury. Furthermore, knockdown of human CIRKIL significantly suppressed cell damage induced by HO in adult human ventricular cardiomyocytes and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS:CIRKIL is a detrimental factor in I/R injury acting via regulating nuclear translocation of Ku70 and DNA double-strand breaks repair. Thus, CIRKIL might be considered as a novel molecular target for the treatment of cardiac conditions associated with I/R injury. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.318992