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    ERBB2 mutation frequency in lobular breast cancer with pleomorphic histology or high-risk characteristics by molecular expression profiling. Christgen Matthias,Bartels Stephan,Radner Martin,Raap Mieke,Rieger Luisa,Christgen Henriette,Gluz Oleg,Nitz Ulrike,Harbeck Nadia,Lehmann Ulrich,Kreipe Hans Genes, chromosomes & cancer HER2-positive breast cancer is defined by amplification or overexpression of the HER2/ERBB2 oncogene and accounts for about 15% of breast cancer cases. Somatic mutation of ERBB2 is an alternative mechanism, by which activation of HER2 signaling can occur. ERBB2 mutation has been associated with invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC). This study investigates the frequency and phenotype of ILBC harboring mutated ERBB2. The ERBB2 mutation status was determined by next generation sequencing and/or pyrosequencing in n = 106 ILBCs, including n = 86 primary or locally recurrent tumors and n = 20 metastases from visceral organs, soft tissue, or skin. Immunohistochemical characteristics were determined using tissue microarrays. This series was enriched for ILBCs with pleomorphic histology and/or high-risk expression profiles (Oncotype DX, recurrence score RS > 25). Nearly all specimens were E-cadherin-negative (99%), estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (92%), and lacked ERBB2 overexpression (96%). ERBB2 mutations (p.V777L, p.L755S, p.S310F) were identified in 5/106 (5%) cases. ERBB2-mutated cases included 2/86 (2%) primary tumors and 3/20 (15%) metastases (P = 0.045). ERBB2-mutated cases were associated with loss of ER (2/7, 29%, P = 0.035) and histological grade 3 (4/34, 12%, P = 0.023), but not with solid growth (3/31, 10%, P = 0.148) or pleomorphic histology (2/27, 7%, P = 0.599). No ERBB2 mutation was detected in ILBCs with RS > 25 (0/22, 0%). In 10 patients with multiple matched specimens (n = 25), the ERBB2 mutational status was always concordant. In summary, a small subset of ILBCs harbors potentially actionable ERBB2 mutations. In ERBB2-mutated ILBCs, no association with pleomorphic histology was found. 10.1002/gcc.22716
    Targeting immune pathways in breast cancer: review of the prognostic utility of TILs in early stage triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Blackley Elizabeth F,Loi Sherene Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) Breast cancer has been one of the last tumor types to see benefit from immunotherapies. Yet, immune infiltrates have been noticed for decades in primary breast cancers. Lately, quantity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been reported to have strong prognostic value in improving estimates of distant recurrence-free survival, disease-free and overall survival in early-stage triple negative BC (TNBC) treated with standard adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Level 1B evidence). Quantity, as a percentage of tumor stromal infiltration, is based on an evaluation by pathologists using light microscopy on H&E stained glass slides (see method at www.tilsinbreastcancer.org) [1,2] at time of diagnosis (pre-treatment and in the residual disease post neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Whilst TILs are currently not used for treatment allocation, this is an active area of investigation. Combination of atezolizumab with nab-paclitaxel in a phase III study has recently seen success in terms of improved progression free and overall survival for the PD-L1 -positive population of metastatic TNBC in the first line/newly relapsed setting [3]. This has led to approval of atezolizumab for use in this setting. However, this population was only 41% of the trial population. Data in advanced breast cancer currently suggest requirement for enrichment of the population for preexisting anti-tumor immunity for benefit to PD(L)1 inhibition. Checkpoint inhibitors are currently being investigated in the early-stage setting in a number of phase II/III trials in TNBC with various different anti- PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4 agents. In this context, we will face issues of the best chemotherapy backbone, the possible detrimental role of steroids and growth factor support, risk of overtreatment, differences between PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibition and if we can use a biomarker to effectively escalate or de-escalate chemotherapy and/or use checkpoint inhibition in this setting. 10.1016/S0960-9776(19)31122-1
    Insulin resistance and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. Pan Kathy,Chlebowski Rowan T,Mortimer Joanne E,Gunter Marc J,Rohan Thomas,Vitolins Mara Z,Adams-Campbell Lucile L,Ho Gloria Y F,Cheng Ting-Yuan David,Nelson Rebecca A Cancer BACKGROUND:Insulin resistance is associated with higher all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in postmenopausal women. However, to the authors' knowledge, information regarding insulin resistance and breast cancer mortality risk is limited. Therefore, the authors examined associations between insulin resistance and breast cancer incidence and mortality in a subsample of Women's Health Initiative participants. METHODS:A total of 22,837 postmenopausal women with fasting baseline glucose and insulin levels were followed for incident breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Breast cancers were verified by medical record review and serial National Death Index linkage-enhanced mortality findings. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for quartile comparisons. Outcomes included breast cancer incidence, deaths from breast cancer, and deaths after breast cancer (breast cancer followed by death from any cause). RESULTS:During a median of 19.8 years of follow-up of 1328 breast cancer cases, there were 512 deaths reported, 151 of which were from breast cancer. Breast cancer incidence was higher in women in the highest HOMA-IR quartile (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.12-1.61 [P for trend = .003]). Although HOMA-IR was not found to be associated with risk of death from breast cancer (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.79), women in the highest versus those in the lowest HOMA-IR quartile were at a higher risk of death after breast cancer (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.32-2.39 [P for trend <.001]). CONCLUSIONS:Higher levels of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women are associated with higher breast cancer incidence and higher all-cause mortality after breast cancer. 10.1002/cncr.33002