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    Fracture-related infection of the patella: Treatment options and outcome. Injury BACKGROUND:Fracture-related infection (FRI) after the operative management of patella fractures is a serious complication that can result in prolonged hospitalization, multiple revision procedures and permanent functional impairment. Till today, treatment modalities and outcome of FRI of the patella are not well described. Therefore, the main objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate treatment options, functional outcome and healthcare costs related to FRI of the patella. METHODS:This study evaluated 111 consecutive patients that were surgically treated for patella fractures, at the department of trauma surgery of the University Hospitals Leuven (Belgium), between January 2015 and April 2020. Patients were excluded if they (1) were younger than 18 years at the time of injury or (2) died during follow up. The minimal follow-up for all patients was 18 months. RESULTS:During the 5-year study period, 107 patients with 108 patella fractures were included. A total of 10 patients were diagnosed with an FRI (9.3%). Four of these were treated with a DAIR approach and three patients underwent implant removal or exchange. Finally, three patients were treated with total patellectomy. Out of the 10 patients, two were diagnosed with a recurrence of infection. Overall, we observed substantial lower scores for all Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales in the FRI group, compared to a reference population. Moreover, our study shows that direct hospital-related healthcare costs of FRI of the patella were nine times higher compared to non-FRI cases. CONCLUSIONS:FRI of the patella is a challenging complication and recurrence of infection not uncommon. Although multiple treatment modalities exist, a multidisciplinary patient-specific approach is crucial. An early or delayed onset infection can be managed with a DAIR approach, but only when the construct is stable and the soft tissue coverage adequate. In patients with an FRI, implant removal is preferred when the fracture has healed. A total patellectomy can be used as a salvage procedure in complex cases with acceptable functional results. Overall, FRI of the patella leads to both a negative impact on the functional status of the patient and a ninefold increase in total healthcare costs. 10.1016/j.injury.2022.03.062
    A bibliometric analysis of clinical research on fracture-related infection. BioMed research international Background:Infection following orthopaedic trauma surgery is increasingly recognized as one of the major research priorities with as primary goal, improving patient care. This increased interest has been anecdotally recognized through published research, research grants, and, finally, with the development of the fracture-related infection (FRI) consensus group. In 2017, the accepted consensus definition of FRI was published, which has been followed by consensus recommendations from both a surgical and medical perspective. A bibliometric analysis was performed to objectively describe the trends in published clinical research related to FRI. Methods:The terms related to FRI were searched in the Web of Science database between 2000 and 2020. The characteristics of clinical research on FRI regarding the author, country, journal, institution, scientific output, top 100 most cited articles, and trend topics were analyzed using Bibliometrix and WPS Office. Results:A total of 2597 records were eligible for inclusion in this bibliometric approach, with studies originating from 89 countries, including eight languages. The United States of America (USA) published the highest number of articles and citations. International collaborations were present between 72 countries, with the most active country being the USA. The most contributive institution was the University of California. The highest number of papers and citations were from the Injury-International Journal of the Care of the Injured and the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma. The top 100 most cited articles were published in 27 different journals, with the number of citations ranging between 97 and 1004. The latest trend topics were related to the diagnosis of FRI. Conclusion:The present bibliometric analysis shows the research characteristics and trends of FRI from multiple perspectives. The fact that there is an increasing number of studies being published on FRI shows the agreement among scientists and clinicians that standardization with respect to this topic is very important. 10.1155/2022/8171831