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    Risk of cardiovascular events and death associated with initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors compared with DPP-4 inhibitors: an analysis from the CVD-REAL 2 multinational cohort study. Kohsaka Shun,Lam Carolyn S P,Kim Dae Jung,Cavender Matthew A,Norhammar Anna,Jørgensen Marit E,Birkeland Kåre I,Holl Reinhard W,Franch-Nadal Josep,Tangri Navdeep,Shaw Jonathan E,Ilomäki Jenni,Karasik Avraham,Goh Su-Yen,Chiang Chern-En,Thuresson Marcus,Chen Hungta,Wittbrodt Eric,Bodegård Johan,Surmont Filip,Fenici Peter,Kosiborod Mikhail, The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular outcome trials have shown cardiovascular benefit with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have not shown an effect. We aimed to address knowledge gaps regarding the comparative effectiveness of SGLT2 inhibitor use in clinical practice (with DPP-4 inhibitor use as an active comparator) across a range of cardiovascular risks and in diverse geographical settings. METHODS:In this comparative cohort study, we used data from clinical practice from 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific, Middle East, European, and North American regions to assess the risk of cardiovascular events and death in adult patients with type 2 diabetes newly initiated on SGLT2 inhibitors compared with those newly initiated on DPP-4 inhibitors. De-identified health records were used to select patients who were initiated on these drug classes between Dec 1, 2012, and May 1, 2016, with follow-up until Dec 31, 2014, to Nov 30, 2017 (full range; dates varied by country). Non-parsimonious propensity scores for SGLT2 inhibitor initiation were developed for each country and patients who were initiated on an SGLT2 inhibitor were matched with those who were initiated on a DPP-4 inhibitor in a 1:1 ratio. Outcomes assessed were hospitalisation for heart failure, all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by country and then pooled in a weighted meta-analysis. FINDINGS:Following propensity score matching, 193 124 new users of SGLT2 inhibitors and 193 124 new users of DPP-4 inhibitors were included in the study population. Participants had a mean age of 58 years (SD 12·2), 170 335 (44·1%) of 386 248 were women, and 111 933 (30·1%) of 372 262 had established cardiovascular disease. Initiation of an SGLT2 inhibitor versus a DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with substantially lower risks of hospitalisation for heart failure (HR 0·69, 95% CI 0·61-0·77; p<0·0001), all-cause death (0·59, 0·52-0·67; p<0·0001), and the composite of hospitalisation for heart failure or all-cause death (0·64, 0·57-0·72; p<0·0001). Risks of myocardial infarction (HR 0·88, 0·80-0·98; p=0·020) and stroke (0·85 0·77-0·93; p=0·0004) were significantly but modestly lower with SGLT2 inhibitors versus DPP-4 inhibitors. INTERPRETATION:In this large, international, observational study, initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors versus DPP-4 inhibitors was associated with lower risks of heart failure, death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, providing further support for the cardiovascular benefits associated with use of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING:AstraZeneca. 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30130-3
    A comparison of effects of DPP-4 inhibitor and SGLT2 inhibitor on lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cha Seon-Ah,Park Yong-Moon,Yun Jae-Seung,Lim Tae-Seok,Song Ki-Ho,Yoo Ki-Dong,Ahn Yu-Bae,Ko Seung-Hyun Lipids in health and disease BACKGROUND:Previous studies suggest that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have different effects on the lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors on the lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 228 patients with type 2 diabetes who were receiving a DPP-4 inhibitor or SGLT2 inhibitor as add-on therapy to metformin and/or a sulfonylurea were consecutively enrolled. We compared the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT2 inhibitors on the lipid profile at baseline and after 24 weeks of treatment. To compare lipid parameters between the two groups, we used the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). RESULTS:A total of 184 patients completed follow-up (mean age: 53.1 ± 6.9 years, mean duration of diabetes: 7.1 ± 5.7 years). From baseline to 24 weeks, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were increased by 0.5 (95% CI, -0.9 to 2.0) mg/dl with a DPP-4 inhibitor and by 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0 to 7.1) mg/dl with an SGLT2 inhibitor (p = 0.001). LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were reduced by 8.4 (95% CI, -14.0 to -2.8) mg/dl with a DPP-4 inhibitor, but increased by 1.3 (95% CI, -5.1 to 7.6) mg/dl with an SGLT2 inhibitor (p = 0.046). There was no significant difference in the mean hemoglobin A1c (8.3 ± 1.1 vs. 8.0 ± 0.9%, p = 0.110) and in the change of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.836), triglyceride (TG) (p = 0.867), apolipoprotein A (p = 0.726), apolipoprotein B (p = 0.660), and lipoprotein (a) (p = 0.991) between the DPP-4 inhibitor and the SGLT2 inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS:The SGLT2 inhibitor was associated with a significant increase in HDL-C and LDL-C after 24 weeks of SGLT2 inhibitor treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with those with DPP-4 inhibitor treatment in this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study was conducted by retrospective medical record review. 10.1186/s12944-017-0443-4
    Update review of the safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Carlson Curt J,Santamarina Marile L Expert opinion on drug safety INTRODUCTION:The safety profile of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors has continued to evolve with the availability of data from clinical trial programs, post-marketing pharmacovigilance and dedicated cardiovascular outcome trials. AREAS COVERED:This article reviews the safety issues associated with the SGLT2 inhibitors canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin, particularly the newer/emergent safety data related to US Food and Drug Administration statements regarding these three agents. EXPERT OPINION:The safety profile of SGLT2 inhibitors is well defined, and the adverse event profile is largely consistent with their mechanism of action. These well-recognized events include genital mycotic infections and volume-associated adverse events. Serious safety issues detected more recently with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy, such as bone fractures, pyelonephritis, urosepsis, and ketoacidosis, have been uncommon. A robust improvement in cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was recently demonstrated with empagliflozin. Given the glucose-lowering efficacy, low risk of hypoglycemia, and other benefits associated with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy, this class of oral glucose-lowering medication is a valuable addition to treatment options for T2DM, and may play an increasingly prominent therapeutic role as emerging data are revealed. 10.1080/14740338.2016.1216100
    Role of the Kidney in Type 2 Diabetes and Mechanism of Action of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors. Mintz Matthew L The Journal of family practice The aim of this supplement is to discuss the important role of the kidney in glucose homeostasis. It produces glucose via gluconeogenesis, it filters glucose from the blood, and reabsorbs the filtered glucose in the proximal tubule, mainly via the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2). SGLT-2 is paradoxically upregulated in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), which results in increased glucose reabsorption and hyperglycemia. This core defect in the pathophysiology of T2D provides the rationale for the use of SGLT-2 inhibitors to increase urinary glucose excretion and reduce hyperglycemia in an insulin-independent manner. Benefits of SGLT-2 inhibitor use in patients with T2D, in addition to improved glycemic control, include modest weight loss, decreased systolic blood pressure, reduced serum uric acid, and reduced risk of cardiovascular events. Common adverse events are urinary tract infection and genital mycotic infections. The risk of hypoglycemia is low with SGLT-2 inhibitors, particularly when they are given as monotherapy.
    [Role of the kidneys in glucose homeostasis. Implication of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in diabetes mellitus treatment]. Girard Jean Nephrologie & therapeutique Kidney plays an important role in glucose homeostasis, both in the post-absorptive and postprandial period. Kidney produces glucose by gluconeogenesis in the renal cortex and uses glucose for covering energy needs of the medulla. Kidney participates also to the reabsorption of filtered glucose in order the terminal urine was devoided of glucose, as long as blood glucose did not exceed 180mg/dL. Reabsorption of glucose is mediated by sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT1 et SGLT2) expressed in S1 and S3 segments of proximal tubule. SGLT2 is the main sodium-glucose cotransporter responsible for 90% of glucose reabsorption. In type 2 diabetics, renal gluconeogenesis and glucose utilisation are increased by 30%. Surprisingly, renal glucose reabsorption is increased, participating to worsening of hyperglycemia. This results from the increase in the renal threshhold of glucose reabsorption (220mg/dL) and from an overexpression of SGLT2 in response to hyperglycemia and of cytokine secretion. The administration of SGLT2 inhibitors to type 2 diabetic patients induced a decreased in the renal threshhold of glucose reabsorption (80mg/dL) and strongly reduced kidney glucose reabsorption. The inhibitors of SGLT2 are the only antidiabetic molecules able to correct the excessive renal glucose reabsorption in type 2 diabetics and thus to contribute, by an original mechanism, to the lowering of blood glucose level. 10.1016/j.nephro.2017.01.006
    Efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor ipragliflozin on glycemic control and cardiovascular parameters in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; Fukuoka Study of Ipragliflozin (FUSION). Nomiyama Takashi,Shimono Dai,Horikawa Tsuyoshi,Fujimura Yuki,Ohsako Tomohiro,Terawaki Yuichi,Fukuda Takashi,Motonaga Ryoko,Tanabe Makito,Yanase Toshihiko, Endocrine journal Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors are newly established anti-diabetic agents with a unique glucose-lowering mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor ipragliflozin (Ipra) for metabolic markers and cardiovascular parameters in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was an investigator-initiated, open-label, single-arm, multicenter prospective study. Patients with T2DM were treated with 50 mg Ipra for 24 and 52 weeks. The primary outcome investigated was the reduction of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. The secondary outcome was the change in other metabolic and cardiovascular parameters by 24 weeks. Before and after 52 weeks of treatment, carotid intima-media thickening (IMT) was measured by echography. A total of 134 patients were recruited in the study. A 24-week treatment with 50 mg Ipra daily significantly reduced HbA1c level (-0.6%, p < 0.01). Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and serum C-peptide were reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while serum glucagon level was unchanged. Interestingly, the serum adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were significantly increased by Ipra. However, 52 weeks of Ipra treatment did not change carotid IMT. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the only significant contributing factor for HbA1c reduction by Ipra was baseline HbA1c level. These data suggest that Ipra decreased not only glucose level but also BMI, blood pressure and serum C-peptide, and the contributing factor for HbA1c reduction by Ipra was baseline HbA1c level. Further, Ipra improved serum adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels. 10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0022
    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors antagonize lipotoxicity in human myeloid angiogenic cells and ADP-dependent activation in human platelets: potential relevance to prevention of cardiovascular events. Spigoni Valentina,Fantuzzi Federica,Carubbi Cecilia,Pozzi Giulia,Masselli Elena,Gobbi Giuliana,Solini Anna,Bonadonna Riccardo C,Dei Cas Alessandra Cardiovascular diabetology BACKGROUND:The clear evidence of cardiovascular benefits in cardiovascular outcome trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) in type 2 diabetes might suggest an effect on atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and/or thrombosis, in which myeloid angiogenic cells (MAC) and platelets (PLT) are implicated. We tested the effects of SGLT2i on inflammation and oxidant stress in a model of stearic acid (SA)-induced lipotoxicity in MAC and on PLT activation. The possible involvement of the Na/H exchanger (NHE) was also explored. METHOD:MAC and PLT were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy subjects and incubated with/without SGLT2i [empagliflozin (EMPA) and dapagliflozin (DAPA) 1-100 μM] to assess their effects on SA (100 μM)-induced readouts of inflammation, oxidant stress and apoptosis in MAC and on expression of PLT activation markers by flow-cytometry after ADP-stimulation. Potential NHE involvement was tested with amiloride (aspecific NHE inhibitor) or cariporide (NHE1 inhibitor). Differences among culture conditions were identified using one-way ANOVA or Friedman test. RESULTS:NHE isoforms (1,5-9), but not SGLT2 expression, were expressed in MAC and PLT. EMPA and DAPA (100 μM) significantly reduced SA-induced inflammation (IL1β, TNFα, MCP1), oxidant stress (SOD2, TXN, HO1), but not apoptosis in MAC. EMPA and DAPA (both 1 μM) reduced PLT activation (CD62p and PAC1 expression). SGLT2i effects were mimicked by amiloride, and only partially by cariporide, in MAC, and by both inhibitors in PLT. CONCLUSIONS:EMPA and DAPA ameliorated lipotoxic damage in stearate-treated MAC, and reduced ADP-stimulated PLT activation, potentially via NHE-inhibition, thereby pointing to plaque stabilization and/or thrombosis inhibition as potential mechanism(s) involved in SGLT2i-mediated cardiovascular protection. 10.1186/s12933-020-01016-5
    Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Understanding the mechanisms for therapeutic promise and persisting risks. Perry Rachel J,Shulman Gerald I The Journal of biological chemistry In a healthy person, the kidney filters nearly 200 g of glucose per day, almost all of which is reabsorbed. The primary transporter responsible for renal glucose reabsorption is sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2). Based on the impact of SGLT2 to prevent renal glucose wasting, SGLT2 inhibitors have been developed to treat diabetes and are the newest class of glucose-lowering agents approved in the United States. By inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule, these agents promote glycosuria, thereby reducing blood glucose concentrations and often resulting in modest weight loss. Recent work in humans and rodents has demonstrated that the clinical utility of these agents may not be limited to diabetes management: SGLT2 inhibitors have also shown therapeutic promise in improving outcomes in heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and, in preclinical studies, certain cancers. Unfortunately, these benefits are not without risk: SGLT2 inhibitors predispose to euglycemic ketoacidosis in those with type 2 diabetes and, largely for this reason, are not approved to treat type 1 diabetes. The mechanism for each of the beneficial and harmful effects of SGLT2 inhibitors-with the exception of their effect to lower plasma glucose concentrations-is an area of active investigation. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which these drugs cause euglycemic ketoacidosis and hyperglucagonemia and stimulate hepatic gluconeogenesis as well as their beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and cancer. In so doing, we aim to highlight the crucial role for selecting patients for SGLT2 inhibitor therapy and highlight several crucial questions that remain unanswered. 10.1074/jbc.REV120.008387
    Roles of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 of Mesangial Cells in Diabetic Kidney Disease. Wakisaka Masanori,Nakamura Kuniyuki,Nakano Toshiaki,Kitazono Takanari Journal of the Endocrine Society We have been studying the presence of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in mesangial cells and pericytes since 1992. Recent large placebo-controlled studies of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have reported desirable effects of the inhibitors on the diabetic kidney and the diabetic heart. Most studies have indicated that these effects of SGLT2 inhibitors could be mediated by the tubuloglomerular feedback system. However, a recent study about urine sodium excretion in the presence of an SGLT2 inhibitor did not show any increases in urine sodium excretion. A very small dose of an SGLT2 inhibitor did not inhibit SGLT2 at the S1 segment of proximal tubules. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibition protects against progression in chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes. In these circumstances, the tubuloglomerular feedback hypothesis involves several theoretical concerns that must be clarified. The presence of SGLT2 in mesangial cells seems to be very important for diabetic nephropathy. We now propose a novel mechanism by which the desirable effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on diabetic nephropathy are derived from the direct effect on SGLT2 expressed in mesangial cells. 10.1210/jendso/bvab083
    Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure. Shah Kevin S,Fang James C Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve blood glucose control by blocking renal glucose reabsorption with little subsequent risk of hypoglycemia. Consequently, there are decreases in plasma volume, body weight, and blood pressure. Additional putative benefits include improved cardiovascular energetics, decreased systemic inflammation, and less renal dysfunction. Multiple cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetic patients have demonstrated this drug class reduces the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Reductions in heart failure (HF) hospitalization suggested that SGLT2 inhibitors might prove useful for the primary treatment of HF. Two large subsequent trials studying SGLT2 inhibitors in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) demonstrated a reduction in cardiovascular mortality, HF hospitalizations, and renal-specific adverse events. This medication class is now recognized as a new pillar of therapy for patients with HFrEF. The cardiovascular and HF community await the results of ongoing trials of SGLT2 inhibition in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction. 10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-052120-014725
    The Role of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Narrative Review of Potential Mechanisms. Barraclough Jennifer Y,Patel Sanjay,Yu Jie,Neal Bruce,Arnott Clare Cells Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of medication with broad cardiovascular benefits in those with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. These include reductions in major adverse cardiac events and cardiovascular death. The mechanisms that underlie their benefits in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are not well understood, but they extend beyond glucose lowering. This narrative review summarises the ASCVD benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors seen in large human outcome trials, as well as the mechanisms of action explored in rodent and small human studies. Potential pathways include favourable alterations in lipid metabolism, inflammation, and endothelial function. These all require further investigation in large human clinical trials with mechanistic endpoints, to further elucidate the disease modifying benefits of this drug class and those who will benefit most from it. 10.3390/cells10102699
    A sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor attenuates renal capillary injury and fibrosis by a vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent pathway after renal injury in mice. Zhang Yifan,Nakano Daisuke,Guan Yu,Hitomi Hirofumi,Uemura Akiyoshi,Masaki Tsutomu,Kobara Hideki,Sugaya Takeshi,Nishiyama Akira Kidney international Multiple large clinical trials have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of renal events. However, the mechanism responsible for this outcome remains unknown. Here we investigated the effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor luseogliflozin on the development of renal fibrosis after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in non-diabetic mice. Luseogliflozin significantly suppressed development of renal fibrosis, prevented peritubular capillary congestion/hemorrhage, attenuated CD31-positive cell loss, suppressed hypoxia, and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression in the kidney after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Luseogliflozin failed to induce the above-mentioned protection in animals co-treated with sunitinib, a VEGF receptor inhibitor. Additionally, luseogliflozin reduced glucose uptake and increased VEGF-A expression in the kidneys of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2)-downregulated mice following ischemia/reperfusion and in GLUT2-knock-down cells compared with those in normal controls. Withdrawal of glucose from cultured medium, to halt glucose uptake, remarkably increased VEGF-A expression and reversed the luseogliflozin-induced increase in VEGF-A expression in the proximal tubular cells. Thus, luseogliflozin prevented endothelial rarefaction and subsequent renal fibrosis after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury through a VEGF-dependent pathway induced by the dysfunction of proximal tubular glucose uptake in tubules with injury-induced GLUT2 downregulation. 10.1016/j.kint.2018.05.002
    Acute and Direct Effects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition on Glomerular Filtration Rate in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats. Takakura Shoji,Takasu Toshiyuki Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin Recent clinical studies indicate that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exhibit a renoprotective effect. While studies at the single nephron level suggest that direct effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal hemodynamics may be a possible mechanism underlying their renoprotective effect, few studies have focused on such direct effects at the whole-kidney level. In the present study, we investigated the acute and direct effect of SGLT2 inhibition on creatinine clearance, an index of whole-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR), in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Twelve to fifteen-week-old male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rats and Sprague-Dawley rats were used as diabetic animals and non-diabetic controls, respectively. Under general anesthesia, baseline urine samples were collected from the left and right ureters for 1 h. The selective SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin or vehicle was subsequently administered intravenously and post-drug urine was collected for 1 h. Baseline and post-drug blood samples were collected immediately before baseline urine collection and immediately after post-drug urine collection, respectively. Plasma glucose, urine volume, urinary glucose and albumin excretion were measured, and creatinine clearance was calculated. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously throughout the experiment. A single intravenous injection of ipragliflozin increased both urine output and glucose excretion, but reduced creatinine clearance without affecting systemic blood pressure. These results suggest that SGLT2 inhibition directly reduced whole-kidney GFR, most likely due to a reduction in intraglomerular pressure, by altering local renal hemodynamics, which may contribute to the renoprotective effects demonstrated in clinical studies. 10.1248/bpb.b19-00351
    Inhibition of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Attenuates the Dysregulation of Kelch-Like 3 and NaCl Cotransporter in Obese Diabetic Mice. Ishizawa Kenichi,Wang Qin,Li Jinping,Xu Ning,Nemoto Yoshikazu,Morimoto Chikayuki,Fujii Wataru,Tamura Yoshifuru,Fujigaki Yoshihide,Tsukamoto Kazuhisa,Fujita Toshiro,Uchida Shunya,Shibata Shigeru Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN BACKGROUND:Mechanisms underlying the frequent association between salt-sensitive hypertension and type 2 diabetes remain obscure. We previously found that protein kinase C (PKC) activation phosphorylates Kelch-like 3 (KLHL3), an E3 ubiquitin ligase component, at serine 433. We investigated whether impaired KLHL3 activity results in increased renal salt reabsorption NaCl cotransporter (NCC). METHODS:We used the db/db diabetes mouse model to explore KLHL3's role in renal salt handling in type 2 diabetes and evaluated mechanisms of KLHL3 dysregulation in cultured cells. RESULTS:We observed PKC activity in the db/db mouse kidney and phosphorylation of serine 433 in KLHL3 (KLHL3). This modification prevents binding of with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases; however, total KLHL3 levels were decreased, indicating severely impaired KLHL3 activity. This resulted in WNK accumulation, activating NCC in distal convoluted tubules. Ipragliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, lowered PKC activity in distal convoluted tubule cells and reduced KLHL3 and NCC levels, whereas the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone did not, although the two agents similarly reduced in blood glucose levels. We found that, in human embryonic kidney cells expressing KLHL3 and distal convoluted tubule cells, cellular glucose accumulation increased KLHL3 levels through PKC. Finally, the effect of PKC inhibition in the kidney of db/db mice confirmed PKC's causal role in KLHL3 and NCC induction. CONCLUSIONS:Dysregulation of KLHL3 is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. These data offer a rationale for use of thiazide in individuals with diabetes and provide insights into the mechanism for cardiorenal protective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors. 10.1681/ASN.2018070703
    A Potential Mechanism of Cardio-Renal Protection with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Amelioration of Renal Congestion. Kuriyama Satoru Kidney & blood pressure research BACKGROUND:This review considers anew the etiology of the cardio-renal protective effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors by extending the discussion to renal congestion, inherent in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) even at an early stage of nephropathy in which heart failure (HF) or salt and water accumulation is asymptomatic. SUMMARY:The interstitial fluid (IF) space of the kidney space plays a crucial role for tubulointerstitial inflammation, renal hypoxia, and ischemic injury, which often leads to renal progression. In DKD, as a result of hyperglycemic milieu, excessive salt and water can be accumulated in the IF space, creating renal congestion. I hypothesize that SGLT2 inhibitors cause a shift in extracellular water from the IF space to the intravascular space to compensate for the SGLT2 inhibitor-induced hypovolemia. This decrease in IF volume ameliorates the IF space milieu and may reduce inflammation, hypoxia, and ischemic injury. Message: The present review proposes a novel theory; unlike other hypoglycemic agents or diuretics, SGLT2 inhibitor could protect DKD from failing by improving latent renal congestion even without symptomatic HF. 10.1159/000501081
    Effect of Hemoglobin A1c Reduction or Weight Reduction on Blood Pressure in Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. Hu Mengdie,Cai Xiaoling,Yang Wenjia,Zhang Simin,Nie Lin,Ji Linong Journal of the American Heart Association Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) have shown their beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes and multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. However, the mechanism of blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of these agents has not been elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hemoglobin A1c reduction or body weight reduction with GLP-1RA treatment and SGLT2i treatment on BP changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results Studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register until June 2019. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between hemoglobin A1c reduction or body weight reduction and changes of BP. A total of 184 trials were included. Both GLP-1RA and SGLT2i led to significant reductions in systolic BP (weighted mean difference, -2.856 and -4.331 mm Hg, respectively; <0.001 for both) and diastolic BP (weighted mean difference, -0.898 and -2.279 mm Hg, respectively; <0.001 for both). For both drug classes, hemoglobin A1c reduction was not independently associated with systolic BP reduction or diastolic BP reduction. In GLP-1RA treatment, weight reduction was positively associated with systolic BP reduction and diastolic BP reduction (β=0.821 and β=0.287, respectively; <0.001 for both). In SGLT2i treatment, weight loss was significantly associated with systolic BP reduction (β=0.820; =0.001) but was not associated with diastolic BP reduction. Conclusions Treatment with GLP-1RA and SGLT2i led to significant reductions in BP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Weight reduction was significantly and independently associated with BP reductions in GLP-1RA treatment and SGLT2i treatment. 10.1161/JAHA.119.015323
    Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors in Vascular Biology: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms. Xiao Lei,Nie Xin,Cheng Yanyan,Wang Nanping Cardiovascular drugs and therapy Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are new antidiabetic drugs that reduce hyperglycemia by inhibiting the glucose reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. Clinical studies have shown that SGLT2 inhibitors not only improve glycemic control but also reduce major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, cardiovascular and total mortality, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke) and hospitalization for heart failure (HF), and improve outcome in chronic kidney disease. These cardiovascular and renal benefits have now been confirmed in both diabetes and non-diabetes patients. The precise mechanism(s) responsible for the protective effects are under intensive investigation. This review examines current evidence on the cardiovascular benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors, with a special emphasis on the vascular actions and their potential mechanisms. 10.1007/s10557-021-07216-9
    Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Heart Failure: A Bedside-to-Bench Journey. Cappetta Donato,De Angelis Antonella,Bellocchio Gabriella,Telesca Marialucia,Cianflone Eleonora,Torella Daniele,Rossi Francesco,Urbanek Konrad,Berrino Liberato Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF) are multifactorial diseases sharing common risk factors, such as obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, with underlying mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic alterations. Cardiovascular benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors observed in diabetic and non-diabetic patients are also related to their cardiac-specific, SGLT-independent mechanisms, in addition to the metabolic and hemodynamic effects. In search of the possible underlying mechanisms, a research campaign has been launched proposing varied mechanisms of action that include intracellular ion homeostasis, autophagy, cell death, and inflammatory processes. Moreover, the research focus was widened toward cellular targets other than cardiomyocytes. At the moment, intracellular sodium level reduction is the most explored mechanism of direct cardiac effects of SGLT2 inhibitors that mediate the benefits in heart failure in addition to glucose excretion and diuresis. The restoration of cardiac Na levels with consequent positive effects on Ca handling can directly translate into improved contractility and relaxation of cardiomyocytes and have antiarrhythmic effects. In this review, we summarize clinical trials, studies on human cells, and animal models, that provide a vast array of data in support of repurposing this class of antidiabetic drugs. 10.3389/fcvm.2021.810791
    The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves liver function and insulin resistance in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Okura Tsuyoshi,Fujioka Yohei,Nakamura Risa,Kitao Sonoko,Ito Yuichi,Anno Mari,Matsumoto Kazuhisa,Shoji Kyoko,Matsuzawa Kazuhiko,Izawa Shoichiro,Okura Hiroko,Ueta Etsuko,Kato Masahiko,Imamura Takeshi,Taniguchi Shin-Ichi,Yamamoto Kazuhiro Scientific reports Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) treatment is a therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Some reports have shown that SGLT2i treatment improves insulin resistance; however, few studies have evaluated insulin resistance by the glucose clamp method. Hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) is a new pathophysiological mechanism of T2DM. The effect of SGLT2i treatment on hepatic insulin clearance and insulin resistance is not well known. We investigated the effect of SGLT2i treatment on insulin resistance, insulin secretion, incretin levels, body composition, and hepatic insulin clearance. We conducted a meal tolerance test (MTT) and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test in 9 T2DM patients. Ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) was administered, and the MTT and clamp test were performed after 4 months. We calculated HIC as the postprandial C-peptide AUC-to-insulin AUC ratio. We also measured GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon levels during the MTT. Body weight and HbA1c were decreased, although not significantly, after 4 months of treatment. Postprandial glucose, fasting insulin and postprandial insulin were significantly decreased. Insulin resistance with the glucose clamp was not changed, but the HOMA-IR and insulin sensitivity indices were significantly improved. Incretin and glucagon levels were not changed. Hepatic insulin clearance was significantly increased, but whole-body insulin clearance was not changed. The FIB-4 index and fatty liver index were significantly reduced. The HOMA-beta and insulinogenic indices were not changed, but the C-peptide index was significantly increased. Although the number of patients was small, these results suggested that SGLT2i treatment improved liver function, decreased hepatic insulin resistance, and increased hepatic insulin clearance, despite the small weight reduction. 10.1038/s41598-022-05704-y
    Tubulointerstitial Nephritis after Using a Sodium-glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor: A Case Report. Konta Yusuke,Saito Eiichiro,Sato Koji,Furuta Kyohei,Miyauchi Kenichiro,Furukawa Akiko,Sato Hiroshi,Yamamoto Tae Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) We herein report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) due to tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) after starting empagliflozin in a diabetic patient. The patient developed stage 1 AKI with proteinuria and elevated tubulointerstitial markers. A renal biopsy showed acute TIN with lymphocytic infiltration into the interstitium. The patient's renal function improved after discontinuation of empagliflozin and steroid administration. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor-induced AKI has been reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear, potentially because few patients with SGLT2-inhibitor-induced AKI have undergone a renal biopsy. We report the present case in the hope that it will help clarify the mechanism. 10.2169/internalmedicine.9011-21
    Diabetes and Bone Fragility: SGLT2 Inhibitor Use in the Context of Renal and Cardiovascular Benefits. Jackson Kristen,Moseley Kendall F Current osteoporosis reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been shown to negatively impact bone quality and increase fracture risk. While the pathophysiology of bone fragility in T2DM is not clear and likely multifactorial, medications used to treat T2DM are increasingly scrutinized for their potential role in aberrant bone metabolism. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are gaining popularity in patients with T2DM. In addition to lowering blood glucose, there is evidence that these drugs offer cardiac and renal benefit to individuals with T2DM, leading to FDA-approved indications for use in at-risk individuals. At the same time, there remain concerns that SGLT2 inhibitors, specifically canagliflozin, have adverse effects on bone metabolism and increase fracture risk in T2DM. This review seeks to further clarify the impact of these agents on the skeleton. RECENT FINDINGS:SGLT2 inhibitors may indirectly disrupt calcium and phosphate homeostasis, contribute to weight loss, and cause hypotension, resulting in bone mineral density (BMD) losses and increased falls. The true long-term impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on the diabetic skeleton is still unclear; this review summarizes the results in studies investigating the impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on fracture risk in T2DM. Whereas studies performed with dapagliflozin and empagliflozin have not shown an increased risk of bone fractures compared with placebo, some studies have shown increased markers of bone turnover and reduced bone mineral density with canagliflozin treatment. While an increased fracture risk was observed with canagliflozin in the CANVAS trial (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.04, 1.52), an increased risk was not seen in the CANVAS-R (HR 0.86) or CREDENCE (HR 0.98) trials. There is substantial evidence of the cardiac and renal protective benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors. There does not appear to be an increased fracture risk with the use of dapagliflozin or empagliflozin. Given the possible association between canagliflozin and adverse bone outcomes described in CANVAS, canagliflozin use should be pursued in individuals with T2DM only after careful consideration of the individual's skeletal risk. 10.1007/s11914-020-00609-z
    A registry-based randomised trial comparing an SGLT2 inhibitor and metformin as standard treatment of early stage type 2 diabetes (SMARTEST): Rationale, design and protocol. Sundström Johan,Kristófi Robin,Östlund Ollie,Bennet Louise,Eliasson Björn,Jansson Stefan,Leksell Janeth,Almby Kristina,Lundqvist Martin,Eriksson Jan W, Journal of diabetes and its complications AIM:SGLT2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce cardiovascular and renal complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients at high cardiovascular risk. Metformin is currently widely used as initial monotherapy in T2D but lacks convincing data to show that it reduces risk of complications. We aim to compare the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin and metformin as first-line T2D medication with regard to development of complications in a registry-based randomised controlled trial. METHODS:The SGLT2 inhibitor or metformin as standard treatment of early stage type 2 diabetes (SMARTEST) trial will enrol 4300 subjects at 30-40 study sites in Sweden who will be randomised 1:1 to either metformin or dapagliflozin. Participants must have T2D duration <4 years, no prior cardiovascular disease, and be either drug-naïve or on monotherapy for T2D. RESULTS:The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death, major adverse cardiovascular events and occurrence or progression of microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, diabetic foot lesions). Secondary endpoints include individual components of the primary endpoint, start of insulin therapy, risk factor biomarkers, patient-reported outcome measures, and cost-effectiveness analysis. Outcomes will primarily be assessed using nationwide healthcare registries. CONCLUSIONS:The SMARTEST trial will investigate whether dapagliflozin is superior to metformin in preventing complications in early stage T2D. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT03982381, EudraCT 2019-001046-17). 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2021.107996