共0篇 平均IF=NaN (-) 更多分析

    加载中

    logo
    Compliance in Primary Prevention With Statins and Associations With Cardiovascular Risk and Death in a Low-Risk Population With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Malmborg Morten,Schmiegelow Michelle D S,Gerds Thomas,Schou Morten,Kistorp Caroline,Torp-Pedersen Christian,Gislason Gunnar Journal of the American Heart Association Background We examined whether primary prevention with statins and high adherence to statins reduce the associated risk of cardiovascular events or death in a low-risk population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Methods and Results Using Danish nationwide registers, we included patients with new-onset T2D, aged 40 to 89 years, between 2005 and 2011, who were alive 18 months following the T2D diagnosis (index date). In patients who purchased statins within 6 months following T2D diagnosis, we calculated the proportion of days covered (PDC) within 1 year after the initial 6-month period. We studied the combined end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, or all-cause mortality, whichever came first, with Cox regression. Reported were standardized 5-year risk differences for fixed comorbidity distribution according to statin treatment history, stratified by sex and age. Among 77 170 patients, 42 975 (56%) were treated with statins, of whom 31 061 (72%) had a PDC ≥80%. In men aged 70 to 79 years who were treated with statins, the standardized 5-year risk was 22.9% (95% CI, 21.5%-24.3%), whereas the risk was 29.1% (95% CI, 27.4%-30.7%) in men not treated, resulting in a significant risk reduction of 6.2% (95% CI, 4.0%-8.4%), <0.0001. The risk reduction associated with statins increased with advancing age group (women: age 40-49 years, 0.0% [95% CI, -1.0% to 1.0%]; age 80-89 years, 10.8% [95% CI, 7.2%-14.4%]). Standardizing to all patients treated with statins, PDC <80% was associated with increased risk difference (reference PDC ≥80%; PDC <20%, 4.2% [95% CI, 2.9%-5.6%]). Conclusions This study supports the use of statins as primary prevention against cardiovascular diseases or death in 18-month surviving low-risk patients with T2D, with the highest effect in the elderly and adherent patients. 10.1161/JAHA.120.020395
    Improved Erythrocyte Deformability Induced by Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Son Minkook,Lee Ye Sung,Hong A Ram,Yoon Jee Hee,Kim Hee Kyung,Kang Ho-Cheol,Yang Sung Cardiovascular drugs and therapy PURPOSE:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that improve cardiovascular outcomes. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values increase after SGLT-2 inhibitor administration. Although these factors increase blood viscosity and the risk of cardiovascular disease, SGLT-2 inhibitors have protective effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms for this paradoxical phenomenon remain unclear, and the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on hemorheology has not been studied. METHODS:We evaluated the hemorheological parameters of 63 patients of whom 38 received metformin with a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, while 25 received metformin with SGLT-2 inhibitor. Blood viscosity was measured using a cone-and-plate viscometer, erythrocyte aggregation was measured using a modified erythrocyte sedimentation rate method, and erythrocyte membrane fluctuation was measured as deformability, using a diffraction optical tomography. RESULTS:Both blood viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation increased in the SGLT-2 inhibitor group, although erythrocyte deformability was significantly improved compared with that of the DPP-4 inhibitor group (DPP-4 inhibitor 43.71 ± 5.13 nm; SGLT-2 inhibitor 53.88 ± 4.88 nm; p < 0.001). When the two groups were compared after propensity score matching, no differences in blood viscosity at high shear rates and erythrocyte aggregation were observed, although erythrocyte deformability was significantly improved in the SGLT-2 inhibitor group (DPP-4 inhibitor 45.01 ± 5.28 nm; SGLT-2 inhibitor 53.14 ± 4.72 nm; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates that erythrocyte deformability was improved in the SGLT-2 inhibitor group compared with that in the DPP-4 inhibitor group. This improvement in erythrocyte deformability is expected to have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. 10.1007/s10557-020-07067-w
    SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin prevents atherosclerotic and cardiac complications in experimental type 1 diabetes. Hodrea Judit,Saeed Adar,Molnar Agnes,Fintha Attila,Barczi Adrienn,Wagner Laszlo J,Szabo Attila J,Fekete Andrea,Balogh Dora B PloS one INTRODUCTION:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is two to five times more prevalent in diabetic patients and is the leading cause of death. Therefore, identification of novel therapeutic strategies that reduce the risk of CVD is a research priority. Clinical trials showed that reduction in the relative risk of heart failure by sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are partly beyond their glucose lowering effects, however, the molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Here we investigated the role of SGLT2i dapagliflozin (DAPA) in the prevention of diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications. METHODS:Type 1 diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (65 mg/bwkg, ip.) in adult, male Wistar rats. Following the onset of diabetes rats were treated for six weeks with DAPA (1 mg/bwkg/day, po.). RESULTS:DAPA decreased blood glucose levels (D: 37±2.7 vs. D+DAPA: 18±5.6 mmol/L; p<0.05) and prevented metabolic decline. Aortic intima-media thickening was mitigated by DAPA. DAPA abolished cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial damage. Cardiac inflammation and fibrosis were also moderated after DAPA treatment. CONCLUSIONS:These data support the preventive and protective role of SGLT2i in diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease. SGLT2i may provide novel therapeutic strategy to hinder the development of cardiovascular diseases in type 1 diabetes, thereby improve the outcomes. 10.1371/journal.pone.0263285
    A sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin comparison with insulin shows important effects on Zn-transporters in cardiomyocytes from insulin-resistant metabolic syndrome rats through inhibition of oxidative stress . Olgar Yusuf,Turan Belma Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors showed significant effects in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome (MetS) with high cardiovascular risk. Although the increased intracellular Zn level ([Zn]), oxidative stress, and altered cardiac matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in diabetic cardiomyopathy can intersect with different signaling pathways, the exact mechanisms are not known yet. Since either MMPs or SGLT2 have important roles in cardiac-fibrosis under hyperglycemia, we aimed to examine the role of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAP) on cardiac Zn-transporters responsible for [Zn]-regulation, comparison to insulin (INS), together with MMP levels and systemic oxidative stress status in MetS-rats. High-carbohydrated diet-induced MetS-rats received DAP or INS for 2 weeks. DAP but not INS in MetS-rats significantly decreased high blood-glucose levels, while both treatments exerted benefits on increased total oxidative status and decreased total antioxidant status in MetS-rat plasma as well as in heart tissue. Protein levels of Zn-transporters, responsible for Zn-influx into cytosol, ZIP7 and ZIP14 were increased with significant decrease in ZIP8 of MetS-rat cardiomyoctes, while Zn-transporters, responsible for cytosolic Zn-efflux, ZnT7 was decreased with no change in ZnT8. Both treatments induced significant beneficial effects on altered ZIP14, ZIP8, and ZnT7 levels. Furthermore, both treatments exerted benefits on depressed gelatin-zymography and protein expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in MetS-rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. The direct effect of DAP on heart was also confirmed with measurements of left ventricular developed pressure. Overall, we showed that DAP has important antioxidant-like cardio-protective effects in MetS-rats, similar to INS-effect, affecting Zn-regulation via Zn-transporters, MMPs, and oxidative stress. Therefore one can suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors can be new therapeutic agents for cardio-protection not only in hyperglycemia but also in failing heart. 10.1139/cjpp-2018-0466
    Effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Zou Cai-Yan,Liu Xue-Kui,Sang Yi-Quan,Wang Ben,Liang Jun Medicine BACKGROUND:Optimal glycemic control is required to restrain the increase of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors on cardiovascular events and mortality in those patients are not well established. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:We conducted a systematic literature search of Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library and included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of 3 different SGLT2 inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin) that evaluated the effects on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in the final meta-analysis. The intervention arm was defined either as SGLT2 inhibitor monotherapy or as SGLT2 inhibitor add-on to other non-SGLT2 inhibitor antidiabetic agents (ADAs). RESULTS:Forty-two trials with a total of 61,076 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the control, SGLT2 inhibitor treatment was associated with a reduction in the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93, P < .0001), myocardial infarction (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.94, P = .001), cardiovascular mortality (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.67-0.81, P < .0001) and all cause mortality (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.92, P < .0001). However, the risk of ischemic stroke was not reduced after SGLT2 inhibitor treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.85-1.07, P = .42). CONCLUSION:These data suggest a decreased risk of harm with SGLT2 inhibitor as a class with respect to cardiovascular events and mortality. 10.1097/MD.0000000000018245
    Molecular Mechanisms of SGLT2 Inhibitor on Cardiorenal Protection. Hou Yi-Chou,Zheng Cai-Mei,Yen Tzung-Hai,Lu Kuo-Cheng International journal of molecular sciences The development of sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) broadens the therapeutic strategies in treating diabetes mellitus. By inhibiting sodium and glucose reabsorption from the proximal tubules, the improvement in insulin resistance and natriuresis improved the cardiovascular mortality in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. It has been known that SGLT2i also provided renoprotection by lowering the intraglomerular hypertension by modulating the pre- and post- glomerular vascular tone. The application of SGLT2i also provided metabolic and hemodynamic benefits in molecular aspects. The recent DAPA-CKD trial and EMPEROR-Reduced trial provided clinical evidence of renal and cardiac protection, even in non-DM patients. Therefore, the aim of the review is to clarify the hemodynamic and metabolic modulation of SGLT2i from the molecular mechanism. 10.3390/ijms21217833
    The SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a multicenter randomized trial. Nassif Michael E,Windsor Sheryl L,Borlaug Barry A,Kitzman Dalane W,Shah Sanjiv J,Tang Fengming,Khariton Yevgeniy,Malik Ali O,Khumri Taiyeb,Umpierrez Guillermo,Lamba Sumant,Sharma Kavita,Khan Sadiya S,Chandra Lokesh,Gordon Robert A,Ryan John J,Chaudhry Sunit-Preet,Joseph Susan M,Chow Chen H,Kanwar Manreet K,Pursley Michael,Siraj Elias S,Lewis Gregory D,Clemson Barry S,Fong Michael,Kosiborod Mikhail N Nature medicine Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have a high burden of symptoms and functional limitations, and have a poor quality of life. By targeting cardiometabolic abmormalities, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may improve these impairments. In this multicenter, randomized trial of patients with HFpEF (NCT03030235), we evaluated whether the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin improves the primary endpoint of Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical Summary Score (KCCQ-CS), a measure of heart failure-related health status, at 12 weeks after treatment initiation. Secondary endpoints included the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), KCCQ Overall Summary Score (KCCQ-OS), clinically meaningful changes in KCCQ-CS and -OS, and changes in weight, natriuretic peptides, glycated hemoglobin and systolic blood pressure. In total, 324 patients were randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo. Dapagliflozin improved KCCQ-CS (effect size, 5.8 points (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-9.2, P = 0.001), meeting the predefined primary endpoint, due to improvements in both KCCQ total symptom score (KCCQ-TS) (5.8 points (95% CI 2.0-9.6, P = 0.003)) and physical limitations scores (5.3 points (95% CI 0.7-10.0, P = 0.026)). Dapagliflozin also improved 6MWT (mean effect size of 20.1 m (95% CI 5.6-34.7, P = 0.007)), KCCQ-OS (4.5 points (95% CI 1.1-7.8, P = 0.009)), proportion of participants with 5-point or greater improvements in KCCQ-OS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73 (95% CI 1.05-2.85, P = 0.03)) and reduced weight (mean effect size, 0.72 kg (95% CI 0.01-1.42, P = 0.046)). There were no significant differences in other secondary endpoints. Adverse events were similar between dapagliflozin and placebo (44 (27.2%) versus 38 (23.5%) patients, respectively). These results indicate that 12 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment significantly improved patient-reported symptoms, physical limitations and exercise function and was well tolerated in chronic HFpEF. 10.1038/s41591-021-01536-x
    Impact of demographic characteristics and antihyperglycemic and cardiovascular drugs on the cardiorenal benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Chang Rong,Liu Shu-Yan,Zhao Li-Min Medicine BACKGROUND:It is unclear whether demographic characteristics and baseline use of hypoglycemic and cardiovascular drugs significantly affect the efficacy of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on cardiorenal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS:Randomized trials assessing the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiorenal outcomes in adult patients with T2DM were included in analysis. Three endpoints of interest were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), hospitalization for heart failure or cardiovascular death (HHF or CV death), and kidney composite outcome (KCO). We performed random-effects meta-analysis using the aggregate data of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were done according to 17 factors of interest, including 7 factors related to demographic characteristics and 10 related to baseline use of antihyperglycemic and cardiovascular drugs such as renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor. We conducted meta-regression analyses to calculate P values for subgroup differences. RESULTS:Seven trials were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors significantly lowered the risk of MACE (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97) regardless of demographic characteristics and baseline use of insulin, statin or ezetimibe, RAS inhibitor, beta-blocker, and diuretic (Psubgroup from 0.088-0.981); that of HHF or CV death (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.71-0.85) regardless of demographic characteristics and baseline use of 10 antihyperglycemic and cardiovascular drugs (Psubgroup from 0.147-0.999); and that of KCO (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) regardless of demographic characteristics and baseline use of statin or ezetimibe, RAS inhibitor, and diuretic (Psubgroup from 0.073-0.918). CONCLUSIONS:The cardiorenal benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors were consistent in a broad population of T2DM patients. The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors should be recommended in T2DM patients for the prevention of cardiorenal events, regardless of various demographic characteristics and baseline use of various hypoglycemic and cardiovascular drugs. 10.1097/MD.0000000000027802
    The SGLT2 Inhibitor Empagliflozin Might Be a New Approach for the Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury. Chu Chang,Lu Yong-Ping,Yin Lianghong,Hocher Berthold Kidney & blood pressure research Three randomized control trials (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study, Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients [EMPA-REG OUTCOME], and Dapagliflozin Effect on Cardiovascular Events-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 58 [DECLARE-TIMI 58]) showed that the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, originally developed as glucose-lowering drugs, are associated with a lower rate of adverse renal outcomes, such as need for renal replacement therapy, doubling of serum creatinine, and loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to those in placebo groups. Besides, canagliflozin and empagliflozin also showed a lower risk of progression to macroalbuminuria. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial also indicated that these SGLT2 inhibitors might have beneficial effects on the prevention of acute kidney injury. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned of the risk of acute kidney injury for canagliflozin and dapagliflozin. We compared canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and dapagliflozin with respect to chemical structure and pharmacological properties, to explain the observed differences in preventing acute kidney injury, and put forward the hypotheses of the potential mechanisms of different effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on acute kidney injury. Given the raising clinical use of SGLT2 inhibitors, our review should stimulate further basic science and clinical studies in order to definitively understand the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in acute kidney injury. A weakness of the clinical data obtained so far is the fact that the statements concerning acute kidney injury are just based on safety data - mainly creatine measurements. However, given the mode of action of SGLT2 blockers, initiation of a therapy with a SGLT2 blocker will cause an increase of creatine because of its effects on the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms/glomerular hemodynamics like RAAS blocking agents do. To really understand the potential effects of SGLT2 inhibitors, we need preclinical and clinical SGLT2 inhibitor studies focusing on all aspects of acute kidney injury - not just changes in GFR biomarkers. 10.1159/000498963
    SGLT2 inhibitors and cardiovascular and renal outcomes: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Heart failure reviews Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular events and renal outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This meta-analysis aimed to provide a thorough evaluation regarding the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitors. Data search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases and ClinicalTrials.com from inception through November 26, 2020. We included randomized trials, SGLT2 inhibitors compared with placebo, patients with or without diabetes at recruitment, and reporting the incidence of cardiovascular or renal outcomes. Two authors extracted pertinent data into predefined data collection tables. Ten trials were included (71,553 patients). The mean age was 64.7 ± 8.4 years, with 65.1% male. Follow-up durations range 9-50 months. Inhibition of SGLT2 resulted in lower composite outcome of heart failure (HF) hospitalization or cardiovascular death (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.73-0.81, P < 0.01) and lower risk of renal outcomes (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.60-0.77, P < 0.01). Furthermore, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), HF hospitalization, cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and serious adverse events, compared with placebo (P < 0.05). Sensitivity analyses revealed lower MACE events also in patients with HF, and a lower HF hospitalization and cardiovascular mortality in non-diabetic patients (P < 0.05). While the amputation risk was comparable between the two groups, the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis was higher in the SGLT2 inhibitor group. Inhibition of SGLT2 in patients with DM and prevalent ASCVD reduces the risk of HF hospitalization, cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, MACE, and renal outcomes without increasing the risk of serious adverse events or amputation. 10.1007/s10741-021-10083-z
    Effects of SGLT2 Inhibitor on Ischemic Events Stemming From Atherosclerotic Coronary Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis With Trial Sequential Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Ye Gailin,Wang Shuai,Peng Daoquan Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology ABSTRACT:Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to reduce cardiovascular complications of type-2 diabetes mellitus. However, the beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibition are mainly associated with decline in hospitalization and death of heart failure. This systematic review will focus on the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on ischemic events stemming from atherosclerotic coronary diseases, including angina pectoris, angina unstable, and myocardial infarction. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant publications before October 2020. Twenty-two clinical trials consisting of 56,064 participants were included in the analysis. Cardiovascular effects following treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors were observed for angina pectoris, angina unstable, and myocardial infarction. A random-effects model was chosen, and after analysis of the P values and I2 statistic indices, we concluded that SGLT2 inhibitor treatment did not result in any significant differences in the incidence rate of angina pectoris [relative risk (RR), 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-1.14; P = 0.92], angina unstable (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.84-1.07; P = 0.84), or myocardial infarction (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.79-1.11; P = 0.98) between the experimental and control groups with firm evidence from sensitivity and trial sequential analyses. This meta-analysis provides evidence that SGLT2 inhibitors have no significant effects on ischemic events stemming from atherosclerotic coronary diseases in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. 10.1097/FJC.0000000000001018
    Differences in outcomes of hospitalizations for heart failure after SGLT2 inhibitor treatment: effect modification by atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Shao Shih-Chieh,Chang Kai-Cheng,Lin Swu-Jane,Chang Shang-Hung,Hung Ming-Jui,Chan Yuk-Ying,Lai Edward Chia-Cheng Cardiovascular diabetology BACKGROUND:The treatment effects on hospitalization for heart failure (hHF) from sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may vary among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients depending on whether or not they have established atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). We aimed to examine differences in hHF outcomes after dapagliflozin or empagliflozin use between T2D patients with and without a history of established ASCVD. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective multi-institutional cohort study in Taiwan. We included T2D patients newly receiving dapagliflozin or empagliflozin during 2016-2019, and followed them up until December 31, 2020. We implemented 1:1 propensity score matching to create homogenous groups for comparisons. We generated Cox proportional hazard models to compare the risk of hHF between dapagliflozin and empagliflozin (reference group). We included interaction terms of SGLT2 inhibitor and ASCVD history in the regression models to examine effect modification by ASCVD. RESULTS:We included a total cohort of 9,586 dapagliflozin new users and 9,586 matched empagliflozin new users. The overall hHF risks were similar for dapagliflozin and empagliflozin (HR: 0.90, 95% CI 0.74-1.09). However, differential hHF risks between dapagliflozin and empagliflozin were observed only in the subgroup without ASCVD (HR: 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.90), while not in the subgroup with ASCVD (HR: 1.12, 95% 0.87-1.45), and the p-value for examining interaction was 0.0097. CONCLUSION:In this study, history of established ASCVD was associated with different hHF risks among SGLT2 inhibitors. For T2D patients without ASCVD, dapagliflozin may offer a more favorable hHF reduction effect, compared to empagliflozin, in clinical practice. Future prospective studies should be conducted to validate our findings. 10.1186/s12933-021-01406-3
    Clinical Observation of SGLT2 Inhibitor Therapy for Cardiac Arrhythmia and Related Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients with Controlled Hypertension. Jhuo Shih-Jie,Lin Tsung-Hsien,Lin Yi-Hsiung,Tsai Wei-Chung,Liu I-Hsin,Wu Bin-Nan,Lee Kun-Tai,Lai Wen-Ter Journal of personalized medicine Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are new glucose-lowering agents that have been proven to be beneficial for patients with cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. However, the possible protective effects of cardiac arrhythmia have not yet been clarified in clinical practice. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiac arrhythmia by medical records from a single center. This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and controlled hypertension who prescribed the indicated glucose-lowering agents based on medical records from 2016 to 2019 from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. These patients were divided into two groups. Group one patients were defined as patients with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy, and group two patients were defined as patients without SGLT2 inhibitor therapy. Baseline characteristics were collected from medical records. Univariate, multivariate, and match-paired statistical analyses were performed for the study endpoints. The primary study outcome was the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, after SGLT2 inhibitor therapy. The secondary study outcomes were the incidence of stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction after SGLT2 inhibitor therapy. From the initial 62,704 medical records, a total of 9609 people who met our experimental design criteria were included. The mean follow-up period was 51.50 ± 4.23 months. Group one included 3203 patients who received SGLT2 inhibitors for treatment, and group two included 6406 patients who received non-SGLT2 inhibitors for treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that group one patients had significantly lower incidences of total cardiac arrhythmia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.89, = 0.013) and atrial fibrillation (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35-0.88, = 0.013) than those of group two patients. The secondary outcome analysis showed that group one patients also had a significantly lower risk of stroke (HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.33-0.7; < 0.001), heart failure (HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41-0.7, < 0.001), and myocardial infarction (HR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.31-0.72, < 0.001). A time-to-event analysis showed that treatment of type 2 DM patients with SGLT2 inhibitors could reduce the probability of total cardiac arrhythmia and related cardiovascular disease, such as atrial fibrillation, stroke, heart failure, or myocardial infarction, by 0.5%~0.8%. This databank analysis showed that SGLT2 inhibitor therapy reduced the incidence of total cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation in type 2 DM patients and decreased the incidence of related cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. However, additional investigations are needed to confirm this hypothesis. 10.3390/jpm12020271