Influence of cooking on the levels of bioactive compounds in Purple Majesty potato observed via chemical and spectroscopic means.
Lemos M Adília,Aliyu Maryam M,Hungerford Graham
Tubers rich in phytochemicals can exhibit a potential health benefit. This work aims at studying the relative effect of different domestic cooking techniques by monitoring the level of total phenolic compounds (TP), total anthocyanins (TA) and anti-oxidant activity (AOA) on a variety of pigmented potatoes. Raw purple potatoes are a good source of anthocyanins (219 mg/kg FW) and the level of these compounds increased using different cooking techniques, with the exception of baking. However, the levels of phenolic compounds (originally 209 mg GAE/100 g FW) decreased in the cooked potatoes. Although potatoes contain different antioxidants in this work the antioxidant activity seems to be related to the levels of phenolic compounds present in the pigmented potato. The fact that some of the compounds present fluoresce enabled both steady state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques to be assessed as a non destructive means of monitoring. This elucidated the presence of different components (via spectral deconvolution and time-resolved emission spectra). Their relative contribution to the fluorescence emission was found to be affected by the different cooking process, with a longer wavelength emission appearing to relate to reflect the presence of anthocyanins.
In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of purple potato extracts (Solanum tuberosum cv Vitelotte noire) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.
Ombra Maria Neve,Fratianni Florinda,Granese Tiziana,Cardinale Federica,Cozzolino Autilia,Nazzaro Filomena
Natural product research
Analyses of antioxidant and in vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of anthocyanin-rich extracts from purple potatoes, Solanum tuberosum L. cv Vitelotte noire (Solanaceae), were performed by simulating both a domestic cooking process and human digestion. Extracts of crude and cooked purple potato did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against the tester strains: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The behaviour changed after the simulated gastrointestinal transit, when an inhibition halo was observed against all tester strains used, ranging from 0.53 cm against B. cereus to 0.82 cm against E. coli. In addition antioxidant activity exhibited, before and after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion (5.96 mg/mL ± 0.92; 28 mg/mL ± 0 .13, respectively) and the persistence of anti-proliferative activity against the colon cancer cells Caco-2, SW48 and MCF7, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, after the simulated digestion, (EC50 = 0.21; 1.13 μg/mL), suggest that vitelotte consumption might bring tangible benefits for human health.
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Purple Potato to Identify Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.
Liu Yuhui,Lin-Wang Kui,Deng Cecilia,Warran Ben,Wang Li,Yu Bin,Yang Hongyu,Wang Jing,Espley Richard V,Zhang Junlian,Wang Di,Allan Andrew C
INTRODUCTION:The potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivar 'Xin Daping' is tetraploid with white skin and white flesh, while the cultivar 'Hei Meiren' is also tetraploid with purple skin and purple flesh. Comparative transcriptome analysis of white and purple cultivars was carried out using high-throughput RNA sequencing in order to further understand the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato. METHODS AND RESULTS:By aligning transcript reads to the recently published diploid potato genome and de novo assembly, 209 million paired-end Illumina RNA-seq reads from these tetraploid cultivars were assembled on to 60,930 transcripts, of which 27,754 (45.55%) are novel transcripts and 9393 alternative transcripts. Using a comparison of the RNA-sequence datasets, multiple versions of the genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic steps and regulatory transcription factors were identified. Other novel genes potentially involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato tubers were also discovered. Real-time qPCR validation of candidate genes revealed good correlation with the transcriptome data. SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and indels were predicted and validated for the transcription factors MYB AN1 and bHLH1 and the biosynthetic gene anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT). CONCLUSIONS:These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanism of white and purple potato development, by identifying differential responses of biosynthetic gene family members together with the variation in structural genes and transcription factors in this highly heterozygous crop. This provides an excellent platform and resource for future genetic and functional genomic research.
Comparison of the postprandial effects of purple-fleshed and yellow-fleshed potatoes in healthy males with chemical characterization of the potato meals.
Linderborg Kaisa M,Salo Johanna E,Kalpio Marika,Vuorinen Anssi L,Kortesniemi Maaria,Griinari Mikko,Viitanen Matti,Yang Baoru,Kallio Heikki
International journal of food sciences and nutrition
The aim of the current study was to characterize the anthocyanin content and composition of a purple potato landrace cultivar (Solanum tuberosum 'Synkeä Sakari') and to compare the postprandial effects of purple-fleshed potatoes, yellow-fleshed potatoes and bilberries in potato starch on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in healthy males. The purple potato meal caused smaller insulinemia than the yellow potato meal (iAUC 120 min 1347 and 2226, respectively, p = 0.012 and iAUC 240 min 1448 and 2403, p = 0.007) or the bilberry meal (iAUC 120 min 1920, p = 0.027). The purple potato meal caused a smaller plasma glucose at 40 min postprandially compared with the yellow potato meal (p = 0.044). The results of this study suggest that anthocyanin-containing purple-fleshed potatoes influence the postprandial insulinemia positively. Since potatoes are the world's largest non-grain commodity, replacing yellow-fleshed potatoes with purple-fleshed potatoes as staple food could have large potential in maintaining public health.
Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Purple Potato Wine.
Zhong-Hua Liu,Jie Guo
The open biomedical engineering journal
Purple potatoes were used as raw material to study the purple potato wine production process and antioxidant activity. This paper analyzed different fermentation time, fermentation temperature, yeast inoculum, initial pH, the initial sugar content on alcohol and anthocyanin contents of purple potato wine by single factor experiments and response surface methodology(RSM). The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of purple potato wine were as follows: fermentation temperature was 26(o)C, yeast inoculum was 0.15%, fermentation time was 7 d, initial pH was 3.0 and initial sugar content was 11 %. Under these conditions the alcohol and anthocyanin contents of purple potato wine could reach 10.55%/Vol and 6.42 μg/mL, respectively. The purple potato wine was purple, bright in colour, pleasant fragrance and pure taste. Prepared purple potato wine had the ability of reducing Fe(3+) and scavenging superoxide anion radicals, which meant that purple potato wine had certain antioxidant activity.
Purple potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) anthocyanins attenuate alcohol-induced hepatic injury by enhancing antioxidant defense.
Jiang Zhihui,Chen Chen,Wang Jian,Xie Wenyan,Wang Meng,Li Xinsheng,Zhang Xiaoying
Journal of natural medicines
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a serious and challenging health issue. In the past decade, natural components possessing hepatoprotective properties have gained more attention for ALD intervention. In this study, the phytochemical components of anthocyanins from purple potato were assessed using UPLC-MS/MS, and the hepatoprotective effects of purple potato anthocyanins (PPAs) were investigated in the ALD mouse model. Serum and liver biochemical parameters were determined, along with histopathological changes in liver tissue. In addition, the major contributors to alcohol-induced oxidative stress were assessed. The results indicated that the levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were lower in the serum of the PPA-treated group than the alcohol-treated group. PPAs significantly inhibited the reduction of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Higher levels of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione enzymes as well as a reduction in the formation of malondialdehyde occurred in mice fed with PPAs. In addition, PPAs protected against increased alcohol-induced levels and activity of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which demonstrates the effects of PPAs against alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury. This study suggests that PPAs could be an effective therapeutic agent in alcohol-induced liver injuries by inhibiting CYP2E1 expression and thereby strengthening antioxidant defenses.
Degradation of anthocyanins and polymeric color formation during heat treatment of purple sweet potato extract at different pH.
Jiang Tian,Mao Ying,Sui Lushan,Yang Ning,Li Shuyi,Zhu Zhenzhou,Wang Chengtao,Yin Sheng,He Jingren,He Yi
Purple sweet potato anthocyanins are common natural pigments widely used in food industry, while they are often thermally processed in application. Degradation of anthocyanins, formation of polymers and color changes of purple sweet potato extract (PSPE) were investigated at 90 °C in the range of pH 3.0-pH 7.0. Data analysis indicated a first-order reaction for anthocyanins degradation in solutions with pH 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 have half-lives of 10.27, 12.42 and 4.66 h, respectively. The polymeric color formation followed zero-order kinetics, progressively increasing with pH values. The color of PSPE were changed with heating time and pH value through visual observation and colorimetric characterization. Analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC indicated that anthocyanins in solution with pH 3.0 changed from monomeric anthocyanin into new polymers during heat treatment. Degradation of anthocyanins was accompanied by an increase in polymeric color index, due to the formation of melanoidin pigments and condensation reactions.
Characterization and Prebiotic Effect of the Resistant Starch from Purple Sweet Potato.
Zheng Yafeng,Wang Qi,Li Baoyu,Lin Liangmei,Tundis Rosa,Loizzo Monica R,Zheng Baodong,Xiao Jianbo
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Purple sweet potato starch is a potential resource for resistant starch production. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and enzyme debranching combined heat-moisture treatment (EHMT) on the morphological, crystallinity and thermal properties of PSP starches were investigated. The results indicated that, after HMT or EHMT treatments, native starch granules with smooth surface was destroyed to form a more compact, irregular and sheet-like structure. The crystalline pattern was transformed from C-type to B-type with decreasing relative crystallinity. Due to stronger crystallites formed in modified starches, the swelling power and solubility of HMT and EHMT starch were decreased, while the transition temperatures and gelatinization enthalpy were significantly increased. In addition, HMT and EHMT exhibited greater effects on the proliferation of bifidobacteria compared with either glucose or high amylose maize starch.
Antidiabetic and Antioxidative Potential of the Blue Congo Variety of Purple Potato Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.
Strugała Paulina,Dzydzan Olha,Brodyak Iryna,Kucharska Alicja Z,Kuropka Piotr,Liuta Mariana,Kaleta-Kuratewicz Katarzyna,Przewodowska Agnieszka,Michałowska Dorota,Gabrielska Janina,Sybirna Natalia
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of purple potato extract of the Blue Congo variety (PP) on diabetes and its antioxidant activities after two-week administration tostreptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The activities of PP were evaluated at a dose of 165 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) by estimating biochemical changes in blood plasma and through a histopathological study of kidney, muscles, and liver tissue. We evaluated the effect of treatment with extract on glucose level, glycated hemoglobin, activities of enzymatic antioxidants (including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase), and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, we determined advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and the level of oxidative modified proteins (OMPs) as markers of carbonyl-oxidative stress in rats with diabetes. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we identified five anthocyanins and six phenolic acids in the extract from Blue Congo with the dominant acylated anthocyanin as petunidin-3--coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside. The administration of Blue Congo extract lowered blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased the amount of glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, PP demonstrated an antioxidative effect, suppressed malondialdehyde levels, and restored antioxidant enzyme activities in diabetic rats. After administration of PP, we also noticed inhibition of OMP, AGE, and AOPP formation in the rats' blood plasma.
Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Potato Cultivars with White, Yellow, Red and Purple Flesh.
Ru Weidong,Pang Yuehan,Gan Yuanruo,Liu Qin,Bao Jinsong
Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
The contents of total phenolics (TPC), individual phenolic acid and antioxidant activities in the free and bound fractions of potato with different flesh colors were systematically investigated. The TPC and antioxidant capacity in the bound fraction was significantly lower than that in the free fraction. Chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, -coumaric acid and ferulic acid were detected in the free fraction with chlorogenic acid being the most predominant, accounting for 35.21-81.78% of the total content. Caffeic acid, -coumaric acid and ferulic acid were detected in the bound fraction in the colored potato with caffeic acid being the major one. In the free fraction, the content of each individual phenolic acid had positive correlation with antioxidant activity. In the bound fraction, caffeic acid and -coumaric acid showed positive correlation with antioxidant activity. This study promotes further understanding of the correlations among TPC, phenolic acids and antioxidant activity.
Effects of Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Digestion of Two Purple-Fleshed Potato Cultivars on Anthocyanin Composition and Cytotoxicity in Colonic Cancer and Non-Tumorigenic Cells.
Kubow Stan,Iskandar Michèle M,Melgar-Bermudez Emiliano,Sleno Lekha,Sabally Kebba,Azadi Behnam,How Emily,Prakash Satya,Burgos Gabriela,Felde Thomas Zum
A dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model was used to digest cooked tubers from purple-fleshed Amachi and Leona potato cultivars to study anthocyanin biotransformation in the stomach, small intestine and colonic vessels. Colonic Caco-2 cancer cells and non-tumorigenic colonic CCD-112CoN cells were tested for cytotoxicity and cell viability after 24 h exposure to colonic fecal water (FW) digests (0%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 100% FW in culture media). After 24 h digestion, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 36 and 15 anthocyanin species throughout the GI vessels for Amachi and Leona, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentration was over thirty-fold higher in Amachi compared to Leona digests but seven-fold higher anthocyanin concentrations were noted for Leona versus Amachi in descending colon digests. Leona FW showed greater potency to induce cytotoxicity and decrease viability of Caco-2 cells than observed with FW from Amachi. Amachi FW at 100% caused cytotoxicity in non-tumorigenic cells while FW from Leona showed no effect. The present findings indicate major variations in the pattern of anthocyanin breakdown and release during digestion of purple-fleshed cultivars. The differing microbial anthocyanin metabolite profiles in colonic vessels between cultivars could play a significant role in the impact of FW toxicity on tumor and non-tumorigenic cells.
Potato Peels and Their Bioactive Glycoalkaloids and Phenolic Compounds Inhibit the Growth of Pathogenic Trichomonads.
Friedman Mendel,Huang Vincent,Quiambao Quincel,Noritake Sabrina,Liu Jenny,Kwon Ohkun,Chintalapati Sirisha,Young Joseph,Levin Carol E,Tam Christina,Cheng Luisa W,Land Kirkwood M
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Potato peel, a waste product of the potato processing industry, is high in bioactive compounds. We investigated the in vitro antitrichomonad activity of potato peel powders prepared from commercial Russet, red, purple, and fingerling varieties as well as several known potato components, alkaloids and phenolic compounds, against three pathogenic strains of trichomonads. Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan parasite that causes the human disease trichomoniasis. Two distinct strains of the related Tritrichomonas fetus infect cattle and cats. The glycoalkaloids α-chaconine and α-solanine were highly active against all parasite lines, while their common aglycone solanidine was only mildly inhibitory. α-Solanine was several times more active than α-chaconine. The phenolic compounds caffeic and chlorogenic acids and quercetin were mildly active against the parasites. Most of the potato peel samples were at least somewhat active against all three trichomonad species, but their activities were wide-ranging and did not correspond to their glycoalkaloid and phenolic content determined by HPLC. The two Russet samples were the most active against all three parasites. The purple potato peel sample was highly active against bovine and mostly inactive against feline trichomonads. None of the test substances were inhibitory toward several normal microflora species, suggesting the potential use of the peels for targeted therapeutic treatments against trichomonads.
Effect of Cooking Methods on Bioactivity of Polyphenols in Purple Potatoes.
Sun Qi,Du Min,Navarre Duroy A,Zhu Meijun
Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Purple-fleshed potato ( L.) is a good dietary source of anthocyanins, flavonols, and polyphenolic acids, mostly chlorogenic acid. The objective of this study was to examine the impacts of cooking methods including boiling, steaming, and the newly developed vacuum-sealed boiling (VSBoil) on extractability and bioactivity of polyphenolic compounds in a purple potato (PP) cultivar, Purple Pelisse. Data showed that boiling and steaming reduced the total polyphenolic content in PP. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that steaming slightly reduced the extractable chlorogenic acid content, while VSBoil increased it. For DPPH free radical scavenging activities, VSBoil and steaming effectively preserved the antioxidant activity of a polyphenol-rich extract of PP, while boiling resulted in a significant reduction compared to raw potato extract. All extracts effectively suppressed bursts of intracellular reactive oxygen species in human colonic epithelial cells upon hydrogen peroxide induction, of which the extract from the VSBoil group showed the highest antioxidant potential. In addition, all extracts showed anti-inflammatory effects in Caco-2 cells induced with tumor necrosis factor-α. In conclusion, the content and bioactivity of extractable polyphenols were largely retained in PP subjected to different cooking processes. VSBoil resulted in the highest content of extractable polyphenolic compounds and bioactivity among tested cooking methods.
Anthocyanin-Rich Vegetables for Human Consumption-Focus on Potato, Sweetpotato and Tomato.
International journal of molecular sciences
Malnutrition, unhealthy diets, and lifestyle changes have become major risk factors for non-communicable diseases while adversely impacting economic growth and sustainable development. Anthocyanins, a group of flavonoids that are rich in fruits and vegetables, contribute positively to human health. This review focuses on genetic variation harnessed through crossbreeding and biotechnology-led approaches for developing anthocyanins-rich fruit and vegetable crops. Significant progress has been made in identifying genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in various crops. Thus, the use of genetics has led to the development and release of anthocyanin-rich potato and sweet potato cultivars in Europe and the USA. The purple potato 'Kufri Neelkanth' has been released for cultivation in northern India. In Europe, the anthocyanin-rich tomato cultivar 'Sun Black' developed via the introgression of and genes has been released. The development of anthocyanin-rich food crops without any significant yield penalty has been due to the use of genetic engineering involving specific transcription factors or gene editing. Anthocyanin-rich food ingredients have the potential of being more nutritious than those devoid of anthocyanins. The inclusion of anthocyanins as a target characteristic in breeding programs can ensure the development of cultivars to meet the nutritional needs for human consumption in the developing world.
Effect of ultrasound on the extraction of total anthocyanins from Purple Majesty potato.
Mane Shon,Bremner David H,Tziboula-Clarke Athina,Lemos M Adília
This study examined anthocyanin extraction using the application of ultrasound to raw freeze dried, microwaved and raw sliced Purple Majesty potato, a new pigmented potato variety rich in anthocyanins. A 20 kHz probe was used for the sonication at 3 different amplitudes (30%, 50% and 70%) and ethanol in water at different ratios (50:50 and 70:30 v/v) was used for the extraction. Anthocyanin extraction from raw freeze dried purple potato was optimal at an ethanol:water ratio (70:30; v/v) after 5 min of ultrasonication, while the least amount of anthocyanins was extracted from raw sliced potatoes. The application of microwaves (as a pre-treatment) before the UAE resulted in an increase in the amount of anthocyanins extracted and a decrease in the amount of solvent used. Analysis of variance showed that potato form, ultrasonication time, ultrasonication amplitude and solvent ratio as well as two and three way interactions between some of these factors had a very significant effect (p<0.000) on the amount of anthocyanins extracted.
Anthocyanin regulatory networks in Solanum tuberosum L. leaves elucidated via integrated metabolomics, transcriptomics, and StAN1 overexpression.
BMC plant biology
BACKGROUND:Anthocyanins, which account for color variation and remove reactive oxygen species, are widely synthesized in plant tissues and organs. Using targeted metabolomics and nanopore full-length transcriptomics, including differential gene expression analysis, we aimed to reveal potato leaf anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways in different colored potato varieties. RESULTS:Metabolomics analysis revealed 17 anthocyanins. Their levels varied significantly between the different colored varieties, explaining the leaf color differences. The leaves of the Purple Rose2 (PurpleR2) variety contained more petunidin 3-O-glucoside and malvidin 3-O-glucoside than the leaves of other varieties, whereas leaves of Red Rose3 (RedR3) contained more pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside than the leaves of other varieties. In total, 114 genes with significantly different expression were identified in the leaves of the three potato varieties. These included structural anthocyanin synthesis-regulating genes such as F3H, CHS, CHI, DFR, and anthocyanidin synthase and transcription factors belonging to multiple families such as C3H, MYB, ERF, NAC, bHLH, and WRKY. We selected an MYB family transcription factor to construct overexpression tobacco plants; overexpression of this factor promoted anthocyanin accumulation, turning the leaves purple and increasing their malvidin 3-o-glucoside and petunidin 3-o-glucoside content. CONCLUSIONS:This study elucidates the effects of anthocyanin-related metabolites on potato leaves and identifies anthocyanin metabolic network candidate genes.
Metal-ion mutagenesis: conversion of a purple acid phosphatase from sweet potato to a neutral phosphatase with the formation of an unprecedented catalytically competent Mn(II)Mn(II) active site.
Mitić Natasa,Noble Christopher J,Gahan Lawrence R,Hanson Graeme R,Schenk Gerhard
Journal of the American Chemical Society
The currently accepted paradigm is that the purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) require a heterovalent, dinuclear metal-ion center for catalysis. It is believed that this is an essential feature for these enzymes in order for them to operate under acidic conditions. A PAP from sweet potato is unusual in that it appears to have a specific requirement for manganese, forming a unique Fe(III)-mu-(O)-Mn(II) center under catalytically optimal conditions (Schenk et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005, 102, 273). Herein, we demonstrate, with detailed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and kinetic studies, that in this enzyme the chromophoric Fe(III) can be replaced by Mn(II), forming a catalytically active, unprecedented antiferromagnetically coupled homodivalent Mn(II)-mu-(H)OH-mu-carboxylato-Mn(II) center in a PAP. However, although the enzyme is still active, it no longer functions as an acid phosphatase, having optimal activity at neutral pH. Thus, PAPs may have evolved from distantly related divalent dinuclear metallohydrolases that operate under pH neutral conditions by stabilization of a trivalent-divalent metal-ion core. The present Mn(II)-Mn(II) system models these distant relatives, and the results herein make a significant contribution to our understanding of the role of the chromophoric metal ion as an activator of the nucleophile. In addition, the detailed analysis of strain broadened EPR spectra from exchange-coupled dinuclear Mn(II)-Mn(II) centers described herein provides the basis for the full interpretation of the EPR spectra from other dinuclear Mn metalloenzymes.
Comparison of the structural characterization and physicochemical properties of starches from seven purple sweet potato varieties cultivated in China.
Yong Huimin,Wang Xingchi,Sun Jian,Fang Yong,Liu Jun,Jin Changhai
International journal of biological macromolecules
In this study, the structural characterization and physicochemical properties of starches from seven purple sweet potato varieties (Fuzi No. 1, Guang No. 161, Jihei No. 1, Ningzi No. 1, Ningzi No. 2, Xuzi No. 6 and Xuzi No. 8) cultivated in China were compared. Starch granules of purple sweet potatoes all exhibited round, polygonal and hemispherical shapes with granule sizes ranging from 4.3 to 23.6 μm. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra revealed purple sweet potato starches were C-type with relative crystallinity varying from 34.0% to 37.3%. Small-angle X-ray scattering spectra indicated the lamellar repeat distances of starch granules were in the range of 9.962-10.137 nm. Ratios of 1045/1022 cm and 1022/995 cm of Fourier transform infrared spectra varied in the range of 0.689-0.887 and 0.850-0.974, respectively. Amylose contents of purple sweet potato starches differed from 18.2 to 27.2%. Purple sweet potato starches exhibited different gelatinization properties but similar thermal stability. Moreover, resistant starch contents varied from 29.25% to 43.50%. Our study indicated the granule size, relative crystallinity, the degree of short-range order, amylose content, gelatinization property and in vitro digestibility of purple sweet potato starches were greatly influenced by the variety of purple sweet potato.
A pH-indicating intelligent packaging composed of chitosan-purple potato extractions strength by surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers.
Li Yuan,Ying Yubin,Zhou Yaqi,Ge Yujun,Yuan Chunhong,Wu Chunhua,Hu Yaqin
International journal of biological macromolecules
The goal of the study is to develop a novel pH-indicating intelligent packaging by using purple potato extractions (PPE), chitosan and surface-deacetylated chitin nanofibers (CN). Since the major pH-sensitive pigment of PPE was anthocyanin (24.3 mg/g), whether anthocyanins could be loaded on a solid phase to prevent its color fading was further tested. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated that PPE was efficiently attached into the chitosan film. Meanwhile, adding CN (0.450%, w/v) into chitosan film could significantly enhance the tensile strength (TS), the water-resistant ability and the roughness of chitosan film. Whereas higher content of CN (0.600%, w/v) did not further improve mechanical properties and CN would distribute unevenly due to aggregation in the films. In addition to pH-indicating ability, CS-CN-PPE exhibited the extraordinary antioxidant activities and this provides another advantage of packaging readily oxidizable substances. Taken together, the current study provided a novel and biocompatible packaging with strengthened mechanical property and intelligent pH indicator.
Anthocyanin-rich extract from purple potatoes decreases postprandial glycemic response and affects inflammation markers in healthy men.
Jokioja Johanna,Linderborg Kaisa M,Kortesniemi Maaria,Nuora Anu,Heinonen Jari,Sainio Tuomo,Viitanen Matti,Kallio Heikki,Yang Baoru
Our recent clinical study suggested that polyphenol-rich purple potatoes lowered postprandial glycemia and insulinemia compared to yellow potatoes. Here, 17 healthy male volunteers consumed yellow potatoes with or without purple potato extract (PPE, extracted with water/ethanol/acetic acid) rich in acylated anthocyanins (152 mg) and other phenolics (140 mg) in a randomized cross-over trial. Ethanol-free PPE decreased the incremental area under the curve for glucose (p = 0.019) and insulin (p = 0.015) until 120 min after the meal, glucose at 20 min (p = 0.015) and 40 min (p = 0.004), and insulin at 20 min (p = 0.003), 40 min (p = 0.004) and 60 min (p = 0.005) after the meal. PPE affected some of the studied 90 inflammation markers after meal; for example insulin-like hormone FGF-19 levels were elevated at 240 min (p = 0.001). These results indicate that PPE alleviates postprandial glycemia and insulinemia, and affects postprandial inflammation.
Chemical Components, Antioxidant Activity, and Glycemic Response Values of Purple Sweet Potato Products.
International journal of food science
Purple sweet potato is a source of starch with high potential to be developed as a functional food. It can be boiled and consumed as a snack or processed into intermediate goods such as flour. The flour can then be modified through partial gelatinization and followed by a retrogradation process to produce resistant starch-rich purple sweet potato flour. The study was aimed at obtaining the glycemic response values of purple sweet potato products, namely, boiled purple sweet potatoes (BSP), purple sweet potato noodles (SPN), and resistant starch-rich purple sweet potato noodles (RSPN). SPN was prepared from conventional purple sweet potato flour, whereas RSPN was made from resistant starch-rich purple sweet potato flour. Moreover, water, ash, protein, fat, and carbohydrate; total phenolic, anthocyanin, and resistant starch contents; and the rate of hydrolysis of starch were evaluated. Ten subjects were involved in the estimation of glycemic response determined by the area under the curve (AUC) of the blood glucose after consuming products. Glucose syrup was used as a reference. The glycemic response data were processed using ANOVA and further tested using LSD at < 0.05. The results showed RSPN had the lowest glycemic index value if compared to BSP and SPN (58.7, 63.5, and 83.7) and fell under food with medium GI, but the differences were not statistically significant. RSPN and SPN were classified as medium GI; however, the process of partial gelatinization followed by retrogradation during the preparation of flour used for raw material in making RSPN has successfully maintained the total phenol and anthocyanin and increased resistant starch content of the noodle Processing of purple sweet potato flour into noodle lowered the GI category, and when the flour was partially gelatinized and retrograded, the noodle had more potentiality as a functional food due to their high total phenolic and anthocyanin content.
Modification of the health-promoting value of potato tubers field grown under drought stress: emphasis on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in five native andean cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.).
Andre Christelle M,Schafleitner Roland,Guignard Cédric,Oufir Mouhssin,Aliaga Carlos Alberto Alvarado,Nomberto Giannina,Hoffmann Lucien,Hausman Jean-François,Evers Danièle,Larondelle Yvan
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
The effects of drought stress on dietary antioxidant and glycoalkaloid contents in potato tubers were investigated using a selection of five native Andean cultivars. Both freshly harvested and 4 month-stored tubers were analyzed. Responses to drought stress were highly cultivar-specific. The antioxidant contents of the yellow tuber-bearing cultivars (Sipancachi and SS-2613) were weakly affected by the drought treatment, whereas the pigmented cultivars demonstrated highly cultivar-dependent variations. A drastic reduction of anthocyanins and other polyphenols was revealed in the red- (Sullu) and purple-fleshed (Guincho Negra) cultivars, whereas an increase was shown in the purple-skinned and yellow-fleshed cultivar (Huata Colorada). The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu and H-oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays) was highly correlated with the polyphenol content and followed, therefore, the same behavior upon drought. Carotenoid contents, including beta-carotene, as well as vitamin E, tended to increase or remain stable following drought exposure, except for the cultivar Sullu, in which the level of these lipophilic antioxidants was decreased. Vitamin C contents were not affected by drought with the exception of Guincho Negra, in which the level was increased. These variations of health-promoting compounds were associated with increased or stable levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine. Storage at 10 degrees C for 4 months tended to decrease the concentrations of all dietary antioxidants, except those of vitamin E. This storage also reduced the drought-induced variations observed in freshly harvested tubers. These results were discussed in terms of their implications for human diet and health as well as in plant stress defense mechanisms.
Degradation kinetics and antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins in air-impingement jet dried purple potato slices.
Qiu Gan,Wang Danfeng,Song Xiaoyong,Deng Yun,Zhao Yanyun
Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.)
We investigated the types, degradation kinetics, and antioxidant capacities of anthocyanins in purple potato slices subjected to air-impingement jet drying (AIJD) at different drying temperatures (50, 65, and 80°C). Petunidin-3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside was the predominant anthocyanin in AIJD-treated purple potato and was positively correlated with antioxidant capacity. Anthocyanin concentration decreased with drying time, and anthocyanin degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics. At high drying temperatures, anthocyanin degradation had higher degradation rates and shorter half-life than at low drying temperatures. Thermodynamic results revealed that the degradation of anthocyanins is a non-spontaneous, endothermic reaction and that the transition state has lower structural freedom than the reactant. AIJD at 65°C contributed to the highest anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity.
Purple Potato Extract Promotes Intestinal Epithelial Differentiation and Barrier Function by Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.
Sun Xiaofei,Du Min,Navarre Duroy A,Zhu Mei-Jun
Molecular nutrition & food research
SCOPE:Perturbation of gut epithelial barrier function induces inflammation and other health problems that originate from the gut. Purple potato contains a high content of beneficial polyphenolic compounds. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of purple potato extract (PPE) on intestinal differentiation and barrier function, and explore its underlying mechanism using Caco-2 cells and ex vivo cultured gut tissues. METHODS AND RESULTS:PPE increases transepithelial electrical resistance and decreases FITC-dextran paracellular flux in Caco-2 cells, which are associated with strengthened intestinal epithelial differentiation in both Caco-2 cells and ex vivo guts. Furthermore, PPE treatment enhances AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, concomitant with the increased expression of CDX2, a key transcriptional factor regulating intestinal epithelial differentiation. Knocking out AMPK using CRISPR/Cas9 system abolishes the positive effects of PPE on intestinal epithelial differentiation and barrier function, in junction with the reduced expression of CDX2. CONCLUSION:PPE improves gut epithelial differentiation and barrier function via activating AMPK, indicating that PPE, as well as associated purple potato consumption, could be used as a supportive dietary therapeutic strategy for improving gut epithelial health.
Anthocyanin-rich extracts from purple and red potatoes as natural colourants: Bioactive properties, application in a soft drink formulation and sensory analysis.
Sampaio Shirley L,Lonchamp Julien,Dias Maria Inês,Liddle Catriona,Petropoulos Spyridon A,Glamočlija Jasmina,Alexopoulos Alexios,Santos-Buelga Celestino,Ferreira Isabel C F R,Barros Lillian
Aqueous extracts from seven coloured potato varieties (three red-fleshed, three-purple fleshed, and one marble-fleshed) were studied for their anthocyanin content, in vitro biological activities, colouring properties and their potential application in the food industry. Acylated glycosides or pelargonidin and petunidin aglycones were identified as the main anthocyanin forms in the red and purple varieties, respectively. The total anthocyanin content among varieties ranged from 478.3 to 886.2 mg/100 g extract. All the extracts presented in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activities, whereas no toxic effects were detected. Finally, two selected extracts were tested as colourants in a soft drink formulation and presented suitable sensory profiles as well as high colour stability during a 30-day shelf-life when compared with the commercial colourant E163. Therefore, the tested extracts could be used as natural food colourants and considered for substituting the existing synthetic colouring agents.
Potato biodiversity: A linear discriminant analysis on the nutritional and physicochemical composition of fifty genotypes.
Sampaio Shirley L,Barreira João C M,Fernandes Ângela,Petropoulos Spyridon A,Alexopoulos Alexios,Santos-Buelga Celestino,Ferreira Isabel C F R,Barros Lillian
Fifty potato genotypes from twenty-four different countries of origin, four different flesh colours (yellow, purple, red and marble) and different cultivation types (Andean accessions, landraces, breeder lines and cultivated varieties) were studied in terms of their nutritional and physicochemical characteristics. In general, cultivated varieties and breeder lines showed the highest similarity (slight differences only in some particular fatty acids distributions: C10:0, C12:0 and C22:0) concerning the physicochemical parameters assayed in this work, independently of the geographical origin or tuber flesh colour of these genotypes. Nonetheless, some of the studied landraces and Andean accessions proved to be similar enough to be considered as genotypes with good potential for commercial cultivation. These results can contribute to the supply of new potato genotypes into sustainable farming systems, supporting the protection of potato biodiversity, particularly Andean accessions, landraces and coloured genotypes (red or purple flesh) which are not widely cultivated so far.
Analysis of Total Phenols, Sugars, and Mineral Elements in Colored Tubers of L.
Saar-Reismaa Piret,Kotkas Katrin,Rosenberg Viive,Kulp Maria,Kuhtinskaja Maria,Vaher Merike
Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
The use of colored tubers of L. is growing worldwide due to their health benefits and attractive color. The positive health effects of purple-fleshed tubers are a result of anthocyanins and various phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare variety Blue Congo and its cross-breeds of Desiree and Granola to yellow-fleshed tubers. The concentration of total phenols, anthocyanins, sugars, and mineral elements were evaluated in all tubers. The results showed differences between all tested materials, with largest differences in sugar content. Moreover, the results confirmed the preservation of health improving compounds of Blue Congo when cross-bred with yellow-fleshed tubers. The total phenolic content and anthocyanin concentrations of all analyzed tubers were above the comparison yellow ones.
Antitumor and antioxidant activities of purple potato ethanolic extract and its interaction with liposomes, albumin and plasmid DNA.
Strugała Paulina,Urbaniak Anna,Kuryś Patryk,Włoch Aleksandra,Kral Teresa,Ugorski Maciej,Hof Martin,Gabrielska Janina
Food & function
The aim of the study was to broadly determine the biological activities of purple potato ethanolic extract of the Blue Congo variety (BCE). The antioxidant activity of BCE was determined in relation to liposome membranes, and peroxidation was induced by UVB and AAPH. To clarify the antioxidant activity of BCE, we investigated its interactions with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of a membrane using fluorimetric and FTIR methods. Next, we investigated the cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic activities of BCE in two human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2) and in normal cells (IPEC-J2). In addition, the ability to inhibit enzymes that are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions was examined. Furthermore, BCE interactions with serum albumin and plasmid DNA were investigated using steady state fluorescence spectroscopy and a single molecule fluorescence technique (TCSPC-FCS). We proved that BCE effectively protects lipid membranes against the process of peroxidation and successfully inhibits the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. Furthermore, it interacts with the hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts of lipid membranes as well as with albumin and plasmid DNA. It was observed that BCE is more cytotoxic against colon cancer cell lines than normal IPEC-J2 cells; it also induces apoptosis in cancer cell lines, but does not induce cell death in normal cells.
pH-sensitive and antibacterial films developed by incorporating anthocyanins extracted from purple potato or roselle into chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/nano-ZnO matrix: Comparative study.
Liu Jialin,Huang Jiayin,Ying Yubin,Hu Lingping,Hu Yaqin
International journal of biological macromolecules
pH-sensitive and antibacterial films based on chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/nano-ZnO (CPZ) containing anthocyanins extracted from purple potato (PPE) or roselle (RE) were developed. When incorporated with PPE or RE, the moisture contents and flexibility of film significantly reduced (P < 0.05), while mechanical resistance of film was significantly enhanced (P < 0.05). Water vapor permeability (WVP) of film was slightly influenced by the addition of PPE or RE (P > 0.05). CPZ-RE film exhibited darker color and lower light transmittance than CPZ-PPE film at the same incorporation level. CPZ-PPE and CPZ-RE films exhibited distinguishable color changes in different pH buffer solutions. CPZ-PPE films exhibited higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than CPZ-RE films. Moreover, film could effectively monitor spoilage degree of shrimp when film changed from purple to light-green. Our results suggested CPZ-PPE and CPZ-RE films have promising potential as active and smart packaging materials for applications in food industry.
Impact of cultivar, growth temperature and developmental stage on phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid in purple and yellow potato tubers.
Gutiérrez-Quequezana Liz,Vuorinen Anssi L,Kallio Heikki,Yang Baoru
Phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid were analyzed in one yellow and four purple-flesh potato cultivars grown at 13 °C and 18 °C and harvested at different stages of tuber development, using HPLC-DAD and UHPLC-MS. The expression of genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway was studied at transcription level using qPCR. Petunidin-3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin in 'Blue Congo', 'Blaue Schweden', and 'Synkeä Sakari', whereas malvidin-3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside dominated in 'Blaue Veltlin'. In mature tubers, the purple cultivar 'Synkeä Sakari' showed the highest content of anthocyanins (2.4 mg/g freeze-dried sample), and 'Blaue Veltlin' had the highest content of phenolic acids (5.5 mg/g). Cultivar was the main variable affecting the biosynthesis of the studied metabolites, whereas the temperatures studied did not show different impact. The content of the main phenolic acids and anthocyanins in the potato cultivars correlated positively with the expression levels of the genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway.
Effects of low doses of UV-B radiation supplementation on tuber quality in purple potato ( L.).
Qi Wencai,Ma Jingwen,Zhang Jinguo,Gui Mengyuan,Li Jingyuan,Zhang Liang
Plant signaling & behavior
UV-B is an important environmental factor that differentially affects plant growth and secondary metabolites. However, our knowledge regarding the physiological and biochemical changes in under-ground plant organs responded to UV-B treatment remains limited. In this study, we investigated potato plant ( L.) and tuber responses to short-term supplemental UV-B exposure performed during tuber development. Our results indicated that the supplemental UV-B radiation with relative low dose had no obvious adverse impact on plant growth or tuber production. Nutritional composition analyses of tubers revealed that the contents of starch, soluble sugars, and proteins were significantly increased under lower UV-B radiation relative to controls. Similarly, low dose of UV-B treatment promoted the health-promoting compounds, including anthocyanin, phenols, and flavonoids in tubers. Moreover, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes were significantly induced in tubers in response to lower UV-B radiation. These findings suggest that short-term UV-B radiation supplementation at relative low doses can improve the tuber quality in potato plants.
Effects of Anthocyanin Extracts from Bilberry ( L.) and Purple Potato ( L. var. 'Synkeä Sakari') on the Plasma Metabolomic Profile of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.
Chen Kang,Wei Xuetao,Zhang Jian,Pariyani Raghunath,Jokioja Johanna,Kortesniemi Maaria,Linderborg Kaisa M,Heinonen Jari,Sainio Tuomo,Zhang Yumei,Yang Baoru
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
This study compared the effects of the nonacylated and acylated anthocyanin-rich extracts on plasma metabolic profiles of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. The rats were fed with the nonacylated anthocyanin extract from bilberries (NAAB) or the acylated anthocyanin extract from purple potatoes (AAPP) at daily doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks. H NMR metabolomics was used to study the changes in plasma metabolites. A reduced fasting plasma glucose level was seen in all anthocyanin-fed groups, especially in the groups fed with NAAB. Both NAAB and AAPP decreased the levels of branched-chain amino acids and improved lipid profiles. AAPP increased the glutamine/glutamate ratio and decreased the levels of glycerol and metabolites involved in glycolysis, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis. AAPP decreased the hepatic and messenger RNA level, suggesting regulation of gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. This study indicated that AAPP and NAAB affected the plasma metabolic profile of diabetic rats differently.
Pulp obtained after isolation of starch from red and purple potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) as an innovative ingredient in the production of gluten-free bread.
Gumul Dorota,Korus Jarosław,Surma Magdalena,Ziobro Rafał
Starch based gluten-free bread (formulations containing mixture of corn and potato starch with hydrocolloids) are deficient in nutrients and do not contain health promoting compounds. Therefore they could be supplemented with raw materials rich in such components, especially antioxidants. Among them pseudo-cereals, seeds, fruits and vegetables are often applied to this purpose. Potato pulp produced by processing red fleshed (Magenta Love) and purple fleshed (Violetta) varieties could become a new innovative substrate for gluten-free bread enrichment, because of high levels of endogenous polyphenols, namely flavonoids, flavonols, phenolic acids and especially anthocyanins with high antioxidant potential, as well as dietary fiber. Study material consisted of gluten-free bread enriched in the pulp. Dietary fiber, acrylamide content and antioxidant and antiradical potential of the bread were determined. Sensory evaluation included crumb elasticity, porosity and other characteristics, taste and smell. Among all analyzed gluten-free breads, the sample containing 7.5% share of freeze-dried red potato pulp Magenta Love was characterized by high content of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber, pronounced antioxidant activity, low levels of potentially dangerous acrylamide and good physical and sensory characteristics. Therefore such an addition (7.5% Magenta Love) could be recommended for industrial production of gluten-free bread.
Phenolic Metabolites in the Urine and Plasma of Healthy Men After Acute Intake of Purple Potato Extract Rich in Methoxysubstituted Monoacylated Anthocyanins.
Jokioja Johanna,Percival Jasmine,Philo Mark,Yang Baoru,Kroon Paul A,Linderborg Kaisa M
Molecular nutrition & food research
SCOPE:Structurally stable acylated anthocyanins have potential in various food applications but the effects of acylation and methoxysubstitution on anthocyanin metabolism are poorly understood. This is the first study thoroughly investigating phenolic metabolites, their time-wise changes, and pharmacokinetics following an acute intake of methoxysubstituted monoacylated anthocyanins. METHODS AND RESULTS:Healthy male volunteers (n = 17) consumed a yellow potato meal with and without purple potato extract rich in acylated anthocyanins (152 mg) and hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates (140 mg). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) is used for identification and quantification of metabolites from serially collected urine and plasma. While the parent anthocyanins are not detected, 28 phenolic metabolites from urine and 14 from plasma are quantified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and protocatechuic acid sulfates and glucuronides; three (catechol, gallic acid-4-O-glucuronide, and 2-methoxybenzoic acid) are detected for the first time after anthocyanin-rich food. Urinary hippuric acid is the most abundant with an increase of 139 µM mM creatinine after the treatment. A large additional set of tentatively identified phenolic metabolites are detected. Late urinary peak time values suggest colonic degradation. CONCLUSION:Acylated anthocyanins are more bioavailable than earlier reported after extensive degradation in human and/or colonial metabolism to phenolic metabolites, which may be further conjugated and demethylated.
Phenolic composition and cell-based biological activities of ten coloured potato peels (Solanum tuberosum L.).
Sampaio Shirley L,Petropoulos Spyridon A,Dias Maria Inês,Pereira Carla,Calhelha Ricardo C,Fernandes Ângela,Leme Camila M M,Alexopoulos Alexios,Santos-Buelga Celestino,Ferreira Isabel C F R,Barros Lillian
The present study provides an in-depth characterisation of the non-anthocyanin and anthocyanin phenolic compounds of potato peels from ten coloured potato varieties. Furthermore, the underexplored bioactive potential (antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory capacities) of the studied peels is comprehensively analysed. Among non-anthocyanin phenolics, caffeic and a caffeoylquinic acid were found in the highest concentrations in all samples, which also showed the presence of O-glycosylated flavonol derivatives and polyamine derivatives. Acylated anthocyanins were identified in red and purple varieties, being pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin the most prominent aglycones. All samples revealed antioxidant and antitumor activities, and no toxic effect. The extract of the Rosemary variety presented the best antioxidant and antitumor outcomes and was the only sample to reveal anti-inflammatory activity. These results are valuable for the food-industry by adding value to an important bio-residue, particularly concerning its potential as natural ingredients in novel food and pharmaceutical formulations.
A Novel Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Method for the Analysis of Anthocyanins in Potatoes ( L.).
Carrera Ceferino,Aliaño-González María José,Valaityte Monika,Ferreiro-González Marta,Barbero Gerardo F,Palma Miguel
Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Purple potato is one of the least known and consumed potato varieties. It is as rich in nutrients, amino acids and starches as the rest of the potato varieties, but it also exhibits a high content of anthocyanins, which confer it with some attractive health-related properties, such as antioxidant, pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory and other promising properties regarding the treatment of certain diseases. A novel methodology based on ultrasound-assisted extraction has been optimized to achieve greater yields of anthocyanins. Optimal extraction values have been established at 70 °C using 20 mL of a 60% MeOH:HO solution, with a pH of 2.90 and a 0.5 s cycle length at 70% of the maximum amplitude for 15 min. The repeatability and intermediate precision of the extraction method have been proven by its relative standard deviation (RSD) below 5%. The method has been tested on Vitelotte, Double Fun, Highland and Violet Queen potatoes and has demonstrated its suitability for the extraction and quantification of the anthocyanins found in these potato varieties, which exhibit notable content differences. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of these potato varieties has been determined by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) radical scavenging and the values obtained were similar to those previously reported in the literature.