Creation of bladder assembloids mimicking tissue regeneration and cancer.
Current organoid models are limited by their inability to mimic mature organ architecture and associated tissue microenvironments. Here we create multilayer bladder 'assembloids' by reconstituting tissue stem cells with stromal components to represent an organized architecture with an epithelium surrounding stroma and an outer muscle layer. These assembloids exhibit characteristics of mature adult bladders in cell composition and gene expression at the single-cell transcriptome level, and recapitulate in vivo tissue dynamics of regenerative responses to injury. We also develop malignant counterpart tumour assembloids to recapitulate the in vivo pathophysiological features of urothelial carcinoma. Using the genetically manipulated tumour-assembloid platform, we identify tumoural FOXA1, induced by stromal bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), as a master pioneer factor that drives enhancer reprogramming for the determination of tumour phenotype, suggesting the importance of the FOXA1-BMP-hedgehog signalling feedback axis between tumour and stroma in the control of tumour plasticity.
ctDNA guiding adjuvant immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma.
Powles Thomas,Assaf Zoe June,Davarpanah Nicole,Banchereau Romain,Szabados Bernadett E,Yuen Kobe C,Grivas Petros,Hussain Maha,Oudard Stephane,Gschwend Jürgen E,Albers Peter,Castellano Daniel,Nishiyama Hiroyuki,Daneshmand Siamak,Sharma Shruti,Zimmermann Bernhard G,Sethi Himanshu,Aleshin Alexey,Perdicchio Maurizio,Zhang Jingbin,Shames David S,Degaonkar Viraj,Shen Xiaodong,Carter Corey,Bais Carlos,Bellmunt Joaquim,Mariathasan Sanjeev
Minimally invasive approaches to detect residual disease after surgery are needed to identify patients with cancer who are at risk for metastatic relapse. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) holds promise as a biomarker for molecular residual disease and relapse. We evaluated outcomes in 581 patients who had undergone surgery and were evaluable for ctDNA from a randomized phase III trial of adjuvant atezolizumab versus observation in operable urothelial cancer. This trial did not reach its efficacy end point in the intention-to-treat population. Here we show that ctDNA testing at the start of therapy (cycle 1 day 1) identified 214 (37%) patients who were positive for ctDNA and who had poor prognosis (observation arm hazard ratio = 6.3 (95% confidence interval: 4.45-8.92); P < 0.0001). Notably, patients who were positive for ctDNA had improved disease-free survival and overall survival in the atezolizumab arm versus the observation arm (disease-free survival hazard ratio = 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.79); P = 0.0024, overall survival hazard ratio = 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.86)). No difference in disease-free survival or overall survival between treatment arms was noted for patients who were negative for ctDNA. The rate of ctDNA clearance at week 6 was higher in the atezolizumab arm (18%) than in the observation arm (4%) (P = 0.0204). Transcriptomic analysis of tumours from patients who were positive for ctDNA revealed higher expression levels of cell-cycle and keratin genes. For patients who were positive for ctDNA and who were treated with atezolizumab, non-relapse was associated with immune response signatures and basal-squamous gene features, whereas relapse was associated with angiogenesis and fibroblast TGFβ signatures. These data suggest that adjuvant atezolizumab may be associated with improved outcomes compared with observation in patients who are positive for ctDNA and who are at a high risk of relapse. These findings, if validated in other settings, would shift approaches to postoperative cancer care.