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    Cephalosporin antibiotics in the aquatic environment: A critical review of occurrence, fate, ecotoxicity and removal technologies. Ribeiro Alyson R,Sures Bernd,Schmidt Torsten C Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Due to their widespread occurrence in the aquatic environment, human and veterinary cephalosporin antibiotics have been studied as water pollutants. In order to characterize environmental risks of this compound class, this review evaluates relevant data about physicochemical properties, occurrence, ecotoxicity and degradation of cephalosporins. Although application of cephalosporins is rather low compared to other antibiotics and their environmental life-time is believed to be short (i.e. days), the available data is insufficient to draw conclusions on their environmental relevance. Few studies concerning the fate of cephalosporins in soil are available, while hydrolysis and photo-degradation are suggested as the main attenuation processes in the aquatic environment. Cephalosporins have been detected in different aqueous matrices in concentrations ranging from 0.30 ng L to 0.03 mg L, with sewage and wastewater being the main matrices with positive findings. For wastewater treatment purposes, several technologies have been tested for the abatement of cephalosporins, including photolysis and adsorption. In most cases, the technology employed led to complete or significant removal (>95%) of parental drugs but few authors reported on cephalosporins' metabolites and transformation products. Furthermore, the present ecotoxicological data are insufficient for comprehensive ecological risk quotient calculations. Considering the total of 53 cephalosporins, effective values (EC, LC, NOAEC, NOAEL, etc.) are only available for around 30% of parental drugs and are very scarce for cyanobacteria, which is considered to be the most sensitive group of organisms to antibiotics. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that cephalosporins' transformation products can be more toxic and more persistent than the parental drugs. Few investigations considering this possibility are available. Consequently, more effort on ecotoxicological data generation and verification of biological inactivation of cephalosporins-related products is needed. Likewise, the lack of natural depletion rates and knowledge gaps on mixture effects for cephalosporins' degradation and toxicity have to be overcome. 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.06.040
    Metal-mediated oxidation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in water: A review on kinetics, transformation products, and toxicity assessment. Feng Mingbao,Wang Zunyao,Dionysiou Dionysios D,Sharma Virender K Journal of hazardous materials Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are among the most potent antimicrobial agents, which have seen their increasing use as human and veterinary medicines to control bacterial infections. FQs have been extensively found in surface water and municipal wastewaters, which has raised great concerns due to their negative impacts to humans and ecological health. It is of utmost importance that FQs are treated before their release into the environment. This paper reviews oxidative removal of FQs using reactive oxygen (O and OH), sulfate radicals (SO), and high-valent transition metal (Mn and Fe) species. The role of metals in enhancing the performance of reactive oxygen and sulfur species is presented. The catalysts can significantly enhance the production of OH and/or SO radicals. At neutral pH, the second-order rate constants (k, Ms) of the reactions between FQs and oxidants follow the order as k(OH)>k(O)>k(Fe)>k(Mn). Moieties involved to transform target FQs to oxidized products and participation of the catalysts in the reaction pathways are discussed. Generally, the piperazinyl ring of FQs was found as the preferential attack site by each oxidant. Meanwhile, evaluation of aquatic ecotoxicity of the transformation products of FQs by these treatments is summarized. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.08.067
    Environmental and health effects of the herbicide glyphosate. Van Bruggen A H C,He M M,Shin K,Mai V,Jeong K C,Finckh M R,Morris J G The Science of the total environment The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on the movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health. Although the acute toxic effects of glyphosate and AMPA on mammals are low, there are animal data raising the possibility of health effects associated with chronic, ultra-low doses related to accumulation of these compounds in the environment. Intensive glyphosate use has led to the selection of glyphosate-resistant weeds and microorganisms. Shifts in microbial compositions due to selective pressure by glyphosate may have contributed to the proliferation of plant and animal pathogens. Research on a link between glyphosate and antibiotic resistance is still scarce but we hypothesize that the selection pressure for glyphosate-resistance in bacteria could lead to shifts in microbiome composition and increases in antibiotic resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents. We recommend interdisciplinary research on the associations between low level chronic glyphosate exposure, distortions in microbial communities, expansion of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of animal, human and plant diseases. Independent research is needed to revisit the tolerance thresholds for glyphosate residues in water, food and animal feed taking all possible health risks into account. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.309
    An overview of cephalosporin antibiotics as emerging contaminants: a serious environmental concern. Das Nilanjana,Madhavan Jagannathan,Selvi Adikesavan,Das Devlina 3 Biotech Antibiotics have been categorized as emerging pollutants due to their indiscriminate usage, continuous input and persistence in various environmental matrices even at lower concentrations. Cephalosporins are the broad-spectrum antibiotics of β-lactam family. Owing to its enormous production and consumption, it is reported as the second most prescribed antibiotic classes in Europe. The cephalosporin wastewater contains toxic organic compounds, inorganic salts, and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) which pose a potential threat to the organisms in the environment. Therefore, removal of cephalosporin antibiotics from the environment has become mandatory as it contributes to increase in the level of chemical oxygen demand (COD), causing toxicity of the effluent and production of cephalosporin-resistant microbes. So far, several processes have been reported for degradation/removal of cephalosporins from the environment. A number of individual studies have been published within the last decade covering the various aspects of antibiotics. However, a detailed compilation on cephalosporin antibiotics as an emerging environmental contaminant is still lacking. Hence, the present review intends to highlight the current ecological scenario with respect to distribution, toxicity, degradation, various remediation technologies, and the regulatory aspects concerning cephalosporins. The latest successful technologies for cephalosporin degradation/removal discussed in this review will help researchers for a better understanding of the nature and persistence of cephalosporins in the environment along with the risks associated with their existence. The research thrust discussed in this review will also evoke new technologies to be attempted by the future researchers to develop sustainable options to remediate cephalosporin-contaminated environments. 10.1007/s13205-019-1766-9