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    Incidence, risk factors for amputation among patients with diabetic foot ulcer in a Chinese tertiary hospital. Li Xiang,Xiao Ting,Wang Yuzhen,Gu Hongbin,Liu Zhiguo,Jiang Yufeng,Liu Yanjun,Lu Zuqian,Yang Xiaopin,Lan Yin,Xu Zhangrong Diabetes research and clinical practice OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of amputation among patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and risk factors for amputations. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of 450 inpatients treated in a multi-discipline based diabetic centre, 306th Hospital of PLA during the period of January 2000-September 2009. Hospital admission and discharge information including patient profile, grade of DFU, co-morbidities and complications, laboratory data and final outcome were collected. The risk factors for amputation were determined using univariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:The overall amputation rate among DFU was 21.5%. Significant univariate risk factors for amputation were peripheral vascular disease (PVD), white blood cell (WBC) counts, neutrophil granulocyte percentage, hemoglobin, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and serum sCRP. Upon stepwise logistic regression analysis, only PVD (odds ratio 4.529, 95% CI 1.500-13.676), WBC (odds ratio 1.146, 95% CI 1.075-1.222), sCRP (odds ratio 1.041, 95% CI 1.002-1.082) and triglyceride (odds ratio -0.488, 95% CI 0.433-0.869) were significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS:The risk factors for amputation were presence of PVD, increased WBC, sCRP and decreased triglyceride. 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.03.014
    Epidemiology of type 2 diabetic foot problems and predictive factors for amputation in China. Jiang Yufeng,Ran Xingwu,Jia Lijing,Yang Chuan,Wang Penghua,Ma Jianhua,Chen Bing,Yu Yanmei,Feng Bo,Chen Lili,Yin Han,Cheng Zhifeng,Yan Zhaoli,Yang Yuzhi,Liu Fang,Xu Zhangrong The international journal of lower extremity wounds To determine incidence and clinically relevant risk factors for diabetic amputation in a large cohort study of diabetic foot ulceration patients in China, we investigated a total of 669 diabetic foot ulceration patients, who were assessed at baseline for demographic information, medical and social history, peripheral neuropathy screening, periphery artery disease screening, assessment of nutritional status and diabetic control, physical examination including foot deformity in 15 Grade III-A hospitals. Of the 669 patients, 435 were male and 201 were female, with the mean age being 64.0 years. Of all patients, 110 had neuropathic ulcers, 122 had ischemic ulcers, 276 had neuroischemic ulcers, and 12 cases were unclassified. Wagner classification showed 61 cases were grade I, 216 cases grade II, 159 cases grade III, 137 cases grade IV, and 7 cases grade V. The overall amputation rate among diabetic foot patients was 19.03%, and major and minor amputation rates were 2.14% and 16.88%, respectively. By univariate analysis, statistically significant differences were found in smoking, rest pain, ulcer history, revascularization history, amputation history, gangrene, infection, Wagner grades, duration of diabetes, and postprandial blood glucose, aldehyde, total protein, globulin, albumin, white blood cell (WBC), hemoglobin, HbA1c, ulcer property, body mass index, as well as creatinine. Binary logistic regression model showed that increased WBC (odds ratio 1.25) and ulcer history (odds ratio 6.8) were associated with increased risks from diabetic foot ulcer to major amputation; increased duration of diabetes (odds ratio 1.004), WBC (odds ratio 1.102), infection (odds ratio 2.323), foot deformity (odds ratio 1.973), revascularization history (odds ratio 2.662), and decreased postprandial blood sugar (odds ratio 0.94) were associated with increased risks from diabetic foot ulcer to minor amputation. It is of great importance to give better management to diabetic patients at early stages. Following a diagnosis of DFU more intensive surveillance and aggressive care may improve outcome. 10.1177/1534734614564867
    Risk Factors for Major Amputation in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients. Lu Qingwei,Wang Jun,Wei Xiaolu,Wang Gang,Xu Yang Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy Background:The purpose of our study was to identify the new and the more specific risk factors for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Methods:We used data from the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) database of our hospital from February 2014 to July 2020. Patients with DFU and amputation were included in the study. The logistic regression model was adjusted for demographic characteristics and related comorbidities between major and minor amputation groups. Results:Among 3654 patients with DFU, 363 (9.9%) were amputated. Patients with major versus minor amputation, in multivariable logistic regression models, major amputation independent factors included previous amputation history (odds ratio [OR] 2.31 [95% CI 1.17-4.53], = 0.02), smoking (2.58 [1.31-5.07], = 0.01), coronary artery disease (CAD) (2.67 [1.35-5.29], = 0.03), ankle brachial index (ABI) <0.4 (15.77 [7.51-33.13], < 0.01), Wagner 5 (5.50 [1.89-16.01], < 0.01), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (1.23 [1.03-1.48], = 0.01), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (1.23 [1.03-1.48], = 0.03), hemoglobin (Hb) (0.98 [0.96-1.00], = 0.01), plasma albumin (ALB) (0.88 [0.81-0.95], < 0.01) and white blood cell (WBC) (1.10 [1.04-1.16], < 0.01). Conclusion:Major amputation was associated with previous amputation history, smoking, CAD, Wagner 5, ABI <0.4, HbA1c, Hb, ALB, WBC, and APTT might be a new independent factor. In view of these factors, early prevention and guidance promptly orientated by multidisciplinary is of great significance to reduce the disability rate and economic burden. 10.2147/DMSO.S307815
    INSTRUCTIONS: Risk Factors for Major Amputation for Midfoot Ulcers in Hospitalized Patients With Diabetes: A Retrospective Study. Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society 10.1097/WON.0000000000000756
    Incidence and Predictors of Surgical Site Infection Complications in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Lower Limb Amputation. Chahrour Mohamad A,Habib Joseph R,El Moheb Mohamad N,Cherfan Patrick,Mahmoud Dima,El Rahyel Ahmed,Khachfe Hussein,Hoballah Jamal J Annals of vascular surgery BACKGROUND:Surgical site infections (SSIs) following lower extremity amputations (LEAs) are a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study are to investigate the annual incidence of SSI and risk factors associated with SSI after LEA in diabetic patients. METHODS:LEAs performed on diabetic patients between 2005 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Incidence rates were calculated and analyzed for temporal change. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify the independent predictors of SSIs in LEA. RESULTS:In 21,449 diabetic patients, the incidence of SSIs was 6.8% after LEA, with an overall decreasing annual trend (P = 0.013). Amputation location (below-knee in reference to above-knee) [OR (95% CI): 1.35 (1.20 - 1.53), P <0.001], smoking [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.11 - 1.41), P <0.001)], female sex [OR (95% CI): 1.16 (1.03 - 1.30)], preoperative sepsis [OR (95% CI): 1.24 (1.10 - 1.40), P <0.001], P = 0.013], emergency status [OR (95% CI): 1.38 (1.17 - 1.63), P <0.001], and obesity [OR (95% CI): 1.59 (1.12 - 2.27), P = 0.009] emerged as independent predictors of SSIs, while moderate/severe anemia emerged as a risk-adjusted protective factor [OR (95% CI): 0.75 (0.62 - 0.91), P = 0.003]. Sensitivity analysis found that moderate/severe anemia, not body mass index (BMI) class, remained a significant risk factor in the development of SSIs in below-the-knee amputations; in contrast, higher BMI, not preoperative hematocrit, was significantly associated with an increased risk for SSI in above-the-knee amputations. CONCLUSIONS:The incidence of SSIs after LEA in diabetic patients is decreasing. Overall, below-knee amputation, smoking, emergency status, and preoperative sepsis appeared to be associated with SSIs. Obesity increased SSIs in above-the-knee amputations, while moderate/severe preoperative anemia appears to protect against below-the-knee SSIs. Surgeons should take predictors of SSI into consideration while optimizing care for their patients, and future studies should investigate the role of preoperative hematocrit correction and how it may influence outcomes positively or negatively. 10.1016/j.avsg.2021.09.040
    Clinical outcome and determinants of amputation in a large cohort of Iranian patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Niakan Mohammad Hadi,Dehghankhalili Maryam,Pourdavood Amirhossein,Vahidi Abtin,Nazemi Sina,Piranviseh Ashkan,Hasanvand Khatereh Foot (Edinburgh, Scotland) OBJECTIVE:Determining the predictive factors of diabetes foot ulcer (DFU) development and lower extremity amputations (LEA) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is of great importance to compose risk stratification models. The aim of this study is to investigate the outcome and predictors of LEA in patients with DFU in large sample of Iranian patients. METHODS:This prospective cohort study was conducted during a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016, in Shiraz, southern Iran. All the patients with type 1 and 2 DM and DFU were included in the cohort and were followed for 2 years at least. They were visited in the clinic on a monthly basis and development of new DFU and LEA were recorded. The two-year free-DFU survival and predictors of the DFU development and LEA were recorded. Multivariate regression models were used to determine the factors. RESULTS:A total number of 432 patients with mean age of 56.8 ± 13.3 years were included. The two-year DFU-free survival rate was 0.826. The two-year DFU-free survival was associated with male gender (p = 0.005), foot deformity (p = 0.002), history of prior DFU (p < 0.001), cigarette smoking (p = 0.032), nephropathy (p = 0.005), retinopathy (p = 0.007), ischemic heart disease (p = 0.043), and neuropathy (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Development of new DFU is associated with higher age, longer duration of disease, and type I diabetes. LEA was associated with increased white blood cell (WBC), Creatinine and ulcer history for major amputation and ulcer history, fasting blood sugar (FBS), infection, revascularization history, and foot deformity, for minor amputation. 10.1016/j.foot.2020.101688
    Knowledge and attitude of patients undergoing lower extremity amputation at RK Khan Hospital, Chatsworth. Olotu B,Anderson F South African journal of surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir chirurgie BACKGROUND:Amputation is one of the oldest and most commonly performed surgical procedures. OBJECTIVE:To review the knowledge and attitude of patients undergoing lower extremity amputations and describe the associated causative factors. METHODOLOGY:A questionnaire-based prospective study assessing patients either preoperatively or immediately postoperatively regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward lower extremity amputation was conducted between November 2016 and April 2017. Extracted data was captured into an Excel spreadsheet and imported into SPSS for statistical analysis. RESULTS:Sixty-three amputations were performed with males accounting for 56% of the study population. The majority were in the age group of 61-70 years (33%). The commonest indication for amputation was complication of diabetes mellitus or diabetes foot sepsis (65%). Below-knee amputation (BKA) was the most frequently performed procedure and accounted for 56% of all amputations. Seventy per cent of the participants had formal education and 60% knew that their condition could lead to an amputation, but only approximately 10% visited the foot clinic before their major amputation despite the service being available at RK Khan Hospital. Smoking was the commonest habit associated with amputation. CONCLUSION:There is a gradual temporal increase in the frequency of resected papillary cancer over a 16 year period while follicular has remained static. These changes may be attributable to better salt iodination.
    Broad-Ranging Nutritional Deficiencies Predict Amputation in Diabetic Foot Ulcers. Brookes John Deakin Lees,Jaya Joseph Swaminadan,Tran Henley,Vaska Ashish,Werner-Gibbings Keagan,D'Mello Andre C,Wong Jennifer,Lemoh Chris N,Saunder Alan C,Yii Ming Kon The international journal of lower extremity wounds Diabetic foot ulcers present across the spectrum of nonhealing wounds, be it acute or many months duration. There is developing literature highlighting that despite this group having high caloric intake, they often lack the micronutrients essential for wound healing. This study reports a retrospective cohort of patients' micro- and macro-nutritional state and its relationship to amputation. A retrospective cohort was observed over a 2-month period at one of Australia's largest tertiary referral centers for diabetic foot infection and vascular surgery. Patient information, duration of ulcer, various biochemical markers of nutrition and infection, and whether the patient required amputation were collected from scanned medical records. A cohort of 48 patients with a broad-spectrum of biochemical markers was established. Average hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 8.6%. A total of 58.7% had vitamin C deficiency, including 30.4% with severe deficiency, average 22.6 Ł} 5.8 μmol/L; 61.5% had hypoalbuminemia, average albumin 28.7 Ł} 2.5 g/L. Average vitamin B12 was 294.6 Ł} 69.6 pmol/L; 57.9% had low vitamin D, average 46.3 Ł} 8.3 nmol/L. Basic screening scores for caloric intake failed to suggest this biochemical depletion. There was a 52.1% amputation rate; biochemical depletion was associated with risk of amputation with vitamin C ( < .01), albumin ( = .03), and hemoglobin ( = .01), markedly lower in patients managed with amputation than those managed conservatively. There was no relation between duration of ulceration and nutrient depletion. Patients with diabetic foot ulceration rely on multidisciplinary care to optimize their wound healing. An important but often overlooked aspect of this is nutritional state, with micronutrients being very important for the healing of complex wounds. General nutritional screening often fails to identify patients at risk of micronutrient deficiency. There is a high prevalence of vitamin deficiency in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. This presents an excellent avenue for future research to assess if aggressive nutrient replacement can improve outcomes in this cohort of patients. 10.1177/1534734619876779
    A meta-analysis of the relationship between foot local characteristics and major lower extremity amputation in diabetic foot patients. Wang Ning,Yang Bo-Hua,Wang Gang,Gao Yu,Cao Xin,Zhang Xiao-Fu,Yan Cheng-Cheng,Lian Xiao-Tong,Liu Bo-Hong,Ju Shang Journal of cellular biochemistry OBJECTIVE:To clarify and quantify risk factors among local characteristics of the foot for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. METHODS:Articles published before January 2018 on PubMed and Embase were conducted observational studies about risk factors for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot were retrieved and systematically reviewed by using Stata 12.0 statistical software. RESULTS:A total of 4668 major amputees and 65 831 controls were reported in 18 observational studies. Across the studies, the overall odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of significant risk factors are ulcer reaching bone (OR, 11.796; 95% CI, 6.905-20.152), gangrene (OR, 6.487; 95% CI, 4.088-10.293), hindfoot position (OR, 3.913; 95% CI, 2.254-6.795), decreased ankle-brachial index (ABI) (OR, 2.522; 95% CI, 1.805-3.523), infection (OR, 2.516; 95% CI, 1.708-3.706), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (OR, 2.114; 95% CI, 1.326-3.372). While there is no significant difference in the size of the ulcer, neuropathy, Charcot foot, osteomyelitis and intermittent claudication (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.85-1.54). CONCLUSION:Factors among local characteristics of the foot associated with major amputation in patients with diabetic foot are the ulcer reaching bone, gangrene, hindfoot position, decreased ABI, infection, and PAD, a negative risk factor for the risk of amputation. Further studies are required to provide more details of foot local characteristics. 10.1002/jcb.28183
    Short-term mortality and risk factors associated with reoperation after emergency amputation of the lower limbs. Miyamoto Shuichi,Otsuka Makoto,Hasue Fumio,Fujiyoshi Takayuki,Kamiya Koushirou,Kiuchi Hitoshi,Tanaka Tadashi,Nakamura Junichi,Orita Sumihisa,Ohtori Seiji Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association BACKGROUND:As Japan has an aging population, elderly patients with multiple complicating comorbidities have increased in number. The purpose of the present study was to examine the 90-day mortality and reoperation rate after emergency amputation of the lower limbs and to clarify patient characteristics and preoperative comorbidities that are risk factors for reoperations. METHODS:This retrospective case study was conducted between January 2005 and December 2017. Ninety-one patients with 108 limbs who had undergone emergency amputation of the lower limbs were included in this study. Baseline data, medical comorbidities, surgical procedures and laboratory data including C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were evaluated. Outcome measurements were mortality, reoperation rate, and factors associated with reoperation in 90 days and any complication after amputation of the lower limbs. RESULTS:The patients (male/female ratio = 64/27) had a mean age of 64.9 years, a mean WBC count of 16,747/μL, a mean CRP value of 15.6 mg/dL, and a mean HbA1c value of 7.5%. The 90-day mortality rate in the study population was 12.1%. The 90-day reoperation rate was 35.2% (32/91) patients with 32.4% (35/108) limbs. The factor significantly associated with reoperation in 90 days was peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (p = 0.022, HR = 2.75), identified with Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 41.8% (38/91) patients with 40.7% (44/108) limbs experienced postoperative wound complications. The overall rate of medical complications was 18.7% (17/91) patients with 16.7% (18/108) limbs. CONCLUSIONS:This study indicates that the 90-day mortality and reoperation rates after emergency amputation of the lower limbs were high. Furthermore, PAD influences the rate of reoperation in 90 days. However, there was no association between laboratory results or diabetes mellitus and reoperation. These findings will have important implications for the treatment of lower leg amputation and prevention of reoperation. 10.1016/j.jos.2019.05.018
    Patients' clinical charecteristics and predictors for diabetic foot amputation. Sayiner Z A,Can F I,Akarsu E Primary care diabetes INTRODUCTION:Medical and surgical treatment options are available for patients with diabetic foot ulcers. In more severe cases, amputation decisions are determined by patient comorbidities, performance, imaging studies, and clinical examination results. However, an objective indicator that predicts how this amputation process will end has not yet been clarified. This study identifiies clinical characteristics that can be predictors of the need for diabetic foot amputation among patients. METHODS:In this retrospective observational study, a total of 400 patients with type 2 diabetes who were over the age of 18 and possessed diabetic foot ulcers were examined. The clinical, radiological, and scintigraphic profiles of these patients including age, gender, duration of diabetes, smoking history, previous diabetic foot amputation, presence of hypertension (HT), coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy were analyzed. RESULTS:Of the 400 patients with diabetic foot ulcers, 143 (35.75%) underwent foot amputation. Moreover, the frequency of proteinuria in amputees was significantly higher than in non-amputees (p<0,05). Amputees also exhibited significantly longer smoking histories (p<0,001), and the frequency of reamputation was significantly higher in those who possesed histories of previous amputation (p=0.038). After multivariate analysis PAD presence and previous diabetic ulcer history were the significant factors to determine the amputation decision. CONCLUSION:The following patient characteristics were determined as being effective for predicting the need for amputation: male sex, CAD, PAD, HT, proteinuria, ulcers with Wagner Stages 4-5, smoking histories, previous diabetic ulcer histories, and previous amputation histories. The specificity of the model with these variables was determined as 86% in the patients who did not need amputation. Significant determinants were peripheral artery disease presence and diabetic foot ulcer history. Still, further and more extensive research with higher numbers of patients is necessary for determining more precisely the need for amputation. 10.1016/j.pcd.2018.12.002
    Osteomyelitis Increases the Rate of Amputation in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Extremity Burns. Nizamani Rabia,Heisler Stephen,Chrisco Lori,Campbell Harold,Jones Samuel W,Williams Felicia N Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), amputation rates exceed 30% when lower extremity osteomyelitis is present. We sought to determine the rate of osteomyelitis and any subsequent amputation in our patients with DM and lower extremity burns. We performed a single-site, retrospective review at our burn center using the institutional burn center registry, linked to clinical and administrative data. Adults (≥18 years old) with DM admitted from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018 for isolated lower extremity burns were eligible for inclusion. We evaluated demographics, burn characteristics, comorbidities, presence of radiologically confirmed osteomyelitis, length of stay (LOS), inpatient hospitalization costs, and amputation rate at 3 months and 12 months after injury. We identified 103 patients with DM and isolated lower extremity burns. Of these, 88 patients did not have osteomyelitis, while 15 patients had radiologically confirmed osteomyelitis within 3 months of the burn injury. Compared to patients without osteomyelitis, patients with osteomyelitis had significantly increased LOS (average LOS 22.7 days vs 12.1 days, P = .0042), inpatient hospitalization costs (average $135,345 vs $62,237, P = .0008), amputation rate within 3 months (66.7% vs 5.70%, P < .00001), and amputation rate within 12 months (66.7% vs 9.1%, P < .0001). The two groups were otherwise similar in demographics, burn injury characteristics, access to healthcare, and preexisting comorbidities. Patients with DM and lower extremity burns incurred increased LOS, higher inpatient hospitalization costs, and increased amputation rates if radiologically confirmed osteomyelitis was present within 3 months of the burn injury. 10.1093/jbcr/iraa106
    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Lower Limb Amputation: A Clinic-Based Case Control Study. Rodrigues Beverly T,Vangaveti Venkat N,Malabu Usman H Journal of diabetes research Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for lower limb amputation in a specialist foot clinic-based setting. Methods. A retrospective quantitative study was conducted, using clinical and biochemical profiles of diabetic foot patients attending the High Risk Foot Clinic at The Townsville Hospital, Australia, between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013. Results. The total study sample included 129 subjects, comprising 81 males and 48 females with M : F ratio of 1.7 : 1. Twenty-three subjects were Indigenous Australians, representing 17.8% of the study population. The average age of the cohort was 63.4 years ± 14.1 years [CI 90.98-65.89]. Lower limb amputation was identified as a common and significant outcome (n = 44), occurring in 34.1%, more commonly amongst the Indigenous Australians (56.5% versus 29.2%; p = 0.94, OR 0.94). Risk factors most closely associated with amputation included diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.00, OR 4.4), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (p = 0.01, OR 4.1), Charcot's arthropathy (p = 0.01, OR 2.9), and Indigenous ethnicity (p = 0.01, OR 3.4). Although average serum creatinine, corrected calcium, and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) levels were higher amongst amputees they were statistically insignificant. Conclusions. Lower limb amputation is a common outcome and linked to ethnicity and neurovascular diabetic complications amongst subjects with diabetic foot ulcer. Further research is needed to identify why risk of lower limb amputation seems to differ according to ethnicity. 10.1155/2016/5941957
    Diabetic foot ulcer carries high amputation and mortality rates, particularly in the presence of advanced age, peripheral artery disease and anemia. Costa Rafael Henrique Rodrigues,Cardoso Natália Anício,Procópio Ricardo Jayme,Navarro Túlio Pinho,Dardik Alan,de Loiola Cisneros Ligia Diabetes & metabolic syndrome INTRODUCTION:Foot ulcer is also a clinical marker for limb amputation and for death in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine amputation and mortality rates and its associated factors in patients with diabetic foot ulcerations in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. METHODS:Retrospective medical records from 654 diabetic foot patients were reviewed. The risk factors were determined using the conditional logistic regression model analysis. RESULTS:The mean patient age was 63.1 years (SD 12.20). Peripheral arterial disease was present in 160 patients (24.5%). Major amputations were performed in 135 (21%). The in-hospital mortality rate was 12% and the mortality rate of the amputees was 22.2%. The lowest hemoglobin level, the median value was 9.50g/dL, (4.0-17.0). Anemia was detected in 89.6% of patients submitted to amputation and in 82,1% of those who died. Hemoglobin <11g/dL was the most significant risk factor for major amputation (odds ratio 5.57, p<0.0001). The presence of peripheral arterial disease and old age were also a risk for major amputation (odds ratio 1.84, p=0.007 and 1.02, p=0.028, respectively). Factors associated with increased risk for death were hemoglobin <11g/dL (odds ratio 4.04, p<0.001), major amputation (1.79, p=0.03) and old age (1.05, p<0,001). CONCLUSIONS:Diabetic foot ulcer is associated with high amputation and mortality rates. Old age, peripheral arterial disease and low hemoglobin level are risk factor for major amputation. Old age, major amputation and low hemoglobin level are risk factors for death. 10.1016/j.dsx.2017.04.008
    A Comparison of Adverse Short-Term Outcomes Following Forefoot Amputation Performed on an Inpatient Versus Outpatient Basis. Meyr Andrew J,Skolnik Jennifer,Mateen Sara,Sansosti Laura E The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons The objective of this investigation was to evaluate short-term adverse outcomes following forefoot amputation with a specific comparison between those procedures performed on an inpatient versus outpatient basis. The 2018 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was interrogated to select those subjects with a 28805 current procedural terminology code (amputation, foot; transmetatarsal) that underwent the procedure with "all layers of incision (deep and superficial) fully closed." This resulted in 326 subjects who underwent the procedure on an inpatient basis and 72 subjects who underwent the procedure on an outpatient basis. Results of the primary outcome measures found no significant differences between groups with respect to the development of a superficial surgical site infection (5.8% vs 5.6%; p = .950), deep incisional infection (3.4% vs 5.6%; p = .380), or wound disruption (3.4% vs 6.9%; p = .163). Additionally, no significant differences were observed between groups with respect to unplanned reoperations (15.6% vs 12.5%; p = .500) or unplanned hospital readmissions (21.8% vs 23.6%; p = .957). The results of this investigation demonstrate no difference in short-term adverse outcomes following the performance of forefoot amputation with primary closure when the procedure is performed on an inpatient or outpatient basis. We hope that this information is utilized in future investigations specifically examining this clinical scenario as it relates to hospital admission criteria related to lower extremity tissue loss, length of hospital stay considerations, the timing of partial foot amputation following revascularization, and the economics of limb preservation. 10.1053/j.jfas.2020.07.007
    Risk Factors for Foot Amputation in Patients Hospitalized for Diabetic Foot Infection. Quilici Maria Teresa Verrone,Del Fiol Fernando de Sá,Vieira Alexandre Eduardo Franzin,Toledo Maria Inês Journal of diabetes research The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for amputation in diabetic patients hospitalized for foot infections. This cross-sectional study comprised 100 patients with diabetic infectious complications in the lower limbs. The variables investigated were related to diabetes, infection, and treatment compliance. Multiple Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the variables independently associated with the outcome of amputation. The most prevalent chronic complications were neuropathy and hypertension. Most patients presented with a neuroischemic foot (86%). The Morisky test showed that 72% were not compliant with diabetes treatment. Regarding patient outcome, 61% progressed to amputation, 14% to debridement, and 9% to revascularization. The results showed a 42% higher risk for progression to amputation in patients with previous use of antimicrobials. Also, the amputation risk was 26% higher for those less compliant with diabetes treatment. An increase of one point in the Wagner ulcer classification criteria corresponded to a 65% increase in the risk of amputation. Undergoing conservative, nonsurgical procedures prior to admission provided a 63% reduction in the risk of amputation. Knowledge of these factors is critical to enable multidisciplinary teams to develop treatment plans for these patients so as to prevent the need for amputation. 10.1155/2016/8931508
    Factors associated with lower-extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcers in a Chinese tertiary care hospital. Guo Zi,Yue Chun,Qian Qiang,He Honghui,Mo Zhaohui International wound journal Providing a better understanding of the risk factors for amputation in this particular region, Hunan province, in China might help patients with diabetic foot ulcers receive timely and appropriate medical care and help prevent amputation. Diabetic foot ulcer patients referred to the Third Xiangya Hospital during the period between December 2014 and September 2018 were enrolled. Participants who underwent amputations and received conservative treatments were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses to identify the independent predictors of amputation. Those who required amputation presented significantly higher levels of white blood cell counts, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. However, levels of haemoglobin, postprandial plasma C-peptide, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin, and uric acid were decreased in patients with amputations. Patients with more advanced Wagner grades had much higher rates of amputation. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios in stepwise logistic regression model was 1.317 for HbA1c (95% CI: 1.015-1.709), 0.255 for triglyceride (95% CI: 0.067-0.975), and 20.947 for Wagner grades (95% CI: 4.216-104.080). Independent risk factors for amputation in these Chinese diabetic foot ulcer patients included an elevated HbA1c level, lower triglyceride level, and higher Wagner grades. 10.1111/iwj.13190
    Analysis of routine blood markers for predicting amputation/re-amputation risk in diabetic foot. Gülcü Anıl,Etli Mustafa,Karahan Oğuz,Aslan Ahmet International wound journal Diabetic foot is challenging progressive disease which requires multisystemic control. Neuropathy, arteriopathy, and cellular responses should treated collaboratively. Despite all medical advances, diabetic foot can highly resulted with amputation and also re-amputation can be required because of failed wound healing. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation between blood parameters and amputation events. Diabetic 323 patients include to the study who referred to orthopaedic clinic for amputation. Amputation levels (amputation levels phalanx, metatarsal, lisfranc, syme, below knee, knee-disarticulation, above-knee amputation) and re-amputations recorded and compared with routine blood parameters. Re-amputation was observed at 69 patients. The significant difference detected between lower albumin, higher HbA1c, higher CRP levels (P < 0.05) in regards to gross amputation levels, and increased wound depth. Furthermore, lower albumin levels and higher levels of WBC, HbA1c, CRP, and Creatinine were detected in re-amputation levels. Especially, HbA1c, CRP, and Creatinine levels were found as upper bound of reference line for re-amputation. The statistically optimal HbA1c cutoff point for diabetes was ≥7.05%, with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 59%. In according to our results, simple blood parameters can be useful for observing the progress of amputation in diabetic foot. Particularly, lower albumin, and higher HbA1c, CRP, and Creatinine levels detected as related with poor prognosis. Besides, screening of HbA1c level seems to be highly sensitive for detecting of re-amputation possibility. 10.1111/iwj.13491
    Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalized diabetic patients with forefoot ulcers. Moon Kyung-Chul,Kim Soo-Byn,Han Seung-Kyu,Jeong Seong-Ho,Dhong Eun-Sang Diabetes research and clinical practice AIMS:The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for major amputation in patients hospitalized with diabetic forefoot ulcers. METHODS:Between January 2003 and December 2018, a total of 1792 diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound center for the management of diabetic foot ulcers. Among the patients, 1032 diabetic patients with forefoot ulcers were included in this study. Nine hundred and eighty-three patients (95%) healed without major amputations while 49 patients (5%) healed after major amputations. Data related to 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology, and serology were collected from the patients in these two groups for comparison. RESULTS:Among the 88 potential risk factors, 34 showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. In the univariate analysis of 88 risk factors, 33 showed statistically significant differences. In stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, four of the 33 risk factors remained statistically significant. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for gender, magnesium levels, platelet levels, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were 8.216, 2.480, 1.009, and 0.570, respectively. CONCLUSION:Risk factors for major amputation in patients hospitalized with diabetic forefoot ulcers include male gender, increased magnesium, increased platelet levels, and low levels of HbA1c. 10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107905
    A 10-year retrospective study of heat press injury: Characteristics and risk factor for amputation. Jiang Huihao,Wang Cheng Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries PURPOSE:The diagnostic grading system for heat press injury has remained the same for decades and depends solely on surgical observation. This study described the demographic and clinical characteristics of such patients and investigated potential predictive factors for amputation. METHODS:129 patients diagnosed with heat press injury were admitted at Beijing Jishuitan Hospital from 2010 to 2019. Their demographic and clinical characteristics were described and 64 patients were included in a retrospective cohort to assess the risk factors of amputation with univariable and multivariable logistic regression. RESULT:The annual partial incidence rate of heat press injury was at least 1-4 cases per 10,000,000 people in Beijing. Of our 129 patients, 85 were men and the mean age was 32 years, 126 caused by machines, 70 with full-thickness burns but no open wounds, and the median total body surface area (TBSA) was 1%. After logistic regression, only insufficient perfusion of the extremities (odds ratio = 156.48; 95% confidence interval = 11.24-2177.92) was associated with the risk of amputation, where 12 of 20 patients lost more than 1 phalanx. CONCLUSION:Industrial machines, working age, small TBSA, digit or hand injuries, and full-thickness skin injuries were common in our patients. Insufficient perfusion of extremities was an independent risk factor for amputation, while other indicators, including TBSA, D-dimer level, and white blood cell count, did not. 10.1016/j.burns.2020.06.037
    Risk factors for lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcers: A meta-analysis. Lin Chunmei,Liu Jinhao,Sun Hu PloS one PURPOSE:A considerable number of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients require amputation every year, which worsens their quality of life, aggravates the social burden, and shortens their life expectancy. Considering these negative effects, it is important to explore the relative risk factors affecting amputation in DFU patients. METHODS:The PubMed, SCIE and Embase databases were comprehensively searched for prospective or retrospective studies published before October 31, 2019. All English language studies involving DFU patients were included, and RevMan 5.3 software was used to analyse the data. RESULTS:This meta-analysis includes 21 studies involving 6505 participants, including 2006 patients who required a lower limb amputation. The following variables were associated with an increased risk of amputation: male sex (odds ratios (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16~1.46, P<0.00001), smoking history (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04~1.35, P = 0.009), a history of foot ulcers (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 2.00~3.07, P<0.00001), osteomyelitis (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 3.02~4.53, P<0.00001), gangrene (OR = 10.90, 95% CI = 5.73~20.8, P<0.00001), a lower body mass index (mean difference IV (MD) = -0.88, 95% CI = -1.30~-0.47, P<0.0001), and a higher white blood cell count (MD = 2.42, 95% CI = 2.02~2.82, P<0.00001). However, age (MD = 1.24, 95% CI = -0.45~2.93, P = 0.15), type of diabetes (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.61~1.52, P = 0.86), hypertension (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.96~1.47, P = 0.12), and HbA1c level (MD = 0.02, 95% CI = -0.28~0.33, P = 0.87) were not associated with amputation in patients with DFU. CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analysis identified several risk factors for amputation in DFU patients, including the male sex, a smoking history, a history of foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, gangrene, a lower body mass index, and a higher white blood cell count. Once gangrene occurs, the risk of amputation rapidly increases. 10.1371/journal.pone.0239236
    Meta-analysis of risk factors for amputation in diabetic foot infections. Sen Pinar,Demirdal Tuna,Emir Busra Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews BACKGROUND:Knowledge of risk factors is crucial to develop management and treatment protocols for the prevention of lower extremity amputation for patients with diabetic foot infections (DFIs). METHODS:We searched the research literature for studies reporting risk factors for lower extremity amputation in patients with DFI. The main outcome variables included both minor and major amputations. This study was reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and the protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018118543). RESULTS:A total of 2471 potential articles from the database search met the inclusion criteria. After reviewing the titles, abstracts, and full texts, remaining 25 articles were included in the final analysis. We identified 6132 patients with DFI in the 25 included articles. Of these, 1873 patients who underwent amputation were investigated. Male gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31), smoking (OR: 1.38), history of amputation (OR: 1.47), history of osteomyelitis (OR: 1.94), peripheral arterial disease (OR: 2.35), retinopathy (OR: 1.32), International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) grades 3 and 4 (OR: 1.7 and 2.5), Wagner grades 4 and 5 (OR: 4.3 and 6.4), gangrene/necrosis (OR: 9.9), osteomyelitis (OR: 4.5), neuroischaemic DFI (OR: 3.06), severe infection (OR: 3.12), length of hospitalization (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 0.7), leukocytosis (OR: 1.76), mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (SMD: 0.5), mean C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD: 0.8), tissue culture positivity (OR: 1.61), and isolation of Gram-negative bacteria from tissue culture (OR: 1.5) were found as predictors of amputation in DFI. CONCLUSIONS:The present study highlighted some differences in diabetic foot ulcers and DFIs in terms of risk factors for lower extremity amputation. These data provide detailed information about risk factors for amputations among patients with DFI, thus contributing to the creation of new classification systems for assessment of high-risk patients. 10.1002/dmrr.3165
    Identifying major predictors of lower-extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Perng Cherng-Kang,Chou Hsuan-Yu,Chiu Yu-Jen Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA BACKGROUND:The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors for amputation in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). METHODS:Between 2012 and 2017, 646 patients with DFU were admitted to our diabetic foot care center. A retrospective chart review was performed, and the end point was limb salvage and minor or major amputation. Chi-square test, dependent t test, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify risk factors in patients with DFUs. RESULTS:A total of 399 male and 247 female patients (mean age 64.6 years) were included in this study, of whom 159 (24.6%) underwent lower limb amputation (minor, 17.5; major, 7.1%). Independent risk factors of amputation were peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (odds ratio [OR], 3.196; p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) level (OR, 1.046; p = 0.001), and hospital stay (OR, 1.019; p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on all patients with PAD who underwent amputation showed that endovascular intervention (OR, 0.271; p = 0.049) was a protective factor for major amputation in addition to CRP level (OR, 1.116; p = 0.008). CONCLUSION:DFU remains a major medical and public health issue. PAD, CRP level, and hospital stay are independent risk factors for amputation. Endovascular intervention is an independent protective factor against major amputation among patients with PAD who underwent amputation. 10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000473
    Indications of amputation after limb-salvage surgery of patients with extremity-located bone and soft-tissue sarcomas: A retrospective clinical study. Baysal Özgür,Sağlam Fevzi,Sofulu Ömer,Yiğit Okan,Şirin Evrim,Erol Bülent Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate amputation-related factors after limb-salvage surgery (LSS) in patients with extremity-located bone and soft-tissue sarcomas and determine the relationship between these factors and patient survival. METHODS:In this retrospective study at our institution, patients in whom LSS was first performed because of an extremity-located musculoskeletal sarcoma, and subsequently amputation was carried out for various indications were included. Patient and tumor characteristics, details of surgical procedures, indications of amputation, number of operations, presence of metastasis before amputation, and post-amputation patient survival rates were analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 25 patients (10 men, 15 women; mean age=41.96±21.88 years), in whom amputation was performed after LSS as initial resection of an extremity sarcoma or re-resection(s) of a local recurrence, were included in the study. The leading oncological indication for amputation was local recurrence that occurred in 18 (72%) patients. Non-oncological indications included prosthetic infection in 5 (20%), mechanical failure in 1 (4%), and skin necrosis in 1 (4%) patient. The patients underwent a median of 2 (range, 1-4) limb-salvage procedures before amputation. Distant organ metastasis was detected in 22 (88%) patients during follow-up; in 13 (52%) of these patients, metastasis was present before amputation. A total of 11 (44%) patients were alive at the time of study with no evidence of the disease (n=3) or with disease (n=8), and 14 (56%) patients died of disease. The mean overall and post-amputation survival were 47±20.519 (range, 11-204) months and 22±4.303 (range, 2-78) months, respectively. The median follow-up was 27 (range, 6-125) months. CONCLUSION:The most common causes of amputation after LSS were local recurrence and prosthetic infection. Patients who underwent amputation after LSS developed a high rate of distant organ metastasis during follow-up and had reduced survival. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV, Therapeutic Study. 10.5152/j.aott.2021.20115
    Early Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Lower Extremities: Risk Factors for Mortality and Amputation. Advances in wound care In this study, we seek to identify patient characteristics associated with limb loss and mortality while exploring the potential impact a multidisciplinary care team may have. This was a 10-year retrospective review of patients presenting to our tertiary care center for limb salvage with a diagnosis of lower extremity (LE) necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Patient demographics, clinical history, and outcomes were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors and between those who underwent LE amputation and those who did not. The article adheres to the strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology statement. Sixty-two patients presented to our tertiary care center for limb salvage with LE NF. Forty-two patients underwent LE amputation: 27 (43.5%) underwent below-knee amputation, 1 (1.6%) underwent above-knee amputation, 8 (12.9%) underwent transmetatarsal amputation and 2 (3.2%) underwent calcanectomy. The overall mortality rate was 16.1% ( = 10). Risk factors for mortality included increased age ( = 0.034), higher Charlson Comorbidity Index ( = 0.011), thrombocytopenia ( = 0.002), hypotension ( = 0.015), erythema ( = 0.010), pain ( = 0.027), diabetes mellitus ( = 0.012), and malignancy ( < 0.001). Risk factors for LE amputation included DM ( = 0.017), peripheral vascular disease ( = 0.033), and an elevated laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINC) ( = 0.033). To identify outcomes after admission to a tertiary hospital with a dedicated limb salvage team with LE NF and to analyze risk factors for mortality and amputation. This is a comprehensive analysis of risk factors for mortality and amputation after LE NF. Our institution's experience highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the care of these patients. 10.1089/wound.2021.0031
    Analysis of Early Lower Extremity Re-amputation. Zambetti Benjamin R,Stiles Zachary E,Gupta Prateek K,Stickley Shaun M,Brahmbhatt Reshma,Rohrer Michael J,Kempe Kelly Annals of vascular surgery BACKGROUND:Data is scarce regarding the need for early re-amputation to a higher anatomic level. This study seeks to define outcomes and risk factors for re-amputation. METHODS:Patients undergoing primary major lower extremity amputation were identified within the 2012-2016 ACS-NSQIP database. Demographics, outcomes, and peri-operative characteristics were compared, and multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine association with early re-amputation. RESULTS:Over a 4-year period, 8306 below knee amputations and 6367 above knee amputations were identified. Thirty-day re-amputation occurred in 262 patients (1.8%) and was associated with increased length of stay (12.9 vs. 7.3 days, P < 0.001), higher rates of readmission (64.9% vs. 13.6%, P < 0.001), and overall complications (69.5% vs. 39.3%, P < 0.01). On multivariable analysis, advanced age (OR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.03), smoking (OR 1.75, CI 1.32-2.33), dialysis dependence (OR 1.67, CI 1.23-2.26), preoperative septic shock (OR 2.53, CI 1.29-4.97), and bleeding disorders (OR 1.72, CI 1.34-2.22) were associated with early re-amputation. CONCLUSIONS:Thirty-day re-amputation rates are low, but are associated with significant morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and frequent readmissions. 10.1016/j.avsg.2021.10.030