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    3D bioprinting for skin tissue engineering: Current status and perspectives. Weng Tingting,Zhang Wei,Xia Yilan,Wu Pan,Yang Min,Jin Ronghua,Xia Sizhan,Wang Jialiang,You Chuangang,Han Chunmao,Wang Xingang Journal of tissue engineering Skin and skin appendages are vulnerable to injury, requiring rapidly reliable regeneration methods. In recent years, 3D bioprinting has shown potential for wound repair and regeneration. 3D bioprinting can be customized for skin shape with cells and other materials distributed precisely, achieving rapid and reliable production of bionic skin substitutes, therefore, meeting clinical and industrial requirements. Additionally, it has excellent performance with high resolution, flexibility, reproducibility, and high throughput, showing great potential for the fabrication of tissue-engineered skin. This review introduces the common techniques of 3D bioprinting and their application in skin tissue engineering, focusing on the latest research progress in skin appendages (hair follicles and sweat glands) and vascularization, and summarizes current challenges and future development of 3D skin printing. 10.1177/20417314211028574
    Role of Keratinocyte Growth Factor in the Differentiation of Sweat Gland-Like Cells From Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Xu Yongan,Hong Yucai,Xu Mengyan,Ma Kui,Fu Xiaobing,Zhang Mao,Wang Guirong Stem cells translational medicine UNLABELLED:Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have higher proliferation potency and lower immune resistance than human bone marrow MSCs and can differentiate into various functional cells. Many regulatory factors, including keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), are involved in the development of skin and cutaneous appendages. Although KGF is important in wound healing, the role of KGF in hUC-MSC differentiation remains unknown. In our previous work, we found the mixing medium (nine parts of basic sweat-gland [SG] medium plus one part of conditioned heat-shock SG medium) could induce hUC-MSC differentiation to sweat gland-like cells (SGCs). In this study, we further improved the inducing medium and determined the effects of KGF in hUC-MSC differentiation. We found KGF expression in the SGCs and that recombinant human KGF could induce hUC-MSC differentiation into SGCs, suggesting KGF plays a pivotal role in promoting hUC-MSC differentiation to SGCs. Furthermore, the SGCs differentiated from hUC-MSCs were applied to severely burned skin of the paw of an in vivo severe combined immunodeficiency mouse burn model. Burned paws treated with SGCs could regenerate functional sparse SGs 21 days after treatment; the untreated control paws could not. Collectively, these results demonstrated that KGF is a critical growth factor for SGC differentiation from hUC-MSCs and the differentiated SGCs from hUC-MSCs may have a potential therapeutic application for regeneration of destroyed SGs and injured skin. SIGNIFICANCE:There is growing evidence demonstrating a potential therapeutic application of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in injured skin. In the current study, conditioned media and chemically defined media with recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) could induce hUC-MSC differentiation into sweat gland-like cells (SGCs). Moreover, the differentiated SGCs from hUC-MSCs could regenerate functional sparse sweat glands in a mouse burn model, which provides further insight into the mechanisms of the role of KGF and a potential therapeutic application of differentiated SGCs for regeneration of destroyed sweat glands and injured skin. 10.5966/sctm.2015-0081
    3D bioprinted extracellular matrix mimics facilitate directed differentiation of epithelial progenitors for sweat gland regeneration. Huang Sha,Yao Bin,Xie Jiangfan,Fu Xiaobing Acta biomaterialia Sweat glands perform a vital thermoregulatory function in mammals. Like other skin appendages, they originate from epidermal progenitors. However, they have low regenerative potential in response to injury, and whether adult epidermal progenitors could be specified to differentiate to a sweat gland cell lineage remains largely unexplored. We used bioprinting technology to create a functional in vitro cell-laden 3D extracellular matrix mimics (3D-ECM) with composite hydrogels based on gelatin and sodium alginate because of chemical and structural similarity to ECM components. To achieve specific cell differentiation, mouse plantar dermis and epidermal growth factor were synchronously incorporated into the 3D-ECM mimics to create an inductive niche for epidermal progenitor cells obtained from mice. The biological 3D construct could maintain cell viability, thereby facilitating cell spreading and matrix formation. In vitro data by immunofluorescence and gene expression assay of key cell-surface markers demonstrated that the bioprinted 3D-ECM could effectively create a restrictive niche for epidermal progenitors that ensures unilateral differentiation into sweat gland cells. Furthermore, direct delivery of bioprinted 3D-ECM into burned paws of mice resulted in functional restoration of sweat glands. This study represents the rational design to enhance the specific differentiation of epidermal lineages using 3D bioprinting and may have clinical and translational implications in regenerating sweat glands. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:Sweat gland regeneration after injury is of clinical importance but remains largely unsolved because of low regenerative potential and lack of a definite niche. Some studies have shown sweat gland regeneration with gene-based interventions or cell-based induction via embryonic components, but translation to clinic is challenging. The novelty and significance of the work lies in the fact that we design a 3D bioprinted extracellular matrix that provides the spatial inductive cues for enhancing specific differentiation of epidermal lineages to regenerate sweat glands, which is critical for treating deep burns or other wounds. Our studies are encouraging given the overwhelming advantages of our designed 3D bioprinting construct over other cell delivery technology in maintaining high cell proliferation; another interesting finding is that adult tissue components retain a gland lineage-inductive power as embryonic tissue, which can facilitate translation. 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.12.039
    [Study on sweat gland regeneration induced by microenvironment of three-dimensional bioprinting]. Yao B,Xie J F,Huang S,Fu X B Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns Sweat glands are abundant in the body surface and essential for thermoregulation. Sweat glands fail to conduct self-repair in patients with large area of burn and trauma, and the body temperature of patients increases in hot climate, which may cause shock or even death. Now, co-culture system, reprogramming, and tissue engineering have made progresses in inducing sweat gland regeneration, but the inductive efficiency and duration need to be improved. Cellular microenvironment can regulate cell biological behavior, including cell migration and cell differentiation. This article reviews the studies of establishment of microenvironment in vitro by three-dimensional bioprinting technology to induce sweat gland regeneration. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-2587.2017.01.006
    Biochemical and structural cues of 3D-printed matrix synergistically direct MSC differentiation for functional sweat gland regeneration. Yao Bin,Wang Rui,Wang Yihui,Zhang Yijie,Hu Tian,Song Wei,Li Zhao,Huang Sha,Fu Xiaobing Science advances Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) encapsulation by three-dimensionally (3D) printed matrices were believed to provide a biomimetic microenvironment to drive differentiation into tissue-specific progeny, which made them a great therapeutic potential for regenerative medicine. Despite this potential, the underlying mechanisms of controlling cell fate in 3D microenvironments remained relatively unexplored. Here, we bioprinted a sweat gland (SG)-like matrix to direct the conversion of MSC into functional SGs and facilitated SGs recovery in mice. By extracellular matrix differential protein expression analysis, we identified that CTHRC1 was a critical biochemical regulator for SG specification. Our findings showed that could respond to the 3D structure activation and also be involved in MSC differentiation. Using inhibition and activation assay, CTHRC1 and synergistically boosted SG gene expression profile. Together, these findings indicated that biochemical and structural cues served as two critical impacts of 3D-printed matrix on MSC fate decision into the glandular lineage and functional SG recovery. 10.1126/sciadv.aaz1094
    Sweat gland regeneration: Current strategies and future opportunities. Chen Runkai,Zhu Ziying,Ji Shuaifei,Geng Zhijun,Hou Qian,Sun Xiaoyan,Fu Xiaobing Biomaterials For patients with extensive skin defects, loss of sweat glands (SwGs) greatly decreases their quality of life. Indeed, difficulties in thermoregulation, ion reabsorption, and maintaining fluid balance might render them susceptible to hyperthermia, heatstroke, or even death. Despite extensive studies on the stem cell biology of the skin in recent years, in-situ regeneration of SwGs with both structural and functional fidelity is still challenging because of the limited regenerative capacity and cell fate control of resident progenitors. To overcome these challenges, one must consider both the intrinsic factors relevant to genetic and epigenetic regulation and cues from the cellular microenvironment. Here, we describe recent progress in molecular biology, developmental pathways, and cellular evolution associated with SwGdevelopment and maturation. This is followed by a summary of the current strategies used for cell-fate modulation, transmembrane drug delivery, and scaffold design associated with SwGregeneration. Finally, we offer perspectives for creating more sophisticated systems to accelerate patients' innate healing capacity and developing engineered skin constructs to treat or replace damaged tissues structurally and functionally. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120201
    Cholinergic- rather than adrenergic-induced sweating play a role in developing and developed rat eccrine sweat glands. Zhang Lei,Zhang Xiang,Du Lijie,Zhang Cuiping,Li Haihong Experimental animals Both cholinergic and adrenergic stimulation can induce sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands, but whether cholinergic and adrenergic stimulation play same roles in rat eccrine sweat glands is still controversial. To explore the innervations, and adrenergic- and cholinergic-induced secretory response in developing and developed rat eccrine sweat glands, rat hind footpads from embryonic day (E) 15.5-20.5, postanal day (P) 1-14, P21 and adult were fixed, embedded, sectioned and subjected to immunofluorescence staining for general fiber marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), adrenergic fiber marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and cholinergic fiber marker vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and cholinergic- and adrenergic-induced sweat secretion was detected at P1-P21 and adult rats by starch-iodine test. The results showed that eccrine sweat gland placodes of SD rats were first appeared at E19.5, and the expression of PGP 9.5 was detected surrounding the sweat gland placodes at E19.5, TH at P7, and VIP at P11. Pilocarpine-induced sweat secretion was first detected at P16 in hind footpads by starch-iodine test. There was no measurable sweating when stimulated by alpha- or beta-adrenergic agonists at all the examined time points. We conclude that rat eccrine sweat glands, just as human eccrine sweat glands, co-express adrenergic and cholinergic fibers, but different from human eccrine sweat glands, cholinergic- rather than adrenergic-induced sweating plays a role in the developing and developed rat eccrine sweat glands. 10.1538/expanim.20-0144
    Sweat Gland Organoids Originating from Reprogrammed Epidermal Keratinocytes Functionally Recapitulated Damaged Skin. Sun Xiaoyan,Xiang Jiangbing,Chen Runkai,Geng Zhijun,Wang Lintao,Liu Yiqiong,Ji Shuaifei,Chen Huating,Li Yan,Zhang Cuiping,Liu Peng,Yue Tao,Dong Lei,Fu Xiaobing Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) Restoration of sweat glands (SwGs) represents a great issue in patients with extensive skin defects. Recent methods combining organoid technology with cell fate reprogramming hold promise for developing new regenerative methods for SwG regeneration. Here, a practical strategy for engineering functional human SwGs in vitro and in vivo is provided. First, by forced expression of the ectodysplasin-A in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) combined with specific SwG culture medium, HEKs are efficiently converted into SwG cells (iSwGCs). The iSwGCs show typical morphology, gene expression pattern, and functions resembling human primary SwG cells. Second, by culturing the iSwGCs in a special 3D culturing system, SwG organoids (iSwGOs) that exhibit structural and biological features characteristic of native SwGs are obtained. Finally, these iSwGOs are successfully transplanted into a mouse skin damage model and they develop into fully functioning SwGs in vivo. Regeneration of functional SwG organoids from reprogrammed HEKs highlights the great translational potential for personalized SwG regeneration in patients with large skin defects. 10.1002/advs.202103079