Serotonin 1A receptor agonist modulation of motor deficits and cortical oscillations by NMDA receptor interaction in parkinsonian rats.
Jiang Xinxin,Liang Peirong,Wang Ke,Jia Jun,Wang Xiaomin
Although serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonists are widely used as the additive compound to reduce l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease (PD), few studies focused on the effect and mechanism of 5-HT1A receptor agonist on the motor symptoms of PD. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats were used and implantation of electrodes was performed in the motor cortex of these rats. So the effect of 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT on motor behaviors and oscillatory activities were evaluated. In addition, 8-OH-DPAT combined with D2 receptor antagonist raclopride, NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, or its agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) were co-administrated. 8-OH-DPAT administration significantly improved spontaneous locomotor activity and asymmetric forepaw function in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Meanwhile, 8-OH-DPAT identified selective modulation of the abnormal high beta oscillations (25-40 Hz) in the motor cortex of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, without inducing pathological finely tuned gamma around 80 Hz. Different from 8-OH-DPAT, l-dopa treatment produced a prolonged improvement on motor performances and differential regulation of high beta and gamma oscillations. However, dopamine D2 receptor antagonist had no influence on the 8-OH-DPAT-mediated-motor behaviors and beta oscillations in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In contrast, subthreshold NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 obviously elevated the 8-OH-DPAT-mediated-motor behaviors, while NMDA receptor agonist DCS partially impaired the 8-OH-DPAT-mediated symptoms in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. This study suggests that 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT improves motor activity and modulates the oscillations in the motor cortex of parkinsonian rats. Different from l-dopa, 8-OH-DPAT administration ameliorates motor symptoms of PD through glutamatergic rather than the dopaminergic pathway.
Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Mammalian Dopamine Neurons Induced by Simazine Neurotoxicity.
Li Xueting,Yu Jia,Li Jianan,Wu Yanping,Li Baixiang
International journal of molecular sciences
Many studies have shown that the pollutant simazine (6-chloro-,'-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), which has been overused, inhibits the proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic cells, and affects the developmental differentiation of mammalian dopaminergic neurons. However, few studies have shown the effects of simazine on dopaminergic metabolism in these cells. Therefore, we aim to examine the metabolic effects of simazine exposure in mouse dopaminergic progenitor neurons (MN9D) at different exposure times. The cells were treated with simazine at 0, 150, 300 and 600 µM for 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. The content of dopamine in these cells was then examined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting were performed to analyze the mRNA and protein expression of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), tyrosine hydroxylase (DYT5b), dopamine transporter (DAT), monoamine vesicular transporter 2 (VMAT2), monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol--methyl transferase (COMT). The results showed that simazine influenced the metabolism of dopamine and led to a decrease in dopamine level in these cells which may eventually lead to neurological disorders of the dopaminergic system.
Melatonin/Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes: A Review.
Sakellaropoulou Aikaterini,Siamidi Angeliki,Vlachou Marilena
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Melatonin (MLT) is involved in many functions of the human body, mainly in sleeping-related disorders. It also has anti-oxidant potential and has been proven very effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorders (SAD), which afflict some people during short winter days. Melatonin has been implicated in a range of other conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's and other neurological conditions, and in certain cancers. Its poor solubility in water leads to an insufficient absorption that led scientists to investigate MLT inclusion in cyclodextrins (CDs), as inclusion of drugs in CDs is a way of increasing the solubility of many lipophilic moieties with poor water solubility. The aim of this review is to gather all the key findings on MLT/CD complexes. The literature appraisal concluded that MLT inclusion leads to a 1:1 complex with the majority of CDs and increases the solubility of the hormone. The interactions of MLT with CDs can be studied by a variety of techniques, such as NMR, FT-IR, XRD and DCS. More importantly, the in vivo experiments showed an increase in the uptake of MLT when included in a CD.
Melatonin not only restores but also prevents the inhibition of the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption caused by glutathione depleting drugs.
Areco Vanessa,Rodriguez Valeria,Marchionatti Ana,Carpentieri Agata,Tolosa de Talamoni Nori
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
We have previously demonstrated that melatonin (MEL) blocks the inhibition of the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption caused by menadione (MEN). The purpose of this study were to determine whether MEL not only restores but also prevents the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption inhibited either by MEN or BSO, two drugs that deplete glutathione (GSH) in different ways, and to analyze the mechanisms by which MEN and MEL alter the movement of Ca(2+) across the duodenum. To know this, chicks were divided into four groups: 1) controls, 2) MEN treated, 3) MEL treated, and 4) treated sequentially with MEN and MEL or with MEN and MEL at the same time. In a set of experiments, chicks treated with BSO or sequentially with BSO and MEL or with BSO and MEL at the same time were used. MEL not only restored but also prevented the inhibition of the chick intestinal Ca(2+) absorption produced by either MEN or BSO. MEN altered the protein expression of molecules involved in the transcellular as well as in the paracellular pathway of the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. MEL restored partially both pathways through normalization of the O2(-) levels. The nitrergic system was not altered by any treatment. In conclusion, MEL prevents or restores the inhibition of the intestinal Ca(2+) absorption caused by different GSH depleting drugs. It might become one drug for the treatment of intestinal Ca(2+) absorption under oxidant conditions having the advantage of low or null side effects.