Accelerated Surgery Versus Standard Care in Hip Fracture (HIP ATTACK-1): A Kidney Substudy of a Randomized Clinical Trial.
Borges Flavia K,Devereaux P J,Cuerden Meaghan,Sontrop Jessica M,Bhandari Mohit,Guerra-Farfán Ernesto,Patel Ameen,Sigamani Alben,Umer Masood,Neary John,Tiboni Maria,Tandon Vikas,Ramokgopa Mmampapatla Thomas,Sancheti Parag,Lawendy Abdel-Rahman,Balaguer-Castro Mariano,Jenkinson Richard,Ślęczka Paweł,Nur Aamer Nabi,Wood Gavin C A,Feibel Robert J,McMahon John Stephen,Biccard Bruce M,Ortalda Alessandro,Szczeklik Wojciech,Wang Chew Yin,Tomás-Hernández Jordi,Vincent Jessica,Harvey Valerie,Pettit Shirley,Balasubramanian Kumar,Slobogean Gerard,Garg Amit X,
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
When to Reduce and Fix Displaced Lesser Trochanter in Treatment of Trochanteric Fracture: A Systematic Review.
Frontiers in surgery
Purpose:To systematically evaluate the benefits of reducing and fixing displaced lesser trochanter (LT) of trochanteric fractures and when this procedure is worth the effect. Methods:From database establishment through March 2021, four online databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Web of Science) were searched for relevant literature that investigated reduction and fixation for displaced LT of trochanteric fractures. The papers were then screened by two reviewers independently and in duplicate according to prior inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic data as well as data on fracture types, surgical protocols, and surgical outcomes were recorded, analyzed, and interpreted. Results:Total 10 clinical studies with 928 patients were included, in which 48 cases had intact LT and 880 cases involved the displaced LT, of which 196 (22.27%) cases underwent reduction and fixation for LT while the rest of 684 (77.73%) cases not. In these studies, complications were evaluated as a more applicable predictive parameter for operation than postoperative hip function. Conclusion:It was beneficial to reduce and fix the displaced LT when one of the conditions below occurred: displacement distance of LT ≥2 cm, quantity of comminuted LT fragments ≥2, and range of LT fragments in medial wall ≥75%; the fracture line of LT fragments reaching or exceeding the midline of the posterior wall.
Impact of subtrochanteric fractures in the geriatric population: better pre-fracture condition but poorer outcome than pertrochanteric fractures: evidence from the Spanish Hip Fracture Registry.
Aguado Héctor J,Castillón-Bernal Pablo,Ventura-Wichner Paula S,Cervera-Díaz María C,Abarca-Vegas Javier,García-Flórez Luis,Salvador-Carreño Jordi,García-Virto Virginia,Simón-Pérez Clarisa,Ojeda-Thies Cristina,Sáez-López Pilar,González-Montalvo Juan I,
Journal of orthopaedics and traumatology : official journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
BACKGROUND:Clinical management in orthogeriatric units and outcome indicators are similar for extracapsular fragility hip fractures, without discriminating between subtrochanteric and pertrochanteric fractures. HYPOTHESIS:Geriatric patients, 75 years or older, with subtrochanteric fractures have worse clinical and functional outcomes than those with pertrochanteric fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective observational study of data prospectively collected by the Spanish Hip Fracture Registry including patients 75 years or older, admitted for extracapsular hip fractures from January 2017 to June 2019. Demographic and baseline status, pre-operative, post-operative and 30-day follow-up data were included. RESULTS:A total of 13,939 patients with extracapsular hip fractures were registered: 12,199 (87.5%) pertrochanteric and 1740 (12.5%) subtrochanteric. At admission, patients with subtrochanteric fractures were younger (86.5 ± 5.8 versus 87.1 ± 5.6 years old), had better pre-fracture mobility (3.7 ± 2.7 versus 3.9 ± 2.8) (1-to-10 scale, 1 being independent) and were more likely to be living at home; those with pertrochanteric fractures had worse cognitive function (Pfeiffer 3.3 ± 3.3 versus 3.8 ± 3.5). The subtrochanteric fracture group showed worse post-fracture mobility (7.3 ± 2.7 versus 6.7 ± 2.7) and greater deterioration of mobility (3.7 ± 3.0 versus 2.9 ± 2.7). Among individuals living at home at baseline, those with subtrochanteric fractures were more likely to remain in an assisted facility at 30-day follow-up. In-hospital mortality during acute admission was higher for the subtrochanteric group (5.6% versus 4.5%) (p = 0.028). To our knowledge, this is the first paper highlighting the differences between these two fracture groups in the geriatric population. CONCLUSIONS:Subtrochanteric fractures in the older population are a different and worse entity, with greater morbimortality and functional decline than pertrochanteric fractures. Despite being younger and fitter at admission, older patients with subtrochanteric fractures have a higher risk of remaining non-weight bearing and undergoing re-operation and institutionalization. Orthogeriatric units should be aware of this and manage subtrochanteric fractures accordingly. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:IV.
Risk prediction models incorporating institutional case volume for mortality after hip fracture surgery in the elderly.
Yoo Seokha,Jang Eun Jin,Jo Junwoo,Lee Hannah,Hwang Yoonbin,Ryu Ho Geol
Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
INTRODUCTION:While higher institutional case volume is associated with better postoperative outcomes in various types of surgery, institutional case volume has been rarely included in risk prediction models for surgical patients. This study aimed to develop and validate the predictive models incorporating institutional case volume for predicting in-hospital mortality and 1-year mortality after hip fracture surgery in the elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Data for all patients (≥ 60 years) who underwent surgery for femur neck fracture, pertrochanteric fracture, or subtrochanteric fracture between January 2008 and December 2016 were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Patients were randomly assigned into the derivation cohort or the validation cohort in a 1:1 ratio. Risk prediction models for in-hospital mortality and 1-year mortality were developed in the derivation cohort using the logistic regression model. Covariates included age, sex, type of fracture, type of anaesthesia, transfusion, and comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, cerebrovascular disease, and dementia. Two separate models, one with and the other without institutional case volume as a covariate, were constructed, evaluated, and compared using the likelihood ratio test. Based on the models, scoring systems for predicting in-hospital mortality and 1-year mortality were developed. RESULTS:Analysis of 196,842 patients showed 3.6% in-hospital mortality (7084/196,842) and 15.42% 1-year mortality (30,345/196,842). The model for predicting in-hospital mortality incorporating the institutional case volume demonstrated better discrimination (c-statistics 0.692) compared to the model without the institutional case volume (c-statistics 0.688; likelihood ratio test p value < 0.001). The performance of the model for predicting 1-year mortality was also better when incorporating institutional case volume (c-statistics 0.675 vs. 0.674; likelihood ratio test p value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The new institutional case volume incorporated scoring system may help to predict in-hospital mortality and 1-year mortality after hip fracture surgery in the elderly population.
Factors associated with dislocation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty through an (antero-)lateral approach in elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture: a retrospective cohort study with a nested case-control subanalysis of radiographic parameters.
Fakler Johannes Karl Maria,Rositzka Markus,Schopow Nicolas,Roth Andreas,Zajonz Dirk,Ghanem Mohamed,Kleber Christian,Osterhoff Georg
European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society
INTRODUCTION:Dislocations of hip hemiarthroplasty (HHA) are serious complications. The aim of the study was to identify clinical aspects and radiographic parameters of the hip that put patients at risk for dislocation after HHA for femoral neck fractures. METHODS:This retrospective analysis included elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture treated with a HHA. A lateral (90.7%) and an anterolateral (9.3%) approach was applied. On pelvic radiographs, a nested-controlled analysis was performed. Two control patients were matched to one patient suffering a dislocation with respect to age, sex, and body-mass-index (BMI). RESULTS:In 527 HHA, 10 dislocations (1.9%) were identified. In the dislocation group (DG), all patients were female (100% vs. 73.5%, p = 0.071). No significant differences between the DG and the control group (CG) were found with respect to age, body-mass-index (BMI), ASA Score, routine laboratory parameters, and comorbidity. Radiographic analysis revealed a smaller center edge angle (CEA, 39.0, IQR 33.0-42.5 vs. 43.0, IQR 41.0-46.0, p = 0.013), a more varus neck-shaft angle (NSA, 130.0, IQR 125.8-133.5 vs. 135.0, IQR 134.0-137.0, p = 0.011) of the contralateral side and a higher femoral head extrusion index (FHEI) in the DG (FHEI, 11.5, IQR 9.8-16.3 vs. 2.0 IQR 0.0-9.0, p = 0.003). In addition, a greater trochanteric fracture was associated with an increased likelihood for HHA dislocations (30.0% vs 6.0%, p = 0.022). CONCLUSION:A smaller radiographic center edge angle, a more varus neck-shaft angle of the contralateral side, a higher femoral head extrusion index and intraoperative fractures of the greater trochanter are associated with an increased risk of HHA dislocation.
Exercise Therapy Is Effective at Improving Short- and Long-Term Mobility, Activities of Daily Living, and Balance in Older Patients Following Hip Fracture: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
BACKGROUND:A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of exercise therapy on physical function, independence, and well-being in older patients following hip fracture and, secondly, whether the effect was modified by trial-level characteristics such as intervention modality, duration, and initiation timepoint. METHOD:Medline, CENTRAL, Embase, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched up to November 2020. Eligibility criteria were randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of exercise therapy on physical function, independence, and well-being in older patients following hip fracture, initiated from time of surgery up to 1 year. RESULTS:Forty-nine studies involving 3 905 participants showed a small-to-moderate effect of exercise therapy at short term (end of intervention) on mobility (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.76); activities of daily living (ADL) (SMD 0.31, 95% CI: 0.16-0.46); lower limb muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI: 0.13-0.60); and balance (SMD 0.34, 95% CI: 0.14-0.54). At long term (closest to 1 year), small-to-moderate effects were found for mobility (SMD 0.74, 95% CI: 0.15-1.34), ADL (SMD 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23-0.61), balance (SMD 0.50, 95% CI: 0.07-0.94), and health-related quality of life (SMD 0.31, 95% CI: 0.03-0.59). Certainty of evidence was evaluated using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation ranging from moderate to very low, due to study limitation and inconsistency. CONCLUSION:We found low certainty of evidence for a moderate effect of exercise therapy on mobility in older patients following hip fracture at end of treatment and follow-up. Further, low evidence was found for small-to-moderate short-term effect on ADL, lower limb muscle strength and balance. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42020161131.
Femoral Neck Stress Fractures: An Updated Review.
Bernstein Ethan M,Kelsey Thomas J,Cochran Grant K,Deafenbaugh Bradley K,Kuhn Kevin M
The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Femoral neck stress fractures represent a relatively rare spectrum of injuries that most commonly affect military recruits and endurance athletes. If unrecognized and if proper treatment is not initiated, this condition carries potentially devastating consequences. Patients will typically present with an insidious onset, atraumatic hip, and groin pain that is relieved with rest. The condition may be initially misdiagnosed because radiographs are often normal. Magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated superior specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy compared with other diagnostic modalities in identifying and classifying stress fractures of the femoral neck. Treatment algorithms are based on the MRI fracture morphology and presence of an intra-articular effusion. Nonsurgical management consists of a period of non-weight-bearing followed by gradual return to activity. Surgical management consists of prophylactic fracture fixation with cannulated screws to prevent fracture progression. If left untreated, patients may progress to a complete displaced femoral neck fracture, which can be associated with complications that include nonunion, osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and long-term disability. These poor outcomes emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of incomplete femoral neck stress fractures.
Domains of Balance Training Delivered in Rehabilitation Programs Following Hip Fracture Surgery in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.
Journal of geriatric physical therapy (2001)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The aim of this systematic review was to assess the domains and characteristics of balance training (BT) interventions delivered in rehabilitation programs following hip fracture to identify potential treatment gaps. METHODS:Manual and electronic searches (Web of Science, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and ProQuest) were conducted. We selected randomized controlled trials with older adults following hip fracture surgery that included either specific BT or gait, mobility, or transfer training. Two independent reviewers extracted data and rated the methodological quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. A third reviewer provided consensus. Extracted BT data included balance domain, progression, frequency, duration, intensity, level of supervision, setting, and rehabilitation phase. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:We included 17 trials from 19 studies; 11 studies were rated as moderate to high methodological quality, but only 8 were considered to have high-quality BT components. Half of the interventions included only one balance domain, with stability during movement being the most commonly included domain. The primary balance progression utilized was reducing hand support. Dual task, anticipatory postural adjustment, reactive strategies, and perceptual training domains were rarely included. Balance training duration and intensity were poorly described. Although most programs were home-based with minimal levels of supervision, a few extended beyond postacute phase of rehabilitation. CONCLUSION:Further consideration should be given to include more challenging BT domains with planned progressions to maximize patient recovery through hip fracture rehabilitation programs.
Four Square Step Test Performance in Hip Fracture Patients.
Journal of geriatric physical therapy (2001)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Preventing subsequent falls in persons recovering from hip fracture is paramount. The Four Square Step Test (FSST) is a fast, easy measure of dynamic balance, with times more than 15 seconds previously associated with multiple fall risk in older adults. This study investigates among hip fracture patients (1) FSST performance, and how (2) unique population characteristics (such as fracture side) and (3) cognition impact FSST performance. METHODS:Patients with hip fracture (n = 40) 60 years and older came from an ancillary study to a larger randomized controlled trial testing two 16-week in-home physical therapy interventions after completion of usual care rehabilitation. Baseline measurers included: FSST, demographics, fracture characteristics, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT), and Trails Making Tests (TMT) A and B. RESULTS:Of 40 patients with hip fracture, 13 did not complete the FSST at baseline and were significantly older (P = .040) and performed worse on cognitive tests (3MS, HVOT, TMT-B; P < .05). Mean FSST time was 24.3 ± 13.1 seconds for the other 27, of whom 7 finished in less than 15 seconds. A significant 3-way interaction was observed, such that those with left-side pertrochanteric fractures who performed poorly on the HVOT did significantly worse on the FSST (P < .01, R2 = 0.93). DISCUSSION:Almost one-third of patients with hip fracture could not perform the FSST after completing usual care rehabilitation. Inability to perform the FSST was not random, as those without the FSST were physically and cognitively worse than those who did perform the FSST. Among those who could attempt the FSST, few performed well. Cognitive ability related to spatial orientation and fracture characteristics such as fracture side and fracture type has a synergistic effect on FSST performance. CONCLUSIONS:This is one of the first studies to assess the FSST in a population with hip fracture. At 4 months after hip fracture, most patients cannot perform the FSST in less than 15 seconds. Fracture side and fracture type appear important to FSST performance, as does cognition. More work needs to be done longitudinally to study the FSST in patients with hip fracture.
Incidence of hip fracture in Saudi Arabia and the development of a FRAX model.
Saleh Yousef A L,Sulimani Riad A,Alomary Shaker,Alnajjar Yassmeen I,Vandenput Liesbeth,Liu Enwu,Lorentzon Mattias,Harvey Nicholas C,McCloskey Eugene V,Johansson Helena,Kanis John A,
Archives of osteoporosis
A prospective hospital-based survey in representative regions of Saudi Arabia determined the incidence of fractures at the hip. The hip fracture rates were used to create a FRAX® model to facilitate fracture risk assessment in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE:This paper describes the incidence of hip fracture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia that was used to characterize the current and future burden of hip fracture, to develop a country-specific FRAX® tool for fracture prediction and to compare fracture probabilities with neighbouring countries. METHODS:During a 2-year (2017/2018) prospective survey in 15 hospitals with a defined catchment population, hip fractures in Saudi citizens were prospectively identified from hospital registers. The number of hip fractures and future burden was determined from national demography. Age- and sex-specific incidence of hip fracture and national mortality rates were incorporated into a FRAX model for Saudi Arabia. Fracture probabilities were compared with those from Kuwait and Abu Dhabi. RESULTS:The incidence of hip fracture applied nationally suggested that the estimated number of hip fractures nationwide in persons over the age of 50 years for 2015 was 2,949 and is predicted to increase nearly sevenfold to 20,328 in 2050. Hip fracture rates were comparable with estimates from Abu Dhabi and Kuwait. By contrast, probabilities of a major osteoporotic fracture or hip fracture from the age of 70 years were much lower than those seen in Abu Dhabi and Kuwait due to higher mortality estimates for Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSION:A country-specific FRAX tool for fracture prediction has been developed for Saudi Arabia which is expected to help guide decisions about treatment.
What is the subtype of dementia in patients with fragility hip fracture?
INTRODUCTION:Cognitive function is an important factor that affects functional recovery after hip fracture (HipFx) surgery. The literature on the pathophysiology of dementia in HipFx patients is scarce. We performed a differential diagnosis of dementia in HipFx patients using clinical and brain MRI findings. METHODS:This is a prospective study in which brain MRI was evaluated for patients with HipFx for research purposes. One-hundred-and-five HipFx patients (85 females and 20 males) who underwent surgery and were subsequently able to undergo brain MRI at our hospital were evaluated. The mean age was 84 years. The presence of dementia was determined based on clinical findings and whether the patient meets its diagnostic criteria according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition (ICD-10). The differential diagnosis of dementia was made based on brain MRI findings and the dementia diagnostic flow chart published in the Clinical Practice Guideline for Dementia 2017 (Japanese Society of Neurology). The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD) advance 2 diagnostic software was used to evaluate atrophy of the para-hippocampal gyrus. RESULTS:Fifty-six (53%) patients were clinically diagnosed with dementia according to the ICD-10 criteria. The MRI findings were diverse: Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type, asymptomatic multiple ischemic cerebral lesions, past symptomatic cerebral infarction or cerebral hemorrhage, Binswanger's disease (BW)-type, chronic subdural hematoma, disproportionately enlarged subarachnoidal hydrocephalus (DESH), and their combinations thereof. A combination of MRI and clinical findings of dementia patients demonstrated the following distribution of dementia subtypes: AD (n = 20), vascular dementia (n = 33), AD and BW vascular dementia (n = 3). CONCLUSION:This study revealed that the brain MRI findings of HipFx patients were diverse. Although vascular dementia is found to be common in this particular population, this could be an incidental finding. Further study is warranted to clarify the specificity of our findings by increasing the number of patients, setting the control, and investigating whether dementia subtypes affect postoperative gait acquisition and fall risk.
Risk factors for preoperative deep venous thrombosis in hip fracture patients: a meta-analysis.
Journal of orthopaedics and traumatology : official journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
STUDY DESIGN:A meta-analysis. BACKGROUND:Hip fracture (HF), as common geriatric fracture, is related to increased disability and mortality. Preoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is one of the most common complications in patients with hip fractures, affecting 8-34.9% of hip fracture patients. The study aimed to assess the risk factors of preoperative DVT after hip fractures by meta-analysis. METHODS:An extensive search of the literature was performed in the English databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library; and the Chinese databases of CNKI and WAN FANG. We collected possible predictors of preoperative DVT from included studies, and data analysis was conducted with RevMan 5.3 and STATA 12.0. RESULTS:A total of 26 English articles were included, and the rate of DVT was 16.6% (1627 of 9823 patients) in our study. Our findings showed that advanced age [p = 0.0003, OR = 0.13 95% CI (0.06, 0.21)], female patients [p = 0.0009, OR = 0.82 95% CI (0.72, 0.92)], high-energy injury [p = 0.009, OR = 0.58 95% CI (0.38, 0.87)], prolonged time from injury to admission [p < 0.00001, OR = 0.54 95% CI (0.44, 0.65)], prolonged time from injury to surgery [p < 0.00001, OR = 2.06, 95% CI (1.40, 2.72)], hemoglobin [p < 0.00001, OR = - 0.32 95% CI (- 0.43, - 0.21)], coronary heart disease [p = 0.006, OR = 1.25 95% CI (1.07, 1.47)], dementia [p = 0.02, OR = 1.72 95% CI (1.1, 2.67)], liver and kidney diseases [p = 0.02, OR = 1.91 95% CI (1.12, 3.25)], pulmonary disease [p = 0.02, OR = 1.55 95% CI (1.07, 2.23)], smoking [p = 0.007, OR = 1.45 95% CI (1.11, 1.89)], fibrinogen [p = 0.0005, OR = 0.20 95% CI (0.09, 0.32)], anti-platelet drug [p = 0.01, OR = 0.51 95% CI (0.30, 0.85)], C-reactive protein [p = 0.02, OR = 5.95 95% CI (1.04, 10.85)], < 35 g/l albumin [p = 0.006, OR = 1.42 95% CI (1.1, 1.82)], and thrombosis history [p < 0.00001, OR = 5.28 95% CI (2.85, 9.78)] were risk factors for preoperative DVT. CONCLUSIONS:Many factors, including advanced age, female patients, high-energy injury, prolonged time from injury to admission, prolonged time from injury to surgery, patients with a history of coronary heart disease, dementia, liver and kidney diseases, pulmonary disease, smoking, and thrombosis, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and < 35 g/l albumin, were found to be associated with preoperative DVT. Our findings suggested that the patient with above characteristics might have preoperative DVT. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III.
Stress fractures of the femoral neck in adults: an observational study on epidemiology, treatment, and reoperations from the Swedish Fracture Register.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Stress fractures of the femoral neck (sFNFs) are uncommon injuries. Studies on sFNFs are rare. We describe the demographics, classification, treatment, reoperation rates, and mortality in a cohort of sFNF patients from the Swedish Fracture Register (SFR). PATIENTS AND METHODS:We included 146 patients ≥ 18 years of age with an sFNF registered in the SFR between 2011 and 2020. The cohort was linked with the Swedish Arthroplasty Register and reviewed using medical records and radiographs. We assessed the presence of disorders of bone remodeling, duration of symptoms, fracture classification, treatment, reoperations, and mortality. RESULTS:The mean age was 58 years (21-96), 75% were women and the median duration of symptoms was 23 days (1-266). 40% of patients had disorders of bone remodeling. 54% were undisplaced (uFNF), 30% displaced (dFNF), and 16% basicervical (bFNF). 14% of patients < 60 years were treated nonoperatively, by internal fixation (IF) in 77% and by arthroplasty in 10%. Patients ≥ 60 years were treated nonoperatively in 10%, IF in 40%, and arthroplasty in 49%. Nonoperative treatment was reserved for uFNFs or bFNFs, resulting in 35% receiving late surgery. The overall secondary or late surgery rate was 19%. Mortality was 2% at 90 days and increased to 3% at 1 year. INTERPRETATION:sFNF has a biphasic age distribution. One-third of patients presented with a displaced FNF and those managed nonoperatively for an undisplaced sFNF were at risk of late surgery. The mortality rates for patients with these injuries was low.
Fluid-responsiveness, blood volume and perfusion in preoperative haemodynamic optimisation of hip fracture patients; a prospective observational study.
Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
BACKGROUND:Preoperative resuscitation strategies in patients with hip fracture (HF) are lacking. We aimed to investigate fluid-responsiveness, peripheral perfusion index (PPI) and blood volume (BV)-status in patients with HF undergoing resuscitation in the preoperative phase. METHODS:In a prospective observational study, we evaluated preoperative fluid-responsiveness, indices of perfusion and BV before and after lumbar epidural analgesia in 50 patients with HF shortly after admittance. RESULTS:Initially, 18 (36%) patients were fluid-responsive (≥10% increased SV in response to 250 ml fluid bolus) and 13 (26%) presented hypovolaemia (deviation of measured BV from estimated BV ≤ 0.9). According to fluid-responsiveness, no difference in absolute values of cardiac index (CI) (2.7 L [2.1-3.3] vs. 2.8 L [2.3-3.4], p = .5) was seen, but cardiac output (CO) rose significantly in the hypovolaemic patients: 9% [5-18] vs. 1% [-3-7], p = .004. After epidural analgesia, 26 (52%) patients were again fluid-responsive and 15 (30%) were hypovolaemic. CI was now significantly lower in fluid-responsive patients (2.2 L [1.7-2.7] vs. 2.9 L [2.3-3.5], p = .001). Prior to epidural analgesia, no significant trend towards hypovolaemic patients having lower indices of perfusion was seen. After epidural analgesia, more patients with hypovolaemia presented with PPI≤1.5 (8 (53%) vs. 3 (9%), p = .001) and absolute values of PPI were also significantly lower if IBV was low (1.4 [0.9-3.2] vs. 3.2 [2.4-4.8], p = .01). PPI correlated with hypovolaemia after epidural analgesia (rho 0.4 [0.1-0.7], p = .007). CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative fluid-responsivity in HF patients might be attributable to elements of hypovolaemia and sympathetic compensatory ability conjointly, confounding the use of SV-guided resuscitation. PPI could be associated with BV, which may support clinicians during perioperative haemodynamic optimisation.
The impact of adopting low-molecular-weight heparin in place of aspirin as routine thromboprophylaxis for patients with hip fracture.
Postgraduate medical journal
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:In 2010, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommended the use of anticoagulants rather than aspirin as pharmacological thromboprophylaxis after hip fracture. We examine the impact of implementing this change in guidance on the clinical incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). STUDY DESIGN:Demographic, radiographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected for 5039 patients admitted to a single tertiary centre in the UK for hip fracture between 2007 and 2017. We calculated rates of lower-limb DVT and examined the impact of the June 2010 change of departmental policy, from use of aspirin to use of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) in hip fracture patients. RESULTS:Doppler scans were performed in 400 patients in the 180 days after a hip fracture, and identified 40 ipsilateral and 14 contralateral DVTs (p<0.001). The rate of DVT reduced significantly following the 2010 change in departmental policy from aspirin to LMWH in these patients (1.62% vs 0.83%, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The rate of clinical DVT halved following the change from aspirin to LMWH for pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, but the number needed to treat was 127. A figure of <1% for the incidence of clinical DVT in a unit that routinely uses LMWH monotherapy following hip fracture provides a context for discussions of alternative strategies, and for power calculations for future research. These figures are important to policy makers and to researchers as they will inform the design of the comparative studies on thromboprophylaxis agents for which NICE has called.
Long-term sex differences in all-cause and infection-specific mortality post hip fracture.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
BACKGROUND:Mortality rates among men are double that of women in the first 2 years after hip fracture and may be related to more infections. Research has only examined differences in short-term mortality after hip fracture. Thus, the objective was to determine if long-term all-cause mortality and infection-specific mortality rates are higher in men compared to women. METHODS:Data come from a prospective cohort study (Baltimore Hip Studies 7th [BHS-7]) with up to 10.2 years of follow-up (2006-2018). The participants were selected from eight acute care hospitals in the 25-hospital BHS network. Enrolled women were frequency-matched (1:1) to men on timing of admission for hip fracture that yielded an analytic sample size of 300 participants (155 women, 145 men). Associations between sex and mortality were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models and cause-specific Cox models adjusted for age, cognition, body mass index, pre-fracture lower extremity activities of daily living limitation, depressive symptoms, and comorbidity. RESULTS:Participants had a mean age of 80 years, 48% (n = 145) were men and the median follow-up was 4.9 (interquartile range = 2.3-8.7) years. Over the follow-up period after hospital admission for hip fracture, 237 (79.0%) participants died of all causes (132 men and 105 women) and 38 (12.7%) died of infection-specific causes (25 men and 13 women). Men had significantly higher rates of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.31(95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-2.59)] and infection-specific mortality (HR = 4.43, CI 2.07-9.51) compared to women. CONCLUSIONS:Men had a two-fold higher rate of all-cause mortality and four-fold higher rate of infection-specific mortality compared to women over a follow-up period of up to 10.2 years. Findings suggest that interventions to prevent and treat infections, tailored by sex, may be needed to narrow significant differences in long-term mortality rates between men and women after hip fracture.
Use of Intravenous Paracetamol Preoperatively Favors Lower Risk of Delirium and Functional Recovery in Elderly Patients with Hip Fracture: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.
Pain research & management
We aimed to investigate whether the use of intravenous paracetamol (IVP) preoperatively in intertrochanteric fracture (IF) patients aged 65 years or over receiving intramedullary fixation had significantly benefits on the pain score at discharge, delirium incidence, length of hospital stay (LOS), functional outcomes, and mortality. A retrospective analysis of all surgically treated patients presenting with IF was conducted at a single Level I trauma center in China between Jan. 2016 and Jan. 2020. The data concerning patients' demographics, injury-related data, surgery-related data, operation-related data, in-hospital data, and postoperative outcomes were extracted. To minimize potential confounding and selection bias, the propensity score matching (PSM) method was performed via the caliper matching method by using a 1 : 1 ratio. After PSM, McNemar's chi-square tests were used to examine the association of using IVP with outcome analyses. The Spearman correlations of IVP using, pain scores, and the factors which may influence them were also computed. After screening 2963 consecutive patients, 2166 were included finally, including 1576 in the non-IVP group and 590 in the IVP group. After PSM, 531 remained in each group. The pain scores at discharge were significantly between the two groups before and after matching (all < 0.001). The differences of delirium rate and functional outcomes became significant after propensity score-based matching (=0.001 and 0.033, respectively), although they were not significant before matching. No significant difference was observed in other operation-related data, LOS, and crude mortality rates at 30-day, 90-day, and 12-month before and after PSM. In conclusion, this study highlights the need for preoperative IVP use to optimize pain control, postoperative functional recovery, and minimize pain-related comorbidities such as delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture.