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    Safety and Efficacy of Exenatide Once Weekly Plus Dapagliflozin Once Daily Versus Exenatide or Dapagliflozin Alone in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled With Metformin Monotherapy: 52-Week Results of the DURATION-8 Randomized Controlled Trial. Jabbour Serge A,Frías Juan P,Hardy Elise,Ahmed Azazuddin,Wang Hui,Öhman Peter,Guja Cristian Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Among patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin, exenatide once weekly (QW) plus dapagliflozin combination produced greater reductions in glycemia, weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 28 weeks than exenatide QW or dapagliflozin alone (DURATION-8). Here, we investigated the safety and maintenance of efficacy at 52 weeks, after a 24-week extension. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This phase 3, multicenter, double-blind study randomized adults with type 2 diabetes (with glycated hemoglobin [HbA] 8.0-12.0% [64-108 mmol/mol] and on metformin ≥1,500 mg/day) to exenatide QW (2-mg subcutaneous injection) plus once-daily dapagliflozin (10-mg oral tablet), exenatide QW plus oral placebo, or dapagliflozin plus injected placebo. Extension-period values were nominal. RESULTS:Of 1,375 patients screened, 695 were randomized (mean baseline HbA 9.3% [78 mmol/mol]); 81.2% completed the study, and 75.3% completed treatment. At 52 weeks, HbA reductions were greater with exenatide QW plus dapagliflozin (least squares mean change -1.75% [-19.1 mmol/mol]) versus exenatide QW (-1.38% [-15.1 mmol/mol]; 0.006) or dapagliflozin (-1.23% [-13.4 mmol/mol]; 0.001); mean HbA values were 6.9% (52 mmol/mol), 7.2% (55 mmol/mol), and 7.4% (57 mmol/mol), respectively. Weight and SBP reductions were greater with exenatide QW plus dapagliflozin (-3.31 kg and -4.5 mmHg) versus exenatide QW (-1.51 kg and -0.7 mmHg; both 0.001) but similar to those with dapagliflozin (-2.28 kg and -2.7 mmHg; 0.057 and = 0.100, respectively). The exenatide QW plus dapagliflozin regimen was well tolerated with no unexpected safety findings; more patients treated with exenatide QW experienced gastrointestinal and injection site-related adverse events. No major hypoglycemia occurred. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin, exenatide QW plus dapagliflozin provided sustained improvements in glycemia, weight, and SBP over 52 weeks, with no unexpected safety findings. 10.2337/dc18-0680
    Cost-effectiveness of first-line versus delayed use of combination dapagliflozin and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Chin Ken Lee,Ofori-Asenso Richard,Si Si,Hird Thomas R,Magliano Dianna J,Zoungas Sophia,Liew Danny Scientific reports The present study sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of first-line (immediate) versus delayed use of combination dapagliflozin and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes, from the perspective of the Australian healthcare system. We developed a Markov model to simulate the progress of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Decision analysis was applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of first-line combination dapagliflozin and metformin versus first-line metformin monotherapy followed by gradual addition of dapagliflozin over time. Transition probabilities, costs (in Australian dollars) and utility data were derived from published sources. All costs, years of life lived and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) lived were discounted at an annual rate of 5%. Over a 20-year model period, first-line use of combination dapagliflozin and metformin was predicted to reduce the onset of hospitalisation of heart failure, cardiovascular deaths and all cause deaths by 5.5%, 57.6% and 29.6%, respectively. An additional 2.5 years of life (discounted) and 1.9 QALYs (discounted) would be gained per patient, at a cost of AUD $23,367 (discounted) per person. These figures equated to AUD $9,535 per years of life saved (YoLS) and AUD $12,477 per QALYs saved. Sensitivity analyses indicated the results to be robust. Compared to first-line metformin monotherapy followed by gradual addition of dapagliflozin, first-line use of combination dapagliflozin and metformin is likely to be a cost-effective approach to the management of Australians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 10.1038/s41598-019-40191-8
    [Short-term intensive combined therapy with metformin, sagliptin and dapagliflozin for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: efficacy, weight control and safety]. Xu Yufeng,Wu Peili,Wen Weiheng,Chen Hong Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy and safety of short- term intensive hypoglycemic therapy with a triple regimen consisting of metformin, sagliptin and dapagliflozin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hemoglobin Alc (HbA1c) of 9%-12%. METHODS:We prospectively enrolled 58 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, who were treated with metformin combined with sagliptin and dapagliflozin for 12 weeks on the basis of diabetic diet and regular exercise. Blood glucose was monitored during the treatment and the changes in HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2 hPBG), fasting insulin (FINS), 2-hour postprandial insulin (2 hPINS), fasting C-peptide (F-CP), 2-hour postprandial C-peptide (2 hP-CP), and body weight after treatment as well as the incidence of hypoglycemia and adverse events associated with the treatment were recorded. RESULTS:Two patients withdrew from the study for intolerance of gastrointestinal reactions, and another 2 withdrew for inconvenience of access to the medicines. Fifty-four of the patients finally completed the study, including 34 male and 20 female patients. After 12 weeks of therapy, all the patients showed significant improvements in FBG, 2 hPBG, HbA1c, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR ( < 0.001) with a mean reduction of HbA1c level by (4.19 ± 1.07)%, and the goal of HbA1c control to below 7.0% was achieved in 83.33% of the patients. The reduction of HbA1c was correlated with FBG (=0.487, =0.000), 2 hPBG (=0.310, =0.023), and HOMA-β (=-0.398, =0.003). The patients had a mean body weight loss by 2.47±3.38 kg ( < 0.001) and a mean decrease of body mass index (BMI) by 0.90± 1.18 kg/m2 ( < 0.001) after the therapy. The body weight-reducing effect was associated with the patients' baseline body weight (=0.678, =0.000), BMI (=0.818, =0.000), F-CP (=0.282, =0.039) and HOMA-IR (=0.297, =0.029). During the therapy 8 patients experienced hypoglycemic symptoms (10 times, 14.81%); 3 patients were diagnosed with hypoglycemia (blood glucose ≤3.9 mmol/L, 3 times), and the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 5.56%. No serious hypoglycemia or infections of the urinary and reproductive systems occurred in these patients. CONCLUSIONS:Short-term intensive oral hypoglycemic therapy with metformin combined with sagliptin and dapagliflozin is effective for treatment of patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes with HbA1c of 9%-12% and shows a good weight-reducing effect with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The combined therapy can effectively improve β-cell insulin secretion function, and is suitable for treatment of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients with high blood glucose. 10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2019.11.07
    Efficacy of the treatment with dapagliflozin and metformin compared to metformin monotherapy for weight loss in patients with class III obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Ferreira-Hermosillo Aldo,Molina-Ayala Mario Antonio,Molina-Guerrero Diana,Garrido-Mendoza Ana Pamela,Ramírez-Rentería Claudia,Mendoza-Zubieta Victoria,Espinosa Etual,Mercado Moisés Trials BACKGROUND:Mexico has one of the highest prevalence rates of obesity worldwide. New pharmacological strategies that focus on people with class III obesity are required. Metformin and dapagliflozin are two drugs approved for the treatment of diabetes. Beyond its effects on glucose, metformin has been suggested by some studies to result in weight loss. Therapy with dapagliflozin is associated with a mild but sustained weight loss in patients with diabetes. The primary outcome of the study is to determine if the combined treatment with dapagliflozin and metformin is more effective than monotherapy with metformin for weight loss in patients with class III obesity and prediabetes or diabetes who are awaiting bariatric surgery (including those patients who do have surgery). We also aimed to assess the effect of this combined treatment on waist circumference, triglycerides, blood pressure, and inflammatory cytokines. METHODS:This randomized phase IV clinical trial will include patients with diabetes or prediabetes who are between the ages of 18 and 60 years and exhibit grade III obesity (defined as body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m). Patients using insulin will be excluded. Subjects will be randomized to one of two groups as follows: 1) metformin tablets 850 mg PO bid or 2) metformin tablets 850 mg PO bid plus dapagliflozin tablets 10 mg PO qd. The sample size required is 108 patients, which allows for a 20% dropout rate: 54 patients in the metformin group and 54 in the metformin/dapagliflozin group. All participants will receive personalized nutritional advice during the study. A run-in period of one month will be used to assess tolerance and adherence to treatment regimens. Anthropometric and biochemical variables will be recorded at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. A serum sample to determine glucagon, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, interleukin 6, and interleukin 10 will be collected at baseline and before surgery, or at 12 months (whatever happens first). Adherence to treatment and adverse and secondary events will be recorded throughout the study. An intention-to-treat analysis will be used. DISCUSSION:Forty-six percent of the patients in our Obesity Clinic have been diagnosed with prediabetes (32%) or diabetes (14%). The use of dapagliflozin in this population could improve weight loss and other cardiovascular factors. This effect could be translated into less time before undergoing bariatric surgery and better control of associated comorbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT03968224. Retrospectively registered on May 29, 2019. 10.1186/s13063-020-4121-x
    Efficacy and safety of dual add-on therapy with dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin versus glimepiride in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes on a stable dose of metformin: Results from a 52-week, randomized, active-controlled trial. Frias Juan P,Gonzalez-Galvez Guillermo,Johnsson Eva,Maaske Jill,Testa Marcia A,Simonson Donald C,Dronamraju Nalina,Garcia-Sanchez Ricardo,Peters Anne L Diabetes, obesity & metabolism AIMS:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin (DAPA) + saxagliptin (SAXA) compared with glimepiride (GLIM) in patients with type 2 diabetes who were inadequately controlled [glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.5-10.5% (58-91 mmol/mol)] on metformin monotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This 52-week, multicentre, double-blind, active-controlled study (NCT02419612) randomized (1:1) patients on metformin to add-on DAPA 10 mg + SAXA 5 mg (n = 227) or GLIM 1-6 mg (titrated; n = 217). The primary efficacy endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 52. RESULTS:Baseline mean ± standard deviation of age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c were 56.1 ± 9.7 years, 7.8 ± 6.4 years and 8.5% ± 0.8% (69 ± 9.0 mmol/mol), respectively. Adjusted mean change from baseline in HbA1c was -1.35% (-14.8 mmol/mol) with DAPA + SAXA versus -0.98% (-10.7 mmol/mol) with GLIM (P <0.001). Changes from baseline in body weight and systolic blood pressure were -3.1 kg and -2.6 mmHg with DAPA + SAXA versus +1.0 kg (P <0.001) and +1.0 mmHg (P = 0.007) with GLIM. More patients achieved HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) (44.3% vs. 34.3%; P = 0.044), and fewer patients required treatment intensification (1.3% vs. 8.8%; P = 0.002) with DAPA + SAXA than with GLIM. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with GLIM, concurrent addition of DAPA + SAXA significantly improved glycaemic control, body weight and other metabolic parameters in patients inadequately controlled on metformin. Trial: NCT02419612, ClinicalTrials.gov. 10.1111/dom.13997
    Dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin add-on to metformin reduces liver fat and adipose tissue volume in patients with type 2 diabetes. Johansson Lars,Hockings Paul D,Johnsson Eva,Dronamraju Nalina,Maaske Jill,Garcia-Sanchez Ricardo,Wilding John P H Diabetes, obesity & metabolism AIM:To assess the effects of dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin plus metformin versus glimepiride plus metformin on liver fat (proton density fat fraction) and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes over 52 weeks of treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a magnetic resonance imaging substudy of a 52-week, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial that evaluated the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin 10 mg/day plus saxagliptin 5 mg/day versus titrated glimepiride 1-6 mg (1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 mg) in 82 patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 7.5%-10.5%) on metformin ≥1500 mg/day background. Analyses were exploratory and not controlled for multiplicity; P-values are nominal. RESULTS:Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 59 patients; liver fat and adipose tissue volumes were analysed for 59 and 57 patients, respectively. There was a significant >30% reduction from baseline in liver fat (P = 0.007) and >10% reduction in adipose tissue volumes (P < 0.01) with dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin plus metformin at week 52 versus glimepiride plus metformin. In the full-study population, dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin plus metformin decreased body weight and serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels over 52 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:Dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin significantly decreased liver fat and adipose tissue volume versus glimepiride, and reduced serum liver enzyme levels, indicating a favourable metabolic profile of dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin therapy. 10.1111/dom.14004
    Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin vs monotherapy as added to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Zhuang Yan,Song Jin,Ying Miaofa,Li Mingxing Medicine BACKGROUND:This study aim at evaluating the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin vs monotherapy as added to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHOD:PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang databases were searched up to 31 December 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) applicable in dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin vs monotherapy as added to metformin in the treatment of T2DM were included. The outcomes included changes in HbA1c, FPG, body weight, SBP, DBP and adverse reactions. Fixed or random effects model were used to assess these outcomes. RESULTS:In this study, 8 RCTs involved 7346 patients were included. Compared with dapagliflozin plus metformin(DM) group, patients treated with dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin add on to metformin(DSM) could significantly increase the adjusted mean change levels of HbA1c, FPG, SBP and DBP(P < .00001, SMD = -4.88, 95%CI = -6.93∼-2.83; P < .00001, SMD = -6.50, 95%CI = -8.55∼-4.45; P < .00001, SMD = -0.97, 95%CI = -1.15∼-0.78; P < .00001, SMD = -2.00, 95%CI = -2.20∼-1.80), but no major difference in body weight loss showed(P = .12, SMD = 0.92, 95%CI = -0.22∼2.06). Furthermore, DSM therapy displayed better effects than saxagliptin plus metformin(SM) in the adjusted mean change levels of HbA1c, FPG, body weight and SBP(P < .00001, SMD = -7.75, 95%CI = -8.84∼-6.66; P < .00001, SMD = -7.75, 95%CI = -8.84∼-6.66; P = .04, SMD = -3.40, 95%CI = -6.64∼-0.17; P = .04, SMD = -7.75, 95%CI = -8.84∼-6.66), whereas no obvious difference in lowering DBP(P = .18, SMD = -16.35, 95%CI = -40.12∼7.41). Additionally, compared with DM and SM groups, there were no remarkable difference in the incidence of nausea, influenza, headache, diarrhea, urinary tract infection and renal failure for patients taking DSM, but the incidence of genital infection and hypoglycemia were higher in DSM group. CONCLUSIONS:Patients taking the DSM therapy had better effects in reducing the level of HbA1c, FPG, body weight, SBP and DBP than the DM and SM therapy. However, patients treated with DSM therapy are more likely to have hypoglycemia and genital infection. Dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin may be a suitable therapy strategy for patients with T2DM inadequately controlled with metformin, and this will provide a clinical reference for the treatment of T2DM. 10.1097/MD.0000000000021409
    Long-term effects of dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin versus glimepiride on a background of metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: Results of a 104-week extension to a 52-week randomized, phase 3 study and liver fat MRI substudy. Frías Juan P,Maaske Jill,Suchower Lisa,Johansson Lars,Hockings Paul D,Iqbal Nayyar,Wilding John P H Diabetes, obesity & metabolism AIM:To report the results of a 104-week extension to a 52-week study in which dapagliflozin plus saxagliptin (DAPA+SAXA) improved glycaemic control, liver fat and metabolic variables compared with glimepiride (GLIM) in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) receiving background metformin. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This extension to a 52-week global, multicentre, parallel-group, active-controlled, double-blind study (NCT02419612) continued randomized participants (1:1) on DAPA+SAXA (10/5 mg) plus placebo, or GLIM (1-6 mg) plus placebo, once daily. Eligible participants were aged ≥18 years, had T2D (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 58.5-91.3 mmol/mol [7.5%-10.5%]), and a body mass index of 20.0 to 45.0 kg/m , and were receiving metformin (MET; ≥1500 mg/d). Key outcomes were: requirement for treatment intensification, based on HbA1c ≥53 mmol/mol (7%); achieving therapeutic glycaemic response; and changes in adipose tissue and liver fat on magnetic resonance imaging in a substudy. RESULTS:Overall, 382 participants entered and 338 completed the 104-week extension period (MRI substudy, n = 82). The need for treatment intensification during the 156-week period was lower for DAPA+SAXA+MET (37.0%) than GLIM+MET (55.6%; hazard ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.68; P < 0.001). At week 156, 21.4% of DAPA+SAXA+MET versus 11.7% of GLIM+MET participants achieved therapeutic glycaemic response (HbA1c <53 mmol/mol; odds ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.23-3.42; P = 0.006). DAPA+SAXA+MET led to greater adjusted mean reductions from baseline in liver fat and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes versus GLIM+MET at week 122 (least-squares mean difference from GLIM+MET -4.89%, -0.41 L and -0.44 L, respectively; nominal P values ≤ 0.008). Safety was consistent with that of the monocomponents. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, glycaemic control, metabolic benefits and efficacy were better maintained with DAPA+SAXA+MET than with GLIM+MET in T2D. 10.1111/dom.14548
    Dapagliflozin, metformin, monotherapy or both in patients with metabolic syndrome. Cheng Lan,Fu Qianyu,Zhou Longhua,Fan Yuqin,Liu Fenfen,Fan Yuanyuan,Zhang Xin,Lin Weiqing,Wu Xiaohe Scientific reports The present study evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, or dapagliflozin plus metformin versus metformin monotherapy in patients with metabolic syndrome. This study included patients who admitted in Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019 and were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A total of 248 participants were randomly assigned to divide into three groups: dapagliflozin group; metformin group; dapagliflozin in combined with metformin group. Dapagliflozin group and metformin group were associated with similar improvements in components of metabolic syndrome. Relative to dapagliflozin or metformin monotherapy, dapagliflozin combined with metformin provided greater improvements in components of metabolic syndrome. So did HOMA-IR scores, fasting plasma insulin and inflammatory indicators (hsCRP, PMN/HDL-C and Monocytes/HDL-C). Dapagliflozin improved all components of metabolic syndrome in patients with metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, dapagliflozin combined with metformin showed more meaningful improvements in any of components of metabolic syndrome than dapagliflozin or metformin monotherapy. 10.1038/s41598-021-03773-z