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    [Atractylenolide Ⅰ improves acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in mice by inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway]. Ma Zhi-Mei,Lai Shang-Lei,Zhu Jin-Yan,Ding Qin-Chao,Dou Xiao-Bing,Li Song-Tao Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica This study explored the protective effect of atractylenolide Ⅰ(AO-Ⅰ) against acetaminophen(APAP)-induced acute liver injury(ALI) in mice and its underlying mechanism. C57 BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into a control group, an APAP group(500 mg·kg~(-1)), a low-dose combination group(500 mg·kg~(-1) APAP + 60 mg·kg~(-1) AO-Ⅰ), and a high-dose combination group(500 mg·kg~(-1) APAP + 120 mg·kg~(-1) AO-Ⅰ). ALI was induced by intraperitoneal injection of APAP(500 mg·kg~(-1)). AO-Ⅰ by intragastric administration was performed 2 hours before APAP treatment, and the control group received the same dose of solvent by intragastric administration or intraperitoneal injection. The protective effect of AO-Ⅰ against APAP-induced ALI was evaluated by detecting alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) levels in the plasma and H&E staining in liver tissues of mice. The malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione(GSH) content and catalase(CAT) activity in mouse liver tissues were detected to evaluate the effect of AO-Ⅰ on APAP-induced oxidative stress in the liver. The proteins in the liver p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(p38 MAPK), c-jun N-terminal kinase(JNK), and nuclear factor kappa-B p65(NF-κB p65) signaling pathways were measured by Western blot, and the liver inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-6(IL-6) were detected by real-time PCR. Compared with the APAP group, the combination groups showed reduced APAP-induced ALT level and liver MDA content, potentiated liver CAT activity, and elevated GSH content. Mechanistically, AO-Ⅰ treatment significantly inhibited APAP-up-regulated MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB p65, and significantly reduced the transcriptional activities of IL-1β and IL-6, downstream targets of NF-κB p65. AO-Ⅰ can improve APAP-induced ALI and the underlying mechanism is related to the inhibition of the MAPK/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway in APAP-challenged mice. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20211008.701
    [Mechanism of Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills against liver injury induced by acetaminophen in mice based on Keap1/Nrf2 and TLR4/NF-κB p65 signaling pathways]. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica The present study investigated the mechanism of the Tibetan medicine Ershiwuwei Songshi Pills(ESP) against the liver injury induced by acetaminophen(APAP) in mice based on the kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1(Keap1)/nuclear transcription factor E2 related factor 2(Nrf2) and Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB) p65 signaling pathways. Kunming mice were randomly divided into a blank control group, a model group, an N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC) group, and high-(400 mg·kg~(-1)), medium-(200 mg·kg~(-1)), and low-dose(100 mg·kg~(-1)) ESP groups. After 14 days of continuous administration, except for those in the control group, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 mg·kg~(-1) APAP. After 12 h, the serum and liver tissues of mice were collected. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was performed on pathological sections of the liver, and the levels of aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) in the serum and the levels of glutathione(GSH), malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), myeloperoxidase(MPO), and total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) in liver tissue homogenate were detected to observe and analyze the protective effect of ESP on APAP-induced liver injury in mice. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta(IL-1β), and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The protein expression of Nrf2, Keap1, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in the liver was determined by Western blot. Quantitative real-time was used to determine the mRNA expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit(GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit(GCLM), heme oxygenase-1(HO-1), and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1(NQO-1) in the liver to explore the mechanism of ESP in improving APAP-induced liver damage in mice. As revealed by results, compared with the model group, the ESP groups showed improved liver pathological damage, decreased ALT and AST levels in the serum and MDA and MPO content in the liver, increased GSH, SOD, CAT, and T-AOC in the liver, reduced TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the serum, down-regulated expression of Keap1 in the liver cytoplasm and NF-κB p65 in the liver nucleus, up-regulated expression of Nrf2 in the liver nucleus, insignificant change in TLR4 expression, and elevated relative mRNA expression levels of antioxidant genes GCLC, GCLM, HO-1, and NQO-1. ESP can reduce the oxidative damage and inflammation caused by APAP, and the mechanism may be related to the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and the signal transduction factors on the TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20211103.707
    Oridonin Alters Hepatic Urea Cycle via Gut Microbiota and Protects against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury. Hong Mu-Keng,Liu Hai-Hua,Chen Gui-Hong,Zhu Jun-Qing,Zheng Song-Yuan,Zhao Di,Diao Jianxing,Jia Hui,Zhang Ding-Ding,Chen Shi-Xian,Gao Lei,Li Juan Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the western world. Oridonin (OD), which is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine , reportedly exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Here, we first find that OD protects against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results of hepatic tissue-associated RNA-seq and metabolomics showed that the protective effects of OD were dependent upon urea cycle regulation. And such regulation of OD is gut microbiota partly dependent, as demonstrated by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Furthermore, using 16S rRNA sequencing, we determined that OD significantly enriched intestinal , which activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway to regulate redox homeostasis against APAP by urea cycle. In conclusion, our study suggests that the -urea cycle-Nrf2 axis may be a potential target for reducing APAP-induced liver injury, which is altered by OD. 10.1155/2021/3259238
    The Protective Effects of Imperatorin on Acetaminophen Overdose-Induced Acute Liver Injury. Gao Zhao,Zhang Jiecheng,Wei Li,Yang Xingping,Zhang Yuan,Cheng Bo,Yang Zehong,Gao Weihang,Song Chunhui,Miao Wei,Williams Kevin,Liu Changhui,Xu Qin,Chang Yongsheng,Gao Yong Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity leads to severe acute liver injury (ALI) by inducing excessive oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and hepatocyte apoptosis. Imperatorin (IMP) is a furanocoumarin from Angelica dahurica, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its potential to ameliorate ALI is unknown. In this study, APAP-treated genetic knockout of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mice were used for research. The results revealed that IMP could improve the severity of liver injury and inhibit the increase of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative damage, and apoptosis induced by overdose APAP in an FXR-dependent manner. We also found that IMP enhanced the activation and translocation of FXR by increasing the expression of SIRT1 and the phosphorylation of AMPK. Besides, single administration of IMP at 4 h after APAP injection can also improve necrotic areas and serum transaminase, indicating that IMP have both preventive and therapeutic effects. Taken together, it is the first time to demonstrate that IMP exerts protective effects against APAP overdose-induced hepatotoxicity by stimulating the SIRT1-FXR pathway. These findings suggest that IMP is a potential therapeutic candidate for ALI, offering promise for the treatment of hepatotoxicity associated with APAP overdose. 10.1155/2020/8026838
    Akkermansia muciniphila Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Regulating Gut Microbial Composition and Metabolism. Xia Jiafeng,Lv Longxian,Liu Boqiang,Wang Shuting,Zhang Sitong,Wu Zhengjie,Yang Liya,Bian Xiaoyuan,Wang Qiangqiang,Wang Kaicen,Zhuge Aoxiang,Li Shengjie,Yan Ren,Jiang Huiyong,Xu Kaijin,Li Lanjuan Microbiology spectrum The gut microbiota drives individual sensitivity to excess acetaminophen (APAP)-mediated hepatotoxicity. It has been reported that the bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila protects hosts against liver disease via the liver-gut axis, but its therapeutic potential for drug-induced liver injury remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of A. muciniphila on APAP-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanism. Administration of A. muciniphila efficiently alleviated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and reduced the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). A. muciniphila significantly attenuated APAP-induced oxidative stress and the inflammatory response, as evidenced by restoration of the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) balance, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, and alleviation of macrophage and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, A. muciniphila maintained gut barrier function, reshaped the perturbed microbial community and promoted short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) secretion. The beneficial effects of A. muciniphila were accompanied by alterations in hepatic gene expression at the transcriptional level and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Our results suggested that A. muciniphila could be a potential pretreatment for APAP-induced liver injury. Our work revealed that A. muciniphila attenuated APAP-induced liver injury by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver, and its hepatoprotective effect was accompanied by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and mediated by regulation of the composition and metabolic function of the intestinal microbiota. This finding suggested that the microbial community is a non-negligible impact on drug metabolism and probiotic administration could be a potential therapy for drug-induced liver injury. 10.1128/spectrum.01596-21