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    Impact of resistance training on the 6-minute walk test in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine OBJECTIVE:The aim of this systematic review was to assess functional improvement, measured by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) after the application of a resistance training (RT) protocol in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The search involved the databases ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed and Scopus from the beginning of inception to September 1, 2019. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the functional impact of RT were included. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Calculations were performed according to mean difference (MD) for differences between pre- and post-intervention in 6MWT distance and according to the standardized mean difference (SMD) for post-treatment results of the 6MWT and quadriceps muscle strength (QMS) improvement. RESULTS:In total, 23 studies (690 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was used to compute the best improvement on the 6MWT with an analysis of improvement pre- versus post-treatment (MD 37.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8; 64.8, I = 86%, p = 0.008) versus post-treatment alone, intervention versus control group (MD 15.5, 95% CI -7.7; 38.6, I 71%, p = 0.19). QMS was significantly improved (SMD 2.9, 95% CI 1.1; 4.7, I 91%, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION:The results of the meta-analysis show a significant improvement in walking ability and performance measured by the 6MWT and an improvement in QMS for people with COPD responding to the therapy. The main limitation of this review is the significant heterogeneity across the study results. Furthermore, the statistical significance does not totally coincide with the clinical significance. RT is recommended to reduce muscle dysfunction and seems useful when combined with endurance training. 10.1016/j.rehab.2021.101582
    Measuring intensity during free-living physical activities in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic literature review. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine BACKGROUND:Measuring intensity of physical activity (PA) is important to ensure safety and the effectiveness of PA interventions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVE:This systematic review identified which outcomes, outcome measures and instruments have been used to assess single free-living PA-related intensity in people with COPD and compared the intensity level (light, moderate, vigorous) obtained by different outcome measures. METHODS:PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and EBSCO were searched for original studies of COPD and assessing single free-living PA-related intensity were included. Agreement was calculated as the number of agreements between 2 measures [same intensity level]/ number of comparisons using both measures*100. RESULTS:We included 43 studies (1282 people with COPD, mean age 66 years, 65% men, 49% FEV) and identified 13 outcomes, 46 outcome measures and 22 instruments. The most-reported outcomes, outcome measures and instruments were dyspnoea with the Borg scale 0-10; cardiac function, via heart rate (HR) using HR monitors; and pulmonary gas exchange, namely oxygen consumption (VO), using portable gas analysers, respectively. The most frequently assessed PAs were walking and lifting, changing or moving weights/objects. Agreement between the outcome measures ranged from 0 (%VO vs metabolic equivalent of task [MET];%HR vs Fatigue Borg; MET vs walking speed) to 100% (%HR vs dyspnoea Borg; fatigue and exertion Borg vs walking speed).%VO elicited the highest intensity. Hence, Borg scores,%HR and MET may underestimate PA-related intensity. CONCLUSIONS:Various methodologies are used to assess single free-living PA-related intensity and yield different intensity levels for the same PA. Future studies, further exploring the agreement between the different outcome measures of PA-related intensity and discussing their advantages, disadvantages and applicability in real-world settings, are urgent. These would guide future worldwide recommendations on how to assess single free-living PA-related intensity in COPD, which is essential to optimise PA interventions and ensure patient safety. 10.1016/j.rehab.2021.101607
    Inspiratory muscle training compared with other rehabilitation interventions in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Crowe Jean,Reid W Darlene,Geddes E Lynne,O'Brien Kelly,Brooks Dina COPD The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) (alone or combined with exercise and/or pulmonary rehabilitation) compared to other rehabilitation interventions such as: exercise, education, other breathing techniques or exercise and/or pulmonary rehabilitation among adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A systematic review of the literature on IMT and COPD was conducted according to the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. Inclusion criteria for the review included randomized controlled trials, published in English, comparing IMT or combined IMT and exercise/pulmonary rehabilitation with other rehabilitation interventions such as general exercise, education, other breathing techniques or exercise/pulmonary rehabilitation among adults with COPD. 274 articles were retrieved, and 16 met the inclusion criteria. Seven meta-analyses were performed that compared targeted or threshold IMT to exercise (n = 3) or to education (n = 4). Results showed significant improvements in inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, and in the dyspnea scale on a quality of life measure, for participants in the IMT versus education group. In other instances where meta-analyses could not be performed, a qualitative review was performed. IMT results in improved inspiratory muscle strength and endurance compared to education. Further trials are required to investigate the effect of IMT (or combined IMT) compared to other rehabilitation inventions for outcomes such as dyspnea, exercise tolerance, and quality of life. 10.1080/15412550500218072
    Exercise prescription for symptoms and quality of life improvements in lung cancer patients: a systematic review. Codima Alberto,das Neves Silva Willian,de Souza Borges Ana Paula,de Castro Gilberto Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effect of exercise on symptoms and quality of life in lung cancer patients. METHODS:We conducted a systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and SciELO were searched for studies published from January 1998 to January 2019. The review included all randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of exercise on symptoms and quality of life of lung cancer patients. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of all the included studies using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. RESULTS:In total, ten studies (835 participants) met all inclusion criteria. Three studies investigated the effect of exercise after lung resection, whereas four studies investigated it as a pre-surgery intervention. Two studies investigated the effect of exercise in patients under systemic treatment only, and one study included patients on diverse treatment plans. Exercise protocols consisted of different combinations of strength, aerobic, and inspiratory muscle training. Two trials, including 101 participants, found significant difference in quality of life between groups, favoring the intervention group; and five trials, including 549 participants, found significant inter-group differences in isolated symptoms, also favoring the intervention group. CONCLUSIONS:Exercise can lead to improvements of symptoms and of quality of life in lung cancer survivors. Providing resistance training combined with high-intensity interval aerobic exercise after lung resection seems to be particularly effective. Further studies are warranted to investigate exercise for patients with poor performance status. 10.1007/s00520-020-05499-6
    Effectiveness of non-pharmacological COPD management on health-related quality of life - a systematic review. Hindelang Michael,Kirsch Florian,Leidl Reiner Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research : Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of mortality worldwide. The chronic progressive disease is accompanied by a high loss of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The available drugs usually only have symptomatic effects; therefore, non-pharmacological therapies are essential too.: This systematic review examines non-pharmacological interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation, physical activity, and training versus usual care or no intervention in COPD using at least one of the following HRQoL measuring instruments: St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, Clinical COPD Questionnaire, COPD Assessment Test, and EuroQol-5D. Of 1532 identified records from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, 15 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs were investigated in nine studies, education and counseling-based training programs in three studies, and breathing exercises in three studies. Ten studies were found that investigated non-pharmacological treatment programs that led to a significant and clinically relevant improvement in HRQoL compared with usual care or no treatment.: Non-pharmacological interventions consisting of pulmonary rehabilitation, education and counseling-based training programs, and breathing exercises can improve the HRQoL of COPD patients. 10.1080/14737167.2020.1734455
    Isolated Resistance Training Programs to Improve Peripheral Muscle Function in Outpatients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: A Systematic Review. Pancera Simone,Lopomo Nicola F,Bianchi Luca N C,Pedersini Paolo,Villafañe Jorge H Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland) This systematic review aims to establish which isolated resistance training (RT) programs have been used in outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their impact on all aspects of peripheral skeletal muscle function. Electronic databases were systematically searched up to June 2021. The eligibility criteria were: (1) randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of supervised and isolated RT programs in outpatients with COPD and (2) RT programs lasting 8-12 weeks, (3) including at least one outcome measure related to trainable muscle characteristics. Initially, 6576 studies were identified, whereas 15 trials met the inclusion criteria. All the included trials reported that isolated RT improved both upper and lower limbs' maximal strength. Muscle endurance and power also increased after RT but received less attention in the analysis. Furthermore, few studies assessed the effect of RT on muscle mass and cross-sectional area, reporting only limited improvement. Isolated RT programs carried out 2-3 days a week for 8-12 weeks improved skeletal muscle function in individuals with COPD. The RT program should be specifically focused to the trainable muscle characteristic to be improved. For this reason, we further encourage the introduction of a detailed assessment of muscle function and structure during the pulmonary rehabilitation practice. 10.3390/healthcare9101397
    Effectiveness of patient activation interventions on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management outcomes: A systematic review. Shnaigat Mahmmoud,Downie Sue,Hosseinzadeh Hassan The Australian journal of rural health BACKGROUND:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Although there is currently no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the available self-management strategies can result in improving the symptoms, slowing the disease progression, reducing the frequency of acute exacerbations, improving the patients' quality of life and minimising health care utilisation-associated costs. Patient activation is often considered an essential driver of self-management; however, there are contradictory evidence about its impact on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management. OBJECTIVE:This review aims to fill this gap by collating the available evidence on the effectiveness of patient activation-driven chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management interventions. METHODS:Databases including MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Plus, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, APA PsychInfo, EMBASE and ScienceDirect were searched for randomised controlled trials of patient activation-driven chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management interventions between 2004 and July 2020. The search terms included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, self-management/self-care and patient activation/patient engagement. FINDINGS:The initial search resulted in 645 articles, and after reviewing, 10 randomised controlled trials met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our review found that patient activation level had a positive association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management and clinical outcomes, and higher patient activation levels led to better outcomes. The interventions also led to moderate improvements in patient activation level. However, improved patient activation levels did not improve hospitalisation rates, quality of life and mental health. CONCLUSION:Our findings suggest that patient activation can be used as a reliable tool for improving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease self-management and clinical outcomes; however, it should encompass all aspects of patient activation, especially the emotional aspect. 10.1111/ajr.12828
    Optimal duration of pulmonary rehabilitation for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a systematic review. Beauchamp Marla K,Janaudis-Ferreira Tania,Goldstein Roger S,Brooks Dina Chronic respiratory disease The purpose of this review was to determine the impact of duration of pulmonary rehabilitation on measures of health-related quality of life and exercise tolerance in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different lengths of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD were identified after searches of six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database [PEDro] and the Cochrane Library of clinical trials) and reference lists of pertinent articles. Two reviewers performed the searches and assessed trial quality using PEDro and Jadad scales. Five RCTs met inclusion criteria. The mean PEDro score was 6 (range 3-8) and mean Jadad was 2 (range 1-3). Three trials reported a difference in health-related quality of life in favour of the longer duration program; two trials reported a benefit in exercise capacity in favour of longer programs. A meta-analysis of results was not possible due to considerable heterogeneity in program duration and outcomes. Longer duration pulmonary rehabilitation programs appear to have a more favourable effect on health-related quality of life in individuals with COPD; results for exercise capacity are less clear. The limited literature prevents a more definitive conclusion on optimal duration of rehabilitation. 10.1177/1479972311404256
    Systematic review of supervised exercise programs after pulmonary rehabilitation in individuals with COPD. Beauchamp Marla K,Evans Rachael,Janaudis-Ferreira Tania,Goldstein Roger S,Brooks Dina Chest BACKGROUND:The success of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is established, but how to sustain benefits over the long term is less clear. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effect of supervised exercise programs after primary PR on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in individuals with COPD. METHODS:Randomized controlled trials of postrehabilitation supervised exercise programs vs usual care for individuals with COPD were identified after searches of six databases and reference lists of appropriate studies. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs were calculated using a fixed-effect model for measures of exercise capacity and HRQL. RESULTS:Seven randomized controlled trials, with a total of 619 individuals with moderate to severe COPD, met the inclusion criteria. At 6-month follow-up there was a significant difference in exercise capacity in favor of the postrehabilitation interventions (SMD, -0.20; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.01), which was not sustained at 12 months (SMD, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.29 to 0.11). There was no difference between postrehabilitation interventions and usual care with respect to HRQL at any time point. CONCLUSIONS:Supervised exercise programs after primary PR appear to be more effective than usual care for preserving exercise capacity in the medium term but not in the long term. In this review, there was no effect on HRQL. The small number of studies precludes a definitive conclusion as to the impact of postrehabilitation exercise maintenance on longer-term benefits in individuals with COPD. 10.1378/chest.12-2421
    Balance Impairment and Effectiveness of Exercise Intervention in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-A Systematic Review. Chuatrakoon Busaba,Ngai Shirley P C,Sungkarat Somporn,Uthaikhup Sureeporn Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation OBJECTIVE:To systematically review the evidence for balance impairment and effectiveness of interventions on balance in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DATA SOURCES:Four electronic databases (Scopus, CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane Library databases) were searched from inception until June 30, 2019. STUDY SELECTION:Two reviewers independently searched with keywords focusing on COPD, postural control, and exercise. Cross-sectional studies related to balance and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to the effectiveness of exercise intervention on balance outcomes were included. DATA EXTRACTION:Two reviewers independently extracted data of balance impairment on participants, exercise training on balance outcome measures. Methodological quality of cross-sectional studies was assessed using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Quality Assessment Tool. Methodological quality of RCTs was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and bias was analyzed using the Cochrane risk of bias. DATA SYNTHESIS:A narrative review with descriptive synthesis was used. Fifteen cross-sectional studies and 4 RCTs met the final inclusion criteria. The quality of 10 cross-sectional studies were rated as moderate to high (NIH score≥7). Most studies demonstrated impaired balance in people with COPD than in people without COPD. The quality of all included RCTs was good to excellent (PEDro score=6-9). One RCT had a low risk of bias. Generally, pulmonary rehabilitation program combined with balance training, Tai Chi, and cycling exercise showed significant improvement in balance in people with COPD. CONCLUSIONS:Impaired balance is evident in people with COPD. Available RCTs suggest that exercise interventions may improve balance performance in COPD patients. However, more research on the effect of exercise interventions on balance in COPD patients is still required. 10.1016/j.apmr.2020.01.016
    The Use of Spinal Manipulative Therapy in the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review. Wearing Jaxson,Beaumont Sheridan,Forbes Danielle,Brown Benjamin,Engel Roger Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the methodologic quality of the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) with and without other therapies in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DESIGN:A systematic review of the literature. PARTICIPANTS:Any participant of a primary research study that investigated the effect of SMT on COPD. Only studies with participants older than age 18 years with an existing diagnosis of COPD were included. INTERVENTIONS:Interventions included any form of high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation with or without other forms of manual therapy, exercise, and/or pharmacologic intervention. OUTCOME MEASURES:Six-minute walking test, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS:Six articles met all of the inclusion criteria and were included in the review: three randomized controlled trials (RCTs), one pre-post observational study, one case series, and one single case study. Sample sizes varied from 1 to 33 participants ranging in age from 55 to 85 years. Risk of bias was low for the three RCTs and high for the other studies. All three RCTs used SMT in conjunction with exercise from a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Five of the six studies reported improvements in lung function and exercise performance following SMT intervention. CONCLUSIONS:This review provides a methodologic evaluation of the evidence for using SMT with and without other therapies in the management of COPD. While the quality of the evidence provided by three RCTs was high, they were all conducted on small sample sizes. These results highlight the need for further research into the use of SMT in conjunction with exercise on people with COPD. 10.1089/acm.2015.0199
    Exercise Telemonitoring and Telerehabilitation Compared with Traditional Cardiac and Pulmonary Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Chan Christen,Yamabayashi Cristiane,Syed Nafeez,Kirkham Ashley,Camp Pat G Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada Despite exercise capacity and quality-of-life benefits, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes are not easily accessed because of several barriers. A solution may be telerehabilitation (TR), in which patients exercise in their communities while they are monitored via teletechnology. However, the benefits of TR for the purposes of PR and CR have not been systematically reviewed. To determine whether the benefits of the exercise component of PR and CR using TR are comparable to usual-care (UC) programmes. A comprehensive literature search was performed of the Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases up to July 13, 2015. Meta-analyses were performed for peak oxygen consumption, peak workload, exercise test duration, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance using the statistic and forest plots displaying standardized mean difference (SMD). Of 1,431 citations found, 8 CR studies met the inclusion criteria. No differences were found in exercise outcomes between UC and TR groups for CR studies, except in exercise test duration, which slightly favoured UC (SMD 0.268, 95% CI: 0.002, 0.534, <0.05). Only 1 PR study was included, and it showed similar improvements on the 6MWT between the UC and TR groups. TR for patients with cardiac conditions provided benefits similar to UC with no adverse effects reported. Similar studies of TR for patients with pulmonary conditions need to be conducted. 10.3138/ptc.2015-33
    Impact of breathing exercises in subjects with lung cancer undergoing surgical resection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Wang Ya-Qing,Liu Xin,Jia Yong,Xie Jiao Journal of clinical nursing AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of breathing exercises on postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), pulmonary function, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and the length of hospital stay (LOS) in lung cancer patients undergoing lung surgery. BACKGROUND:Lung cancer patients undergoing lung resection have poor pulmonary function and multiple PPCs. Breathing exercises may improve these symptoms. DESIGN:Systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted. METHODS:All entries to the following databases were searched up until 20 December 2017: PubMed, EMBASE Ovid, the Cochrane Central Register of Randomized Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Wanfang, Weipu and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the analysis. RESULTS:A total of sixteen articles including nine articles in Chinese language and seven articles in English met the inclusion criteria. Breathing exercises decreased PPCs, and in addition, the incidence of pneumonia and atelectasis in the postoperative subgroup was reduced. Predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (predicted FEV %), predicted forced vital capacity (predicted FVC%), FVC and FEV /FVC ratio had improved after breathing exercises, but the changes in FEV were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the LOS was significantly decreased, but no improvements were found in 6MWD. CONCLUSIONS:The results showed that breathing exercises could improve lung function, decrease the incidence of PPCs and LOS in a sample of lung cancer patients undergoing pulmonary surgery. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:The analysis suggests that breathing exercises should be considered as a respiratory rehabilitation programme for lung cancer patients undergoing lung surgery in clinical practice. 10.1111/jocn.14696
    Long-term efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation with home-based or low frequent maintenance programs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis. Imamura Soh,Inagaki Takeshi,Terada Jiro,Nagashima Kengo,Katsura Hideki,Tatsumi Koichiro Annals of palliative medicine BACKGROUND:The short-term efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been established. Although continuous follow-up and sustained exercise training is important to maintain the effects, the long-term efficacy of PR without frequent supervised training remains unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the long-term efficacy of PR with home-based or low frequent maintenance program on exercise capacity and health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with COPD. METHODS:We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing long-term efficacy of PR with home-based or low frequent maintenance and no maintenance program from PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Primary outcomes were exercise capacity [6-minute walking distance (6MWD), incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT)] and HRQOL [St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)]. Outcomes were combined using a random-effects model. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019109718. RESULTS:Seven RCTs with a total of 492 patients with COPD met the inclusion criteria. PR with maintenance significantly improved 6MWD [mean difference (MD) 27.00; 95% CI: 1.04-52.96; P=0.01] and ISWT (MD 44.48; 95% CI: 30.70-58.25; P<0.01), however no statistical evidence of improvement in HRQOL (MD -1.32; 95% CI: -7.71 to 5.08, P=0.69) was observed. CONCLUSIONS:PR with maintenance programs appears to be more effective than without maintenance for preserving exercise capacity in the long-term in patients with COPD. No long-term efficacy on HRQOL were noted. To maintain the efficacy of PR on exercise capacity and HRQOL over a long duration, it might be necessary to reexamine the contents and frequency of maintenance programs. 10.21037/apm-19-581
    Efficacy of unsupervised exercise in adults with obstructive lung disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Taylor Daniel,Jenkins Alex R,Parrott Kate,Benham Alex,Targett Samantha,Jones Arwel W Thorax INTRODUCTION:The benefits of unsupervised exercise programmes in obstructive lung disease are unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise evidence regarding the efficacy of unsupervised exercise versus non-exercise-based usual care in patients with obstructive lung disease. METHODS:Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Physiotherapy Evidence Database) and trial registers (ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, UK Clinical Trials Gateway and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) were searched from inception to April 2020 for randomised trials comparing unsupervised exercise programmes with non-exercise-based usual care in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis or asthma. Primary outcomes were exercise capacity, quality of life, mortality, exacerbations and respiratory cause hospitalisations. RESULTS:Sixteen trials (13 COPD, 2 asthma, 1 chronic bronchitis: 1184 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Only data on COPD populations were available for meta-analysis. Unsupervised exercise resulted in a statistically but not clinically significant improvement in the 6-Minute Walk Test (n=5, MD=22.0 m, 95% CI 4.4 to 39.6 m, p=0.01). However, unsupervised exercise did lead to statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (n=4, MD=-11.8 points, 95% CI -21.2 to -2.3 points, p=0.01) and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire domains (dyspnoea: n=4, MD=0.5 points, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8 points, p<0.01; fatigue: n=4, MD=0.7 points, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.0 points, p<0.01; emotion: n=4, MD=0.5 points, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7 points, p<0.01; mastery: unable to perform meta-analysis) compared with non-exercise-based usual care. DISCUSSION:This review demonstrates clinical benefits of unsupervised exercise interventions on health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. High-quality randomised trials are needed to examine the effectiveness of prescription methods. 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-216007
    Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD - available resources and utilization in Swedish primary and secondary care. Sundh Josefin,Lindgren Helena,Hasselgren Mikael,Montgomery Scott,Janson Christer,Ställberg Björn,Lisspers Karin International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease INTRODUCTION:Pulmonary rehabilitation is effective in all stages of COPD. The availability and utilization of pulmonary rehabilitation resources, and the characteristics of COPD patients receiving rehabilitation, were investigated in primary and secondary care in central Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Data on available pulmonary rehabilitation resources were collected using questionnaires, to 14 hospitals and 54 primary health care centers, and information on utilization of different rehabilitation professionals was obtained from questionnaires completed by 1,329 COPD patients from the same centers. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations with having received rehabilitation in the previous year. RESULTS:In primary care, nurse-based asthma/COPD clinics were common (87%), with additional separate access to other rehabilitation professionals. In secondary care, rehabilitation was more often offered as part of a multidisciplinary teamwork (71%). In total, 36% of the patients met an asthma/COPD nurse in the previous year. Utilization was lower in primary than in secondary care for physiotherapists (7% vs 16%), occupational therapists (3% vs 10%), nutritionists (5% vs 13%), and counselors (1% vs 4%). A higher COPD Assessment Test score and frequent exacerbations were associated with higher utilization of all rehabilitation professionals. CONCLUSION:Pulmonary rehabilitation resources are available but underutilized, and receiving rehabilitation is more common in severe COPD. Treatment recommendations need to be better implemented, especially in mild and moderate COPD. 10.2147/COPD.S135111
    Efficacy of supervised maintenance exercise following pulmonary rehabilitation on health care use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Jenkins Alex R,Gowler Holly,Curtis Ffion,Holden Neil S,Bridle Christopher,Jones Arwel W International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Introduction:The clinical benefit of continued supervised maintenance exercise programs following pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD remains unclear. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the efficacy of supervised maintenance exercise programs compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion on health care use and mortality. Methods:Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and PEDro) and trial registers (ClinicalTrials.gov and Current Controlled Trials) were searched for randomized trials comparing supervised maintenance exercise programs with usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion. Primary outcomes were respiratory-cause hospital admissions, exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics and/or systemic corticosteroids, and mortality. Results:Eight trials (790 COPD patients) met the inclusion criteria, six providing data for meta-analysis. Continued supervised maintenance exercise compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation completion significantly reduced the risk of experiencing at least one respiratory-cause hospital admission (risk ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.81, <0.001). Meta-analyses also suggested that supervised maintenance exercise leads to a clinically important reduction in the rate of respiratory-cause hospital admissions (rate ratio 0.72, 95% CI 0.50-1.05, =0.09), overall risk of an exacerbation (risk ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.52-1.19, =0.25), and mortality (risk ratio 0.57, 95% CI 0.17-1.92, =0.37). Conclusion:In the first systematic review of the area, current evidence demonstrates that continued supervised maintenance exercise compared to usual care following pulmonary rehabilitation reduces health care use in COPD. The variance in the quality of the evidence included in this review highlights the need for this evidence to be followed up with further high-quality randomized trials. 10.2147/COPD.S150650
    Dietary resilience in patients with severe COPD at the start of a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Ter Beek Lies,van der Vaart Hester,Wempe Johan B,Dzialendzik Aliaksandra O,Roodenburg Jan Ln,van der Schans Cees P,Keller Heather H,Jager-Wittenaar Harriët International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease BACKGROUND:COPD may impact food-related activities, such as grocery shopping, cooking, and eating. Decreased food intake may result in an unhealthy diet, and in malnutrition, which is highly prevalent in patients with COPD. Malnutrition is known to negatively impact clinical outcome and quality of life. AIMS:In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore strategies used to overcome food-related challenges, ie, dietary resilience, and whether these led to a healthy diet. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the key themes of motivation for dietary resilience in patients with severe COPD. METHODS:In October 2015 to April 2016, 12 patients with severe COPD starting a pulmonary rehabilitation program were interviewed. Qualitative description and thematic analysis were performed. RESULTS:All participants mentioned the use of strategies to overcome challenges. Key themes of motivation for dietary resilience were identified as "wanting to be as healthy as possible", "staying independent", and "promoting a sense of continuity and duty". Two out of 12 participants met the criteria for a healthy diet. CONCLUSION:Our study showed a variety of motivational factors and strategies reported by patients with severe COPD to overcome food-related challenges. However, the majority (n=10) of the participants did not meet the criteria for a healthy diet. The identified key themes can be used to develop education to support patients with severe COPD to improve their diet. 10.2147/COPD.S151720
    Facilitators and barriers to physical activity following pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Robinson Hayley,Williams Veronika,Curtis Ffion,Bridle Christopher,Jones Arwel W NPJ primary care respiratory medicine Pulmonary rehabilitation has short-term benefits on dyspnea, exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD, but evidence suggests these do not always translate to increased daily physical activity on a patient level. This is attributed to a limited understanding of the determinants of physical activity maintenance following pulmonary rehabilitation. This systematic review of qualitative research was conducted to understand COPD patients' perceived facilitators and barriers to physical activity following pulmonary rehabilitation. Electronic databases of published data, non-published data, and trial registers were searched to identify qualitative studies (interviews, focus groups) reporting the facilitators and barriers to physical activity following pulmonary rehabilitation for people with COPD. Thematic synthesis of qualitative data was adopted involving line-by-line coding of the findings of the included studies, development of descriptive themes, and generation of analytical themes. Fourteen studies including 167 COPD patients met the inclusion criteria. Seven sub-themes were identified as influential to physical activity following pulmonary rehabilitation. These included: intentions, self-efficacy, feedback of capabilities and improvements, relationship with health care professionals, peer interaction, opportunities following pulmonary rehabilitation and routine. These encapsulated the facilitators and barriers to physical activity following pulmonary rehabilitation and were identified as sub-themes within the three analytical themes, which were beliefs, social support, and the environment. The findings highlight the challenge of promoting physical activity following pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD and provide complementary evidence to aid evaluations of interventions already attempted in this area, but also adds insight into future development of interventions targeting physical activity maintenance in COPD. 10.1038/s41533-018-0085-7
    Interventions to increase referral and uptake to pulmonary rehabilitation in people with COPD: a systematic review. Early Frances,Wellwood Ian,Kuhn Isla,Deaton Christi,Fuld Jonathan International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) reduces the number and duration of hospital admissions and readmissions, and improves health-related quality of life in patients with COPD. Despite clinical guideline recommendations, under-referral and limited uptake to PR contribute to poor treatment access. We reviewed published literature on the effectiveness of interventions to improve referral to and uptake of PR in patients with COPD when compared to standard care, alternative interventions, or no intervention. The review followed recognized methods. Search terms included "pulmonary rehabilitation" AND "referral" OR "uptake" applied to MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, BNI, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to January 2018. Titles, abstracts, and full papers were reviewed independently and quality appraised. The protocol was registered (PROSPERO # 2016:CRD42016043762). We screened 5,328 references. Fourteen papers met the inclusion criteria. Ten assessed referral and five assessed uptake (46,146 patients, 409 clinicians, 82 hospital departments, 122 general practices). One was a systematic review which assessed uptake. Designs, interventions, and scope of studies were diverse, often part of multifaceted evidence-based management of COPD. Examples included computer-based prompts at practice nurse review, patient information, clinician education, and financial incentives. Four studies reported statistically significant improvements in referral (range 3.5%-36%). Two studies reported statistically significant increases in uptake (range 18%-21.5%). Most studies had methodological and reporting limitations. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity of study designs. This review demonstrates the range of approaches aimed at increasing referral and uptake to PR but identifies limited evidence of effectiveness due to the heterogeneity and limitations of study designs. Research using robust methods with clear descriptions of intervention, setting, and target population is required to optimize access to PR across a range of settings. 10.2147/COPD.S172239
    Healthcare professionals' perceptions of pulmonary rehabilitation as a management strategy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a critical interpretive synthesis. Disability and rehabilitation PURPOSE:To establish literature regarding healthcare professionals' perceptions of pulmonary rehabilitation as a management strategy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHOD:A critical interpretive synthesis was conducted; CINAHL, PsychINFO and MEDLINE were searched between 1988 and August 2019, using MeSH headings and key terms. Reference lists of accepted papers were also searched. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies, written in English, including healthcare professionals' perceptions of pulmonary rehabilitation were included. The search yielded 133 papers which were assessed for eligibility; 20 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS:Two themes were identified, the first explored "Barriers to Pulmonary Rehabilitation" from a healthcare professional's perspective. This incorporated a lack of knowledge, a lack of resources, practical barriers, patient barriers, and healthcare professional's being unsure it is their role to refer. The second entitled "General Perceptions of Pulmonary Rehabilitation", highlighted ways in which the programme could be improved, the perceived positives and negatives, facilitators to referral, and perceptions of patients referred. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first systematic review to encompass the perceptions of healthcare professionals with ability to refer and those who deliver pulmonary rehabilitation. Referral was low, highlighting potential influencing factors such as a lack of programme knowledge, pulmonary rehabilitation beliefs, and communication skills. Given inclusion of studies from multiple geographical locations, the findings provide implications for any healthcare system that develops and delivers pulmonary rehabilitation. With respect of a lack of referrals to the programme, further research should highlight healthcare professionals' perceptions of the referral process, and the views of those in Secondary Care.Implications for rehabilitationChronic obstructive pulmonary disease:•Pulmonary rehabilitation is a proven cost-effective management strategy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which reduces associated hospital admissions and increases quality of life.•Due to a lack of knowledge and negative perceptions surrounding pulmonary rehabilitation, further training and education is required for healthcare professionals surrounding non-pharmacological management strategies.•Pulmonary rehabilitation programmes should consider ways to increase awareness of the service amongst those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.•Those delivering pulmonary rehabilitation should consider ways to support healthcare professionals referring to the programme. 10.1080/09638288.2020.1769745
    Clinical Improvement and Effectiveness of Exercise-Based Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A BRIEF ANALYTICAL REVIEW. Vainshelboim Baruch Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and prevention BACKGROUND:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease associated with high mortality rates and poor clinical condition. Exercise-based pulmonary rehabilitation (EBPR) has been demonstrated to be effective in improving 6-min walk distance (6MWD), although the clinical improvement and effectiveness are less characterized. The current review examined the existing evidence of EBPR among patients with IPF and aimed to analyze the effect of EBPR on clinical improvement and effectiveness. METHODS:A systematic databases search (MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library) was conducted for available publications as of January 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs examining the effect of EBPR in patients with IPF were reviewed. Mean difference for RCTs and weighted mean difference for meta-analyses between the EBPR arm and the usual-care arm in 6MWD were compared with the established minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 30 m. Clinical improvement following EBPR was determined when mean difference and weighted mean difference were equal or exceeding the MCID. Effectiveness of EBPR was assessed using the number needed to treat (NNT) analysis. RESULTS:Five independent RCTs (including 21-61 patients/study) and five meta-analyses (including two to five studies with 62-169 patients/meta-analysis) were included. The mean difference of 6MWD ranged from 16-81 m in RCTs. Three of five RCTs demonstrated an average improvement that meets or exceeds the MCID. Two RCTs showed favorable improvement in 6MWD but did not reach the MCID. The weighted mean difference of 6MWD ranged from 27-49 m in the meta-analyses. Four of five meta-analyses showed an average improvement that meets or exceeds the MCID. One early meta-analysis of only two RCTs showed significant improvement, although did not reach the MCID. The NNT in three RCTs and four meta-analyses that met clinical improvement in 6MWD was one. CONCLUSIONS:This review provides novel evidence with respect to clinical improvement and high effectiveness of EBPR among patients with IPF. The results suggest that, on average, the majority of patients would be expected to clinically improve by completing the EBPR program. The findings further support the prescription of EBPR as clinically effective therapy and implementation as standard of care for patients with IPF. Future studies examining clinical improvement and effectiveness utilizing additional outcomes with the MCID are warranted. 10.1097/HCR.0000000000000544
    Outcome Measures Used in Studies of Rehabilitation in Pulmonary Hypertension. Keen Carol,Harrop Deborah,Hashmi-Greenwood Molly N,Kiely David G,Yorke Janelle,Sage Karen Annals of the American Thoracic Society The evidence base for rehabilitation in pulmonary hypertension is expanding, but adoption in clinical practice is limited. The World Health Organization International Classification for Functioning, Disability and Health identifies three health domains: Body Functions/Structures, Activity and Participation in society. To ensure that the wider impact of rehabilitation in pulmonary hypertension is accurately assessed, it is important that study endpoints reflect all three domains. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies of rehabilitation in patients with pulmonary hypertension from 2006 to 2019. Searches across five databases yielded 2,564 articles, of which 34 met eligibility criteria; 50 different outcome measures (mean = 5, minimum = 1, maximum = 9) were identified. When mapped onto the World Health Organization International Classification for Functioning, Disability and Health, 48% of instances of outcome usage were measures of Body Functions/Structure, 33% were measures of Activity, and 18% were measures of Participation. Measures of Participation were not included in seven studies (21%). Studies of rehabilitation in pulmonary hypertension have focused primarily on measures of Body Functions/Structure; the impact in other health domains is not well characterized. Greater inclusion of outcome measures reflecting Activity and Participation in society is needed to allow assessment of the wider impact of rehabilitation in patients with pulmonary hypertension. 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202005-541OC
    Muscle energy technique for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. Baxter Danielle A,Shergis Johannah L,Fazalbhoy Azharuddin,Coyle Meaghan E Chiropractic & manual therapies Background:Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an increasingly prevalent respiratory disease that impacts on daily living. In addition to difficulty breathing, many people experience extrapulmonary comorbidities such as musculoskeletal disorders. Pulmonary rehabilitation can improve fitness and strength but may be difficult for patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Recent research indicates promising benefits of adding manual therapy to standard care to improve clinical outcomes. Objectives:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Muscle Energy Technique (MET) for people with COPD. Methods:Ten databases were searched from inceptions to May 2018. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials assessing MET compared to any control for COPD. Outcomes included lung function, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. Results:Three randomised controlled trials assessing 90 participants were included. The quality of the research was limited by reporting of outcome measures and results, varying treatment protocols, and small sample sizes. Results from one study showed that pulmonary function was not statistically different between groups at end of treatment (FEV% MD 4.87%; 95% CI - 0.79 to 10.53). Exercise capacity and perceived dyspnoea ratings were improved in single studies. Adverse events were unrelated to the MET intervention. Conclusions:The use of MET for COPD is an emerging field of research, with few studies evaluating its efficacy and safety. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of MET in the management of COPD. Rigorously designed studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better understand the role of MET for COPD. 10.1186/s12998-019-0256-9
    Effectiveness of disease-specific self-management education on health outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Wang Tao,Tan Jing-Yu,Xiao Lily Dongxia,Deng Renli Patient education and counseling OBJECTIVES:To update a previously published systematic review on the effectiveness of self-management education (SME) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS:Electronic databases were accessed (from inception to July 2016) to find relevant randomized controlled trials. Studies that compared SME with routine methods of care in COPD patients were retrieved. Both data synthesis and descriptive analysis were used for outcome assessment (e.g. quality of life and healthcare utilization). RESULTS:Twenty-four studies were included. Data synthesis showed better quality of life among COPD patients receiving SME. Significant reductions in COPD-related hospital admissions and emergency department visits were identified in the SME group. SME may positively affect the reduction of COPD patients' emotional distress. No significant reduction in smoking rate and mortality rate was observed between groups. No clear evidence supports the improvement of pulmonary functions, dyspnea, and nutritional status in COPD patients with the use of SME. CONCLUSION:SME can be a useful strategy to improve quality of life and disease-specific knowledge in patients with COPD. It also reduces respiratory-related hospital admissions and emergency department visits in COPD patients. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:Inclusion of SME as one of the key components for the comprehensive management of COPD is encouraged. 10.1016/j.pec.2017.02.026
    Effects of telephone support on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis. Deng Nan,Gu Ting,Zhao Qian,Zhang Xiaoyi,Zhao Fangfang,He Hong Psychology, health & medicine The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of disease education or pulmonary rehabilitation programs assisted with telephone support on physical capacity and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library was conducted until May 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of telephone-assisted intervention versus a control group on exercise tolerance and QOL in patients with COPD were included. Two independent authors assessed the methodological quality of the trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A meta-analysis was conducted with the Revman5.3 to quantify the effects of telephone-assisted interventions on walking capacity and QOL. In total, 10 studies involving 1037 participants were included. Due to the effect of telephone-assisted interventions, statistically significant results were found on Saint-George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) symptom scores [standard mean difference (SMD) -.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) -.33, -.03, p-value .02)], SGRQ impact scores [SMD -.35, 95% CI -.60, -.10, p-value .006)], SGRQ activity scores [SMD -.30, 95% CI -.45, -.15, p-value < .0001)], SGRQ total score [SMD -.36, 95% CI -.51, -.21, p-value < .00001)]. The effects on 6-min walk test (6MWT) and all Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) subscales were not significant (p > .05) based on the insufficient evidence. In conclusion, the role of telephone-assisted interventions in the management of COPD remains equivocal. Some encouraging results were seen with regard to SGRQ symptom, SGRQ impact, SGRQ activity and SGRQ total score. We believe that more methodologically rigorous large-scale randomized controlled trials are necessary to answer this study question. 10.1080/13548506.2018.1425462