The ischemic liver cirrhosis theory and its clinical implications.
The canonical pathway theory of cirrhosis addresses inflammation as the main driver of hepatic fibrogenesis in hepatitis, so needing a further hypothesis for etiologies missing inflammation, for which parenchymal extinction is postulated. The present paper reports an alternative hypothesis suggesting a central role of micro-vascular ischemia in fibrogenesis and cirrhosis development, whatever is the aetiology of liver chronic injury. In fact, since chronic liver injury could finally result in endothelial damage and micro-vascular thrombosis, leading to a trigger of inappropriate hepatocyte proliferation and fibrosis, finally cirrhosis development could arise from chronic micro-vascular ischemia. Recently, some important confirmation of this hypothesis has been reported. In fact, in a murine experimental model of congestive hepatopathy, it was found that chronic hepatic congestion leads to sinusoidal thrombosis and strain, which in turn promote hepatic fibrosis. Furthermore, a study on a murine model of cirrhosis reported enoxaparin to reduce hepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure by having a protective role against fibrogenesis. In conclusion, the hypothesis giving a central role of micro-vascular ischemia in fibrogenesis and cirrhosis development could change the clinical scenario of chronic liver disease and have several main implications on management of various liver disease.
Hepatic dysfunction contributes to coagulation disturbances in patients undergoing whole body hyperthermia by use of extracorporeal circulation.
Worel Nina,Knöbl Paul,Karanikas Georgios,Fuchs Eva-Maria,Bojic Andja,Brodowicz Thomas,Jilma Petra,Zielinski Christoph C,Köstler Wolfgang J,Locker Gottfried J
The International journal of artificial organs
PURPOSE:This phase I study was performed to evaluate coagulation alterations during extracorporeal circulation (ECC) induced whole body hyperthermia (WBHT) in 12 patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas. METHODS:To distinguish between effects of normothermic ECC and ECC-WBHT, blood samples were drawn at different time points: at baseline, after 30 min on normothermic ECC, at the end of the heating period, and 24 h and 7 days thereafter. Standard coagulation tests, coagulation factors, thrombelastography,platelets and reticulated platelets, liver enzymes, and scintigraphic platelet imaging were performed. RESULTS:Normothermic ECC resulted in coagulation alterations most likely due to systemic anticoagulation. Induction of hyperthermia caused thrombocytopenia, increased fibrin degradation products,prolonged clotting times, alteration in coagulation factors, and increased liver enzymes. The majority of these effects was most pronounced 24 h after ECC-WBHT. In addition, late liver sequestration of platelets was demonstrated in scintigraphic imaging at that time point. CONCLUSIONS:Temporal correlation between hemostatic alterations and elevation in liver enzymes leads to the assumption that liver impairment might play a crucial role in coagulation disturbances observed during ECC-WBHT and thereafter, thus strongly supported by liver sequestration of platelets.Therefore a close monitoring of hepatic derived coagulation alterations in patients undergoing extracorporeal whole body hypothermia is warranted.
Enoxaparin reduces hepatic vascular resistance and portal pressure in cirrhotic rats.
Cerini Federica,Vilaseca Marina,Lafoz Erica,García-Irigoyen Oihane,García-Calderó Héctor,Tripathi Dinesh M,Avila Matias,Reverter Juan Carlos,Bosch Jaime,Gracia-Sancho Jordi,García-Pagán Juan Carlos
Journal of hepatology
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Increased hepatic vascular resistance due to fibrosis and elevated hepatic vascular tone is the primary factor in the development of portal hypertension. Heparin may decrease fibrosis by inhibiting intrahepatic microthrombosis and thrombin-mediated hepatic stellate cell activation. In addition, heparin enhances eNOS activity, which may reduce hepatic vascular tone. Our study aimed at evaluating the effects of acute, short-, long-term and preventive enoxaparin administration on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, liver fibrosis and nitric oxide availability in cirrhotic rats. METHODS:Enoxaparin (1.8 mg/kg subcutaneously), or its vehicle, was administered to CCl4-cirrhotic rats 24h and 1h before the study (acute), daily for 1 week (short-term) or daily for 3 weeks (long-term) and to thioacetamide-cirrhotic rats daily for 3 weeks with/without thioacetamide (preventive/long-term, respectively). Mean arterial pressure, portal pressure, portal blood flow, hepatic vascular resistance and molecular/cellular mechanisms were evaluated. RESULTS:No significant changes in hemodynamic parameters were observed in acute administration. However, one-week, three-week and preventive treatments significantly decreased portal pressure mainly due to a decrease in hepatic vascular resistance without significant changes in mean arterial pressure. These findings were associated with significant reductions in liver fibrosis, hepatic stellate cell activation, and desmin expression. Moreover, a reduction in fibrin deposition was observed in enoxaparin-treated rats, suggesting reduced intrahepatic microthrombosis. CONCLUSION:Enoxaparin reduces portal pressure in cirrhotic rats by improving the structural component of increased liver resistance. These findings describe the potentially beneficial effects of enoxaparin beyond the treatment/prevention of portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis, which deserve further investigation.