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    Association between urine albumin to creatinine ratio and bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study. Oumer Kemal Sherefa,Liu Yawen,Charkos Tesfaye Getachew,Yang Shuman Irish journal of medical science BACKGROUND:Studies on the association between urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and bone mineral density (BMD) are still controversial. AIMS:This study investigated the association between ACR and BMD in the general US population. METHODS:This cross-sectional study identified 2007 individuals aged 40 or above years with complete and valid data on urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and femoral neck, total femur and lumbar spine BMD from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014. ACR was directly measured with established methods. BMDs were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). After adjusting for multiple covariates, we used general linear model (GLM) to compare the mean of BMD between the quartiles of ACR. RESULTS:The mean age of participants in this study was 54.6 ± 11.3 years; 52.6% of them were female. ACR was negatively associated with BMD at femoral neck, total femur and lumbar spine (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for covariates, higher level of ACR quartile was associated with lower femoral neck BMD (P for trend = 0.032), but with not total femur and lumbar spine BMD (all P for trend > 0.05)). CONCLUSION:ACR was negatively associated with femoral neck BMD in the general US population. Future studies are warranted to confirm our results. 10.1007/s11845-021-02551-0
    Physical activities mediate the correlations between serum creatinine and bone mineral density in Chinese. Guan Yu,Lu Yi-Hua,Lei Shu-Feng Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry BACKGROUND:The relationship between serum creatinine (CR) and osteoporosis under normal renal function and the possible mediating effects mediated by physical activity (PA) are largely unknown. METHODS:A total of 4,137 elderly Chinese subjects were recruited. Three models including different covariates were established. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between CR and bone mineral density (BMD) and also under different PA pattern. Logistic regression was used to investigate the interaction between CR*PA with osteoporosis. PA was used as a moderating variable to investigate the relationship between CR and BMD. RESULTS:As we expected, the association between CR and BMD remained significant after adjusting covariates in all models. The relationship between CR and BMD showed changeable pattern in case of different physical activity. Specially, the moderating effects of PA on serum creatinine and BMD were significant for all models only in the case of medium physical activity (PA3). CONCLUSIONS:In Chinese elderly under normal renal function, serum CR is positively correlated with BMD, and medium physical activity has mediation effect on such correlation. 10.1016/j.cca.2021.11.025