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    Evaluation of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors versus Thiazolidinediones or Insulin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Uncontrolled with Metformin and a Sulfonylurea in a Real-World Setting. Aboubechara Natalie,Ledesma Vittoria Marie,Niu Fang,Lee Susan M,Patel Yesha A,Millares Mirta,Hui Rita L The Permanente journal BACKGROUND:Guidelines do not make clear recommendations for third add-on agents to metformin plus a sulfonylurea. This study compared the effectiveness and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4is) to thiazolidinedione (TZD) or insulin as a third add-on agent to metformin plus a sulfonylurea in an integrated health care setting. METHODS:This retrospective database cohort study included adults with type 2 diabetes not at goal hemoglobin A (HbA) who initiated DPP4i, TZD, or insulin as a third add-on agent to metformin plus a sulfonylurea from January 2006 to June 2016. Primary outcomes were the proportion of patients who achieved goal HbA after starting the third add-on agent and change in HbA. Subgroup analysis was performed for patients with baseline HbA greater than 9%. RESULTS:In this study, 2080 patients started on a DPP4i were matched to 8320 patients started on TZD and to 8320 patients taking insulin. A significantly higher percentage of patients taking TZD reached goal HbA (31.0% versus 23.6%; p < 0.05) and had a significantly larger HbA reduction (-0.94% ± 1.34% versus -0.79% ± 1.23%; p < 0.01) compared to patients taking a DPP4i. No difference in the percentage of patients meeting goal HbA nor in change in HbA was demonstrated between insulin versus DPP4i regimens. For patients with baseline HbA greater than 9%, insulin or TZD resulted in a significantly higher proportion of patients achieving goal HbA compared to DPP4i (17.3% and 19.0% versus 12.4%, respectively; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION:TZD was more effective than DPP4i but DPP4i was as effective as insulin as a third add-on agent in the overall study population. Insulin was more effective than DPP4i only in the subgroup analysis of patients with baseline HbA greater than 9%. 10.7812/TPP/19.224
    Individualized Glycemic Goals and an Expanded Classification of Severe Hypoglycemia in Diabetes. Cryer Philip E Diabetes care The view that a hemoglobin A (A1C) level <7% (55 mmol/mol) is the accepted glycemic goal for most people with diabetes sometimes conflicts with the view that glycemic goals should be individualized and, thus, that somewhat higher A1C levels are appropriate for some, particularly many at risk for iatrogenic hypoglycemia because of treatment with insulin, a sulfonylurea, or a glinide. The relationship between A1C and chronic complications of diabetes is curvilinear, A1C is a relatively weak predictor of cardiovascular disease, and minor elevations of A1C above 7% have not been found to be associated with increased mortality. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia causes recurrent morbidity in diabetes and is sometimes fatal. In those at risk for hypoglycemia, a reasonable individualized glycemic goal is the lowest A1C that does not cause severe hypoglycemia and preserves awareness of hypoglycemia, preferably with little or no symptomatic or even asymptomatic hypoglycemia, at a given stage in the evolution of the individual's diabetes. A somewhat higher A1C level is appropriate in those who have previously experienced hypoglycemia or have potential high risk for hypoglycemia, have a long duration of diabetes, and have a short life expectancy, among other traits. Given the importance of severe hypoglycemia in selecting glycemic goals, it is proposed to expand the classification of severe hypoglycemia beyond a hypoglycemic event requiring assistance from another person to include a measured glucose concentration <50 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L), a level associated with sudden death. 10.2337/dc16-1741
    Trends in Drug Utilization, Glycemic Control, and Rates of Severe Hypoglycemia, 2006-2013. Lipska Kasia J,Yao Xiaoxi,Herrin Jeph,McCoy Rozalina G,Ross Joseph S,Steinman Michael A,Inzucchi Silvio E,Gill Thomas M,Krumholz Harlan M,Shah Nilay D Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:To examine temporal trends in utilization of glucose-lowering medications, glycemic control, and rate of severe hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Using claims data from 1.66 million privately insured and Medicare Advantage patients with T2DM from 2006 to 2013, we estimated the annual ) age- and sex-standardized proportion of patients who filled each class of agents; ) age-, sex-, race-, and region-standardized proportion with hemoglobin A (HbA) <6%, 6 to <7%, 7 to <8%, 8 to <9%, ≥9%; and ) age- and sex-standardized rate of severe hypoglycemia among those using medications. Proportions were calculated overall and stratified by age-group (18-44, 45-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years) and number of chronic comorbidities (zero, one, and two or more). RESULTS:From 2006 to 2013, use increased for metformin (from 47.6 to 53.5%), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (0.5 to 14.9%), and insulin (17.1 to 23.0%) but declined for sulfonylureas (38.8 to 30.8%) and thiazolidinediones (28.5 to 5.6%; all < 0.001). The proportion of patients with HbA <7% declined (from 56.4 to 54.2%; < 0.001) and with HbA ≥9% increased (9.9 to 12.2%; < 0.001). Glycemic control varied by age and was poor among 23.3% of the youngest and 6.3% of the oldest patients in 2013. The overall rate of severe hypoglycemia remained the same (1.3 per 100 person-years; = 0.72), declined modestly among the oldest patients (from 2.9 to 2.3; < 0.001), and remained high among those with two or more comorbidities (3.2 to 3.5; = 0.36). CONCLUSIONS:During the recent 8-year period, the use of glucose-lowering drugs has changed dramatically among patients with T2DM. Overall glycemic control has not improved and remains poor among nearly a quarter of the youngest patients. The overall rate of severe hypoglycemia remains largely unchanged. 10.2337/dc16-0985
    SGLT2 Inhibitors in Combination Therapy: From Mechanisms to Clinical Considerations in Type 2 Diabetes Management. van Baar Michaël J B,van Ruiten Charlotte C,Muskiet Marcel H A,van Bloemendaal Liselotte,IJzerman Richard G,van Raalte Daniël H Diabetes care The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires practitioners to periodically evaluate patients and intensify glucose-lowering treatment once glycemic targets are not attained. With guidelines moving away from a one-size-fits-all approach toward setting patient-centered goals and allowing flexibility in choosing a second-/third-line drug from the growing number of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved glucose-lowering agents, keen personalized management in T2D has become a challenge for health care providers in daily practice. Among the newer generation of glucose-lowering drug classes, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is), which enhance urinary glucose excretion to lower hyperglycemia, have made an imposing entrance to the T2D treatment armamentarium. Given their unique insulin-independent mode of action and their favorable efficacy-to-adverse event profile and given their marked benefits on cardiovascular-renal outcome in moderate-to-high risk T2D patients, which led to updates of guidelines and product monographs, the role of this drug class in multidrug regimes is promising. However, despite many speculations based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, physiological reasoning, and potential synergism, the effects of these agents in terms of glycemic and pleiotropic efficacy when combined with other glucose-lowering drug classes are largely understudied. In this perspective, we review the currently emerging evidence, discuss prevailing hypotheses, and elaborate on necessary future studies to clarify the potential risks and benefits of using an SGLT2i in dual combination with metformin and triple combination with a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, or other glucose-lowering agent that is recommended by the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (i.e., a sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, or insulin) to treat patients with T2D. 10.2337/dc18-0588