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    CARE frailty e-health scale: Association with incident adverse health outcomes and comparison with the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty scale in the NuAge cohort. Maturitas BACKGROUND:This study examines and compares CARE and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) frailty states (i.e., robust, prefrail and frail) for their association with incident adverse health outcomes, including falls, depression, cognitive and functional decline, major neurocognitive disorders, hospitalization and mortality in community-dwelling older adults living in the province of Quebec (Canada). METHODS:A subset of individuals (n = 1098) who participated in "Nutrition as a determinant of successful aging: The Quebec longitudinal study" (NuAge), which is an elderly population-based observational cohort study with 3 years of follow-up, were selected. CARE and CHS frailty states were determined using the NuAge baseline assessment. Incident falls (i.e., ≥1, ≥2 and severe falls), depression (i.e., 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale score > 10/30), decline in cognition (i.e., Modified Mini Mental State (3MS) score < 79/100) and functionality (i.e., Activity Daily Living (ADL) score ≤ 3/4 and an Instrumental Activity Daily Living (IADL) score ≤ 6/8), major neurocognitive disorders (i.e., 3MS score < 79/100 and IADL score < 6/8), hospitalization and mortality were annually recorded over a 3-year follow-up period. RESULTS:66.8% and 23.6% of participants were classified as pre-frail and frail with CARE respectively, whereas this distribution of frailty states differed with CHS (47.9% and 8.4%). There were significant associations of CARE pre-frail and frail states with all incident adverse health outcomes, the lowest odds ratio (OR) being reported with falls and the highest with cognitive decline (OR ranging from 1.63 to 12.85 with P ≤ 0.032). All ORs of the CARE frailty states were greater than those of the CHS, except for frail participants with IADL decline (OR = 4.92 for CARE versus OR = 9.62 for CHS). CONCLUSIONS:CARE frail states were associated with incident adverse health outcomes and these associations were greater than with CHS, suggesting that the CARE scale is of clinical interest when screening for frailty and related adverse health outcomes in the elderly population. 10.1016/j.maturitas.2022.04.006
    Exploring primary breast cancer survivors' self-management of sustained cancer-related cognitive impairment in the workplace. Psycho-oncology OBJECTIVE:Work plays a central role in return to a more 'normal' life among women diagnosed with primary breast cancer. However, ongoing cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) and cancer-related sequelae continue to detrimentally impact workability. Only a few studies have explored the long-term consequences of CRCI and self-management coping strategies applied in the workplace. This study explored women's experiences of sustained post-treatment CRCI and its impact on workability beyond the initial return-to-work (RTW), as well as experiences of self-management coping strategies. METHOD:Forty employed women with a diagnosis of primary breast cancer who were between 6 and 60 months post-active treatment completed a semi-structured telephone interview. A 'framework' analysis approach was used. RESULTS:Two superordinate themes were identified: 'Sustained consequences of CRCI' and 'Self-management coping strategies to support work-related performance'. We found that the impact of CRCI extends beyond the initial RTW. The adopted self-management coping strategies could provoke mixed emotions, including emotional distress. Reduced workability was experienced up to 5-years post-active-treatment. CONCLUSION:Sustained CRCI induces negative emotions, fatigue and diminishes confidence reducing workability long into survivorship beyond RTW. The self-management coping strategies implemented to manage these sequelae generate mixed feelings, with some describing the strategies as problematic and of little benefit. 10.1002/pon.5844
    App-Based Feedback for Rehabilitation Exercise Correction in Patients With Knee or Hip Osteoarthritis: Prospective Cohort Study. Biebl Johanna Theresia,Rykala Marzena,Strobel Maximilian,Kaur Bollinger Pawandeep,Ulm Bernhard,Kraft Eduard,Huber Stephan,Lorenz Andreas Journal of medical Internet research BACKGROUND:The use of digital therapeutic solutions for rehabilitation of conditions such as osteoarthritis provides scalable access to rehabilitation. Few validated technological solutions exist to ensure supervision of users while they exercise at home. Motion Coach (Kaia Health GmbH) provides audiovisual feedback on exercise execution in real time on conventional smartphones. OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that the interrater agreement between physiotherapists and Motion Coach would be noninferior to physiotherapists' interrater agreement for exercise evaluations in a cohort with osteoarthritis. METHODS:Patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip were recruited at a university hospital to perform a set of 6 exercises. Agreement between Motion Coach and 2 physiotherapists' corrections for segments of the exercises were compared using Cohen κ and percent agreement. RESULTS:Participants (n=24) were enrolled and evaluated. There were no significant differences between interrater agreements (Motion Coach app vs physiotherapists: percent agreement 0.828; physiotherapist 1 vs physiotherapist 2: percent agreement 0.833; P<.001). Age (70 years or under, older than 70 years), gender (male, female), or BMI (30 kg/m or under, greater than 30 kg/m) subgroup analysis revealed no detectable difference in interrater agreement. There was no detectable difference in levels of interrater agreement between Motion Coach vs physiotherapists and between physiotherapists in any of the 6 exercises. CONCLUSIONS:The results demonstrated that Motion Coach is noninferior to physiotherapist evaluations. Interrater agreement did not differ between 2 physiotherapists or between physiotherapists and the Motion Coach app. This finding was valid for all investigated exercises and subgroups. These results confirm the ability of Motion Coach to detect user form during exercise and provide valid feedback to users with musculoskeletal disorders. 10.2196/26658
    Being active with a total hip or knee prosthesis: a systematic review into physical activity and sports recommendations and interventions to improve physical activity behavior. European review of aging and physical activity : official journal of the European Group for Research into Elderly and Physical Activity OBJECTIVES:Regular physical activity (PA) is considered important after total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Objective was to systematically assess literature on recommendations given by healthcare professionals to persons after THA and TKA and to provide an overview of existing interventions to stimulate PA and sports participation. METHODS:A systematic review with a narrative synthesis including articles published between January 1995 and January 2021 reporting on recommendations and interventions. The PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases were systematically searched for original articles reporting on physical activity and sports recommendations given by healthcare professionals to persons after THA and TKA, and articles reporting on interventions/programs to stimulate a physically active lifestyle after rehabilitation or explicitly defined as part of the rehabilitation. Methodological quality was assessed with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The review was registered in Prospero (PROSPERO:CRD42020178556). RESULTS:Twenty-one articles reported on recommendations. Low-impact activities were allowed. Contact sports, most ball sports, and martial arts were not recommended. One study informed on whether health-enhancing PA recommendations were used to stimulate persons to become physically active. No studies included recommendations on sedentary behavior. Eleven studies reported on interventions. Interventions used guidance from a coach/physiotherapist; feedback on PA behavior from technology; and face-to-face, education, goal-setting, financial incentives and coaching/financial incentives combined, of which feedback and education seem to be most effective. For methodological quality, 18 out of 21 (86%) articles about recommendations and 7 out of 11 (64%) articles about interventions scored yes on more than half of the MMAT questions (0-5 score). CONCLUSION:There is general agreement on what kind of sports activities can be recommended by healthcare professionals like orthopedic surgeons and physiotherapists. No attention is given to amount of PA. The same is true for limiting sedentary behavior. The number of interventions is limited and diverse, so no conclusions can be drawn. Interventions including provision of feedback about PA, seem to be effective and feasible. 10.1186/s11556-022-00285-1
    "Hi This Is NESTORE, Your Personal Assistant": Design of an Integrated IoT System for a Personalized Coach for Healthy Aging. Palumbo Filippo,Crivello Antonino,Furfari Francesco,Girolami Michele,Mastropietro Alfonso,Manferdelli Giorgio,Röcke Christina,Guye Sabrina,Salvá Casanovas Antoni,Caon Maurizio,Carrino Francesco,Abou Khaled Omar,Mugellini Elena,Denna Enrico,Mauri Marco,Ward David,Subías-Beltrán Paula,Orte Silvia,Candea Ciprian,Candea Gabriela,Rizzo Giovanna Frontiers in digital health In the context of the fourth revolution in healthcare technologies, leveraging monitoring and personalization across different domains becomes a key factor for providing useful services to maintain and promote well-being. This is even more crucial for older people, with aging being a complex multi-dimensional and multi-factorial process which can lead to frailty. The NESTORE project was recently funded by the EU Commission with the aim of supporting healthy older people to sustain their well-being and capacity to live independently. It is based on a multi-dimensional model of the healthy aging process that covers physical activity, nutrition, cognition, and social activity. NESTORE is based on the paradigm of the human-in-the-loop cyber-physical system that, exploiting the availability of Internet of Things technologies combined with analytics in the cloud, provides a virtual coaching system to support healthy aging. This work describes the design of the NESTORE methodology and its IoT architecture. We first model the end-user under several domains, then we present the NESTORE system that, analyzing relevant key-markers, provides coaching activities and personalized feedback to the user. Finally, we describe the validation strategy to assess the effectiveness of NESTORE as a coaching platform for healthy aging. 10.3389/fdgth.2020.545949
    My Diabetes Coach, a Mobile App-Based Interactive Conversational Agent to Support Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management: Randomized Effectiveness-Implementation Trial. Gong Enying,Baptista Shaira,Russell Anthony,Scuffham Paul,Riddell Michaela,Speight Jane,Bird Dominique,Williams Emily,Lotfaliany Mojtaba,Oldenburg Brian Journal of medical Internet research BACKGROUND:Delivering self-management support to people with type 2 diabetes mellitus is essential to reduce the health system burden and to empower people with the skills, knowledge, and confidence needed to take an active role in managing their own health. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to evaluate the adoption, use, and effectiveness of the My Diabetes Coach (MDC) program, an app-based interactive embodied conversational agent, Laura, designed to support diabetes self-management in the home setting over 12 months. METHODS:This randomized controlled trial evaluated both the implementation and effectiveness of the MDC program. Adults with type 2 diabetes in Australia were recruited and randomized to the intervention arm (MDC) or the control arm (usual care). Program use was tracked over 12 months. Coprimary outcomes included changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Data were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months, and analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression models. RESULTS:A total of 187 adults with type 2 diabetes (mean 57 years, SD 10 years; 41.7% women) were recruited and randomly allocated to the intervention (n=93) and control (n=94) arms. MDC program users (92/93 participants) completed 1942 chats with Laura, averaging 243 min (SD 212) per person over 12 months. Compared with baseline, the mean estimated HbA decreased in both arms at 12 months (intervention: 0.33% and control: 0.20%), but the net differences between the two arms in change of HbA (-0.04%, 95% CI -0.45 to 0.36; P=.83) was not statistically significant. At 12 months, HRQoL utility scores improved in the intervention arm, compared with the control arm (between-arm difference: 0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.07; P=.04). CONCLUSIONS:The MDC program was successfully adopted and used by individuals with type 2 diabetes and significantly improved the users' HRQoL. These findings suggest the potential for wider implementation of technology-enabled conversation-based programs for supporting diabetes self-management. Future studies should focus on strategies to maintain program usage and HbA improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN) 12614001229662; https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12614001229662. 10.2196/20322
    Aging and Engaging: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Conversational Skills Coach for Older Adults. Ali Rafayet,Hoque Ehsan,Duberstein Paul,Schubert Lenhart,Razavi Seyedeh Zahra,Kane Benjamin,Silva Caroline,Daks Jennifer S,Huang Meghan,Van Orden Kim The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry OBJECTIVE:Communication difficulties negatively impact relationship quality and are associated with social isolation and loneliness in later life. There is a need for accessible communication interventions offered outside specialty mental health settings. DESIGN:Pilot randomized controlled trial. SETTING:Assessments in the laboratory and intervention completed in-home. PARTICIPANTS:Twenty adults age 60 and older from the community and a geriatric psychiatry clinic. INTERVENTION:A web-based communication coach that provides automated feedback on eye contact, facial expressivity, speaking volume, and negative content (Aging and Engaging Program, AEP), delivered with minimal assistance in the home (eight brief sessions over 4-6 weeks) or control (education and videos on communication). MEASUREMENTS:System Usability Scale and Social Skills Performance Assessment, an observer-rated assessment of social communication elicited through standardized role-plays. RESULTS:Ninety percent of participants completed all AEP sessions and the System Usability Scale score of 68 was above the cut-off for acceptable usability. Participants randomized to AEP demonstrated statistically and clinically significant improvement in eye contact and facial expressivity. CONCLUSION:The AEP is acceptable and feasible for older adults with communication difficulties to complete at home and may improve eye contact and facial expressivity, warranting a larger RCT to confirm efficacy and explore potential applications to other populations, including individuals with autism and social anxiety. 10.1016/j.jagp.2020.11.004
    A Virtual Coach (Motibot) for Supporting Healthy Coping Strategies Among Adults With Diabetes: Proof-of-Concept Study. Bassi Giulia,Giuliano Claudio,Perinelli Alessio,Forti Stefano,Gabrielli Silvia,Salcuni Silvia JMIR human factors BACKGROUND:Motivation is a core component of diabetes self-management because it allows adults with diabetes mellitus (DM) to adhere to clinical recommendations. In this context, virtual coaches (VCs) have assumed a central role in supporting and treating common barriers related to adherence. However, most of them are mainly focused on medical and physical purposes, such as the monitoring of blood glucose levels or following a healthy diet. OBJECTIVE:This proof-of-concept study aims to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a VC intervention for psychosocial support before and after the intervention and at follow-up. The intent of this VC is to motivate adults with type 1 DM and type 2 DM to adopt and cultivate healthy coping strategies to reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and diabetes-related emotional distress, while also improving their well-being. METHODS:A total of 13 Italian adults with DM (18-51 years) interacted with a VC, called Motibot (motivational bot) using the Telegram messaging app. The interaction covered 12 sessions, each lasting 10 to 20 minutes, during which the user could dialogue with the VC by inputting text or tapping an option on their smartphone screen. Motibot is developed within the transtheoretical model of change to deliver the most appropriate psychoeducational intervention based on the user's motivation to change. RESULTS:Results showed that over the 12 sessions, there were no significant changes before and after the intervention and at follow-up regarding psychosocial factors. However, most users showed a downward trend over the 3 time periods in depression and anxiety symptoms, thereby presenting good psychological well-being and no diabetes-related emotional distress. In addition, users felt motivated, involved, encouraged, emotionally understood, and stimulated by Motibot during the interaction. Indeed, the analyses of semistructured interviews, using a text mining approach, showed that most users reported a perceived reduction in anxiety, depression, and/or stress symptoms. Moreover, users indicated the usefulness of Motibot in supporting and motivating them to find a mindful moment for themselves and to reflect on their own emotions. CONCLUSIONS:Motibot was well accepted by users, particularly because of the inclusion of mindfulness practices, which motivated them to adopt healthy coping skills. To this extent, Motibot provided psychosocial support for adults with DM, particularly for those with mild and moderate symptoms, whereas those with severe symptoms may benefit more from face-to-face psychotherapy. 10.2196/32211
    The E-Coach technology-assisted care transition system: a pragmatic randomized trial. Ritchie Christine S,Houston Thomas K,Richman Joshua S,Sobko Heather J,Berner Eta S,Taylor Benjamin B,Salanitro Amanda H,Locher Julie L Translational behavioral medicine Care transitions from the hospital to home remain a vulnerable time for many patients, especially for those with heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite regular use in chronic disease management, it remains unclear how technology can best support patients during their transition from the hospital. We sought to evaluate the impact of a technology-supported care transition support program on hospitalizations, days out of the community and mortality. Using a pragmatic randomized trial, we enrolled patients (511 enrolled, 478 analyzed) hospitalized with CHF/COPD to "E-Coach," an intervention with condition-specific customization and in-hospital and post-discharge support by a care transition nurse (CTN), interactive voice response post-discharge calls, and CTN follow-up versus usual post-discharge care (UC). The primary outcome was 30-day rehospitalization. Secondary outcomes included (1) rehospitalization and death and (2) days in the hospital and out of the community. E-Coach and UC groups were similar at baseline except for gender imbalance (p = 0.02). After adjustment for gender, our primary outcome, 30-day rehospitalization rates did not differ between the E-Coach and UC groups (15.0 vs. 16.3 %, adjusted hazard ratio [95 % confidence interval]: 0.94 [0.60, 1.49]). However, in the COPD subgroup, E-Coach was associated with significantly fewer days in the hospital (0.5 vs. 1.6, p = 0.03). E-Coach, an IVR-augmented care transition intervention did not reduce rehospitalization. The positive impact on our secondary outcome (days in hospital) among COPD patients, but not in CHF, may suggest that E-Coach may be more beneficial among patients with COPD.NIH trial registry number: NCT01135381Trial Protocol: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.cct.2012.08.007. 10.1007/s13142-016-0422-8
    Evaluation of a peer coach-led intervention to improve pain symptoms (ECLIPSE): Rationale, study design, methods, and sample characteristics. Matthias Marianne S,Daggy Joanne,Adams Jasma,Menen Tetla,McCalley Stephanie,Kukla Marina,McGuire Alan B,Ofner Susan,Pierce Emilee,Kempf Carol,Heisler Michele,Bair Matthew J Contemporary clinical trials Chronic pain is prevalent, costly, and a leading cause of disability. Pain self-management (i.e., employing self-management strategies including behavioral modifications) is an effective, evidence-based treatment. However, implementation and delivery of a pain self-management model is challenging because of time and resources. Peer supported pain self-management offers a promising approach to implementing pain self-management programs using fewer clinical resources. Evaluation of a Peer Coach-Led Intervention for the Improvement of Pain Symptoms (ECLIPSE) is a randomized controlled trial testing effectiveness of peer coach-delivered pain self-management intervention versus controls receiving a class on pain and pain self-management. ECLIPSE is a Hybrid Type 1 study testing effectiveness while examining implementation factors. ECLIPSE enrolled 215 veterans randomly assigned to the peer coaching (N = 120) or control (N = 95) arm. The peer coaching intervention lasts 6 months, with patient-peer coach pairs instructed to talk twice per month. Coaches attend initial training, are provided a detailed training manual, and attend monthly booster sessions. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 9 months. The primary outcome is overall pain (intensity and interference), measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Secondary outcomes are self-efficacy, social support, pain catastrophizing, patient activation, health-related quality of life, and health care utilization. To maximize implementation potential of pain self-management, innovative delivery methods are needed that do not require additional resources from healthcare teams. A novel and promising approach is a peer-coaching model, in which patients who are successfully managing their pain offer information, ongoing support, and advice to other patients with pain. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02380690. 10.1016/j.cct.2019.04.002
    Early Development of a Virtual Coach for Healthy Coping Interventions in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Validation Study. Bassi Giulia,Donadello Ivan,Gabrielli Silvia,Salcuni Silvia,Giuliano Claudio,Forti Stefano JMIR formative research BACKGROUND:Mobile health solutions aimed at monitoring tasks among people with diabetes mellitus (DM) have been broadly applied. However, virtual coaches (VCs), embedded or not in mobile health, are considered valuable means of improving patients' health-related quality of life and ensuring adherence to self-care recommendations in diabetes management. Despite the growing need for effective, healthy coping digital interventions to support patients' self-care and self-management, the design of psychological digital interventions that are acceptable, usable, and engaging for the target users still represents the main challenge, especially from a psychosocial perspective. OBJECTIVE:This study primarily aims to test VC interventions based on psychoeducational and counseling approaches to support and promote healthy coping behaviors in adults with DM. As a preliminary study, university students have participated in it and have played the standardized patients' (SPs) role with the aim of improving the quality of the intervention protocol in terms of user acceptability, experience, and engagement. The accuracy of users' role-playing is further analyzed. METHODS:This preliminary study is based on the Obesity-Related Behavioral Intervention Trial model, with a specific focus on its early phases. The healthy coping intervention protocol was initially designed together with a team of psychologists following the main guidelines and recommendations for psychoeducational interventions for healthy coping in the context of DM. The protocol was refined with the support of 3 experts in the design of behavioral intervention technologies for mental health and well-being, who role-played 3 SPs' profiles receiving the virtual coaching intervention in a Wizard of Oz setting via WhatsApp. A refined version of the healthy coping protocol was then iteratively tested with a sample of 18 university students (mean age 23.61, SD 1.975 years) in a slightly different Wizard of Oz evaluation setting. Participants provided quantitative and qualitative postintervention feedback by reporting their experiences with the VC. Clustering techniques on the logged interactions and dialogs between the VC and users were collected and analyzed to identify additional refinements for future VC development. RESULTS:Both quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that the digital healthy coping intervention was perceived as supportive, motivating, and able to trigger self-reflection on coping strategies. Analyses of the logged dialogs showed that most of the participants accurately played the SPs' profile assigned, confirming the validity and usefulness of this testing approach in preliminary assessments of behavioral digital interventions and protocols. CONCLUSIONS:This study outlined an original approach to the early development and iterative testing of digital healthy coping interventions for type 2 DM. Indeed, the intervention was well-accepted and proved its effectiveness in the definition and refinement of the initial protocol and of the user experience with a VC before directly involving real patients in its subsequent use and testing. 10.2196/27500
    Peer Support for Self-Management of Chronic Pain: the Evaluation of a Peer Coach-Led Intervention to Improve Pain Symptoms (ECLIPSE) Trial. Matthias Marianne S,Bair Matthew J,Ofner Susan,Heisler Michele,Kukla Marina,McGuire Alan B,Adams Jasma,Kempf Carol,Pierce Emilee,Menen Tetla,McCalley Stephanie,Johnson Nicole L,Daggy Joanne Journal of general internal medicine BACKGROUND:Pain self-management is an effective, evidence-based treatment for chronic pain. Peer support, in which patients serve as coaches for other patients, has been effective in other chronic conditions and is a potentially promising approach to implementing pain self-management programs using fewer clinical resources. OBJECTIVE:To test a peer coach-delivered pain self-management program for chronic pain. DESIGN:Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS:Veterans with chronic musculoskeletal pain. INTERVENTION:Intervention patients were assigned a trained peer coach for 6 months. Coaches, who were volunteers, were asked to contact their assigned patients, either by phone or in person, twice per month. Coaches and patients were given an intervention manual to guide sessions. The control group was offered a 2-hour pain self-management class. MAIN MEASURES:The primary outcome was total pain, assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Secondary outcomes were anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, self-efficacy, social support, patient activation, health-related quality of life, and healthcare utilization. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 9 months. KEY RESULTS:Two hundred fifteen patients enrolled (120 intervention, 95 control). Adherence to intervention protocol was low, with only 13% of patients reporting having at least the recommended 12 peer coach meetings over the 6-month intervention. BPI total decreased from baseline to 6 months and baseline to 9 months in both groups. At 9 months, this change was statistically significant (intervention, - 0.40, p = 0.018; control, - 0.47, p = 0.006). There was not a statistically significant difference between groups on BPI at either time point. No secondary outcomes improved significantly in either group after adjusting for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS:Patients randomized to peer support did not differ from control patients on primary and secondary outcomes. Other peer support models that do not rely on volunteers might be more effective. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02380690. 10.1007/s11606-020-06007-6
    Digital Intervention With Lifestyle Coach Support to Target Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Adults With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Systematic Development Process of VITALISE Using Intervention Mapping. Hallsworth Kate,McPherson Stuart,Anstee Quentin M,Flynn Darren,Haigh Laura,Avery Leah Journal of medical Internet research BACKGROUND:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to excessive calorie consumption, physical inactivity, and being overweight. Patients with NAFLD can halt or decelerate progression and potentially reverse their condition by changing their lifestyle behavior. International guidelines recommend the use of lifestyle interventions; however, there remains a discordance between published guidelines and clinical practice. This is primarily due to a lack of NAFLD-specific interventions to support weight loss and improve liver function. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to use intervention mapping to systematically develop a digital intervention to support patients with NAFLD to initiate and maintain changes in their dietary and physical activity behavior to promote weight loss. METHODS:Intervention mapping consisted of 6 steps: step 1 involved a needs assessment with primary and secondary health care professionals (HCPs) and patients with NAFLD; step 2 involved identification of the social cognitive determinants of change and behavioral outcomes of the intervention; step 3 involved linking social cognitive determinants of behavioral outcomes with behavior change techniques to effectively target dietary and physical activity behavior; step 4 involved the development of a prototype digital intervention that integrated the strategies from step 3, and the information content was identified as important for improving knowledge and skills from steps 1 and 2; step 5 involved the development of an implementation plan with a digital provider of lifestyle behavior change programs to patients with NAFLD using their delivery platform and lifestyle coaches; and step 6 involved piloting the digital intervention with patients to obtain data on access, usability, and content. RESULTS:A digital intervention was developed, consisting of 8 modules; self-regulatory tools; and provision of telephone support by trained lifestyle coaches to help facilitate behavioral intention, enactment, and maintenance. A commercial provider of digital lifestyle behavior change programs enrolled 16 patients with NAFLD to the prototype intervention for 12 consecutive weeks. A total of 11 of the 16 participants successfully accessed the intervention and continued to engage with the content following initial log-in (on average 4 times over the piloting period). The most frequently accessed modules were welcome to the program, understanding NAFLD, and food and NAFLD. Goal setting and self-monitoring tools were accessed on 22 occasions (4 times per tool on average). A total of 3 out of 11 participants requested access to a lifestyle coach. CONCLUSIONS:Intervention mapping provided a systematic methodological framework to guide a theory- and evidence-informed co-design intervention development process for patients and HCPs. The digital intervention with remote support by a lifestyle coach was acceptable to patients with NAFLD and feasible to deliver. Issues with initial access, optimization of information content, and promoting the value of remote lifestyle coach support require further development ahead of future research to establish intervention effectiveness. 10.2196/20491
    Development of a Chronic Disease Management Program for Stroke Survivors Using Intervention Mapping: The Stroke Coach. Sakakibara Brodie M,Lear Scott A,Barr Susan I,Benavente Oscar,Goldsmith Charlie H,Silverberg Noah D,Yao Jennifer,Eng Janice J Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation OBJECTIVE:To describe the systematic development of the Stroke Coach, a theory- and evidence-based intervention to improve control of lifestyle behavior risk factors in patients with stroke. DESIGN:Intervention development. SETTING:Community. PARTICIPANTS:Individuals who have had a stroke. INTERVENTIONS:We used intervention mapping to guide the development of the Stroke Coach. Intervention mapping is a systematic process used for intervention development and composed of steps that progress from the integration of theory and evidence to the organization of realistic strategies to facilitate the development of a practical intervention supported by empirical evidence. Social cognitive theory was the underlying premise for behavior change, whereas control theory methods were directed toward sustaining the changes to ensure long-term health benefits. Practical evidence-based strategies were linked to behavioral determinants to improve stroke risk factor control. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Not applicable. RESULTS:The Stroke Coach is a patient-centered, community-based, telehealth intervention to promote healthy lifestyles after stroke. Over 6 months, participants receive seven 30- to 60-minute telephone sessions with a lifestyle coach who provides education, facilitates motivation for lifestyle modification, and empowers participants to self-management their stroke risk factors. Participants also receive a self-management manual and a self-monitoring kit. CONCLUSIONS:Through the use of intervention mapping, we developed a theoretically sound and evidence-grounded intervention to improve risk factor control in patients with stroke. If empirical evaluation of the Stroke Coach produces positive results, the next step will be to develop an implementation intervention to ensure successful uptake and delivery of the program in community and outpatient settings. 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.01.019
    Effect of a Health Coach Intervention for the Management of Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China: A Pragmatic Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. Chapman Anna,Browning Colette J,Enticott Joanne C,Yang Hui,Liu Shuo,Zhang Tuohong,Thomas Shane A Frontiers in public health To determine the effect of a health coach intervention for the management of glycemic control, as well as physiological, psychological and self-care outcomes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), compared with usual care. This pragmatic cluster RCT was conducted in the Fengtai district of Beijing from August 2011 to December 2013. Forty-one community health stations (CHSs) were cluster randomized (stratified geographically, 1:1 ratio) and eligible, randomly selected T2DM patients were sequentially contacted by CHSs. Control participants received usual care according to the Chinese Guideline for Diabetes Prevention and Management. Intervention participants received 18-months of health coaching based on principles of Motivational Interviewing (MI) plus usual care. Medical and pathology fees were waived for both groups. Outcome assessment was performed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18-months. The primary outcome was glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); secondary outcomes encompassed a suite of physiological, psychological and self-care measures. No differential treatment effect was found at 18-months for HbA1c ( - - = ) or any specified secondary outcomes. Interestingly, both groups displayed a statistically and clinically significant within-group improvement of the same magnitude at 18-months for HbA1c ( - - - - - -. The lack of differential treatment effects observed indicate that it may be premature to recommend the routine delivery of health coach interventions based on MI principles for the management of T2DM in China. However, the large, comparable within-group improvement in mean HbA1c promotes the establishment of free, regular clinical health assessments for individuals with T2DM in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN registry - ISRCTN01010526 (https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN01010526). 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00252
    Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Health Coach-Delivered Smartphone-Guided Self-Help With Standard Care for Adults With Binge Eating. Hildebrandt Tom,Michaeledes Andreas,Mayhew Meghan,Greif Rebecca,Sysko Robyn,Toro-Ramos Tatiana,DeBar Lynn The American journal of psychiatry OBJECTIVE:Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has shown efficacy in the treatment of eating disorders. The authors conducted a randomized controlled telemedicine trial of CBT-guided self-help (CBT-GSH) assisted with a smartphone app, Noom Monitor, for binge eating with or without purging. They hypothesized that coach-delivered CBT-GSH telemedicine sessions plus Noom Monitor would yield greater reductions in symptoms of binge eating, purging, and eating disorders compared with standard care. METHODS:Fifty-two-week outcomes for CBT-GSH plus Noom Monitor (N=114) were compared with outcomes for standard care (N=111) among members of an integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. Patients in the health system who met inclusion criteria were ≥18 years old, had a body mass index ≥18.5, met criteria for DSM-5 binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa, had 12 months of continuous health care enrollment in Kaiser Permanente Northwest, and had a personal smartphone. Participants received eight CBT-GSH telemedicine sessions over 12 weeks administered by health coaches, and outcomes were assessed at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, 12, 26, and 52. The use of available treatment offered within the Kaiser Permanente health care system was permitted for participants assigned to standard care. RESULTS:Participants who received CBT-GSH plus Noom Monitor reported significant reductions in objective binge-eating days (β=-0.66, 95% CI=-1.06, -0.25; Cohen's d=-1.46, 95% CI=-4.63, -1.09) and achieved higher rates of remission (56.7% compared with 30%; number needed to treat=3.74) at 52 weeks compared with participants in standard care, none of whom received any eating disorder treatment during the intervention period (baseline and weeks 1-12). Similar patterns emerged for compensatory behaviors (vomiting, use of laxatives, and excessive exercise; 76.3% compared with 56.8%; number needed to treat=5.11), eating disorder symptoms (body shape, weight, eating concerns, and dietary restraint), and clinical impairment (Cohen's d=-10.07, -2.15). CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that CBT-GSH plus Noom Monitor delivered via telemedicine by routine-practice health coaches in a nonacademic health care system yields reductions in symptoms and impairment over 52 weeks compared with standard care. 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19020184
    A telehealth intervention to promote healthy lifestyles after stroke: The Stroke Coach protocol. Sakakibara Brodie M,Lear Scott A,Barr Susan I,Benavente Oscar,Goldsmith Charlie H,Silverberg Noah D,Yao Jennifer,Eng Janice J International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society Rationale Recurrent stroke is prevalent and associated with high mortality rates, disability, and social and economic costs. Adequate management of risk factors may reduce recurrent stroke; however, many stroke survivors have poor control of risk factors. We have developed a theoretically sound and evidence-based lifestyle modification program called the Stroke Coach, a telephone-based self-management program to improve control of risk factors. Hypothesis Individuals who participate in Stroke Coach will achieve more lifestyle improvements than individuals in an attention controlled Memory Training Program. Design In this single blind randomized controlled trial, 126 community-living stroke survivors will be randomized to Stroke Coach or the attention control group. Participants randomized to the six-month Stroke Coach will receive seven telephone lifestyle coaching sessions, self-management education and practice, and a self-monitoring kit, comprised of a health report card, with blood pressure and activity monitors. Study Outcomes The primary outcome will be measured using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Secondary outcomes include behavioral and physiological risk factors, quality of life, cognitive status, health and social service use. Measurements will be taken at baseline, immediately after the intervention and six-month post-intervention. Summary The results of this trial will add to our understanding of the use of self-management to improve control of risk factors, and may facilitate the development of a larger trial evaluating the effect of Stroke Coach on endpoints such as recurrent stroke or cardiac events as the primary outcome. 10.1177/1747493017729266
    Stroke coach: a pilot study of a personal digital coaching program for patients after ischemic stroke. Kamoen Olivia,Maqueda V,Yperzeele L,Pottel H,Cras P,Vanhooren G,Vanacker P Acta neurologica Belgica Despite recent advances in acute stroke care, the risk of recurrent stroke remains high. On behalf of the Belgian Stroke Council (BSC), a nurse-led self-management program was developed, using a personal coach and digital platform with the aim of improving cardiovascular risk factor control in patients after ischemic stroke. The program was implemented in four Belgian hospitals. The stroke coach provided one educational session during hospitalization. After discharge, the patient received tips and tricks concerning a healthy lifestyle through the customized platform. The stroke coach set up video appointments through the platform at regular intervals. Primary endpoint of our study was the change in SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation: High and Low cardiovascular Risk Charts) risk at baseline and 6 months compared with a historical control group who received standard care. A total of 147 patients were included for a follow-up period of 6 months. The mean SCORE in the intervention group showed a statistically significant reduction of 3.2 (p < 0.001) at 6 months. However, comparison between control and intervention groups was non-significant (p = 0.55). Secondary endpoints are promising with a medication adherence of 96%. Reported quality of life also improved (p < 0.001). No significant improvement in the modified Rankin scale (mRS) was observed (p = 0.720). Five percent of patients suffered a recurrent stroke. Our project consisting of a coached lifestyle intervention and digital platform shows promise in improving stroke recurrence rates, therapeutic adherence and quality of life in a Belgian healthcare setting. 10.1007/s13760-019-01218-z
    Efficacy of a Culturally and Linguistically Competent Community Health Coach Intervention for Chinese with Hypertension. Li Wen-Wen,Lew Donna,Quach Linda Asian/Pacific Island nursing journal To develop and pilot test the efficacy of a culturally and linguistically sensitive, community health coach (CHC)-based intervention in Chinese immigrants in improving blood pressure control and medication adherence. This study was conducted in 2017 with a cross-sectional design ( = 23). A CHC intervention was implemented using one 25-minute group educational presentation plus one 10-minute question and answer session at baseline, followed by four, 10-minute bi-weekly group question-and-answer sessions. There was a significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to week 8: Systolic BP -17.33 (±11.32) ( < 0.005) and diastolic BP -9.58 (±6.57) ( < 0.005). The mean score for medication adherence was 10.56 (±3.24) (possible range 3-15) at baseline and there was no significant change at week 8 (mean 10.89 ± 3.95) ( = 0.86). The CHC-based hypertension management program showed significant reductions in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in Chinese immigrants. Since the proposed CHC-based hypertension management program is low cost and easy to establish, further investigation is recommended to generate more results for comparison. There is potential for the CHC intervention to be implemented in clinical settings to help Chinese immigrants at large achieve optimal blood pressure control. 10.31372/20200503.1087
    Implementation and Impact of the Pulmonary Specialist Health Coach Consultation Model to Improve Care for Patients with COPD. Tsao Stephanie,Willard-Grace Rachel,Wolf Jessica,Chirinos Chris,De Vore Denise,Huang Beatrice,Su George,Thom David H Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety BACKGROUND:Health coaching has emerged as an important tool for improving patient-centered care in primary care practice but has not specifically been evaluated for patients whose care is shared by a primary care provider (PCP) and specialist. METHODS:As part of a nine-month randomized controlled trial comparing health coaching to usual care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the authors developed the Pulmonary Specialist Health Coach Consultation (PuSHCon). In this novel model, health coaches facilitated pulmonary specialist consultations for patients with COPD without the need for an in-person visit. Observational data from the randomized controlled trial were analyzed to study the implementation, adoption, and impact of the PuSHCon model for 70 of 92 patients randomized to the health coaching arm and for 17 of 100 patients in the control arm (who received PuSHCon after the end of the study). Quality of care was measured using the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). RESULTS:Of 87 patients who participated in PuSHCon, 74 (85.1%) received one or more specialist recommendations, of which 86.8% were implemented. Only 12 patients (13.8%) subsequently required an in-person visit with the PuSHCon specialist. The proportion of PuSHCon participants receiving guideline-concordant care increased from 64.7% to 94.1% (p < 0.001). The mean PACIC item score increased from 3.48 to 3.74 (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION:The PuSHCon model facilitated consultations that resulted in changes in care, which were implemented for a majority of patients. Guideline-concordant care and patient-reported quality of care increased over nine months. This model could potentially be expanded to help patients with other chronic conditions when PCPs and specialists share patient care. 10.1016/j.jcjq.2021.08.003
    Effectiveness and equity evaluation of an insurance-wide telephone-counseling program for self-management of chronic diseases: The Health Coach Study. Applied psychology. Health and well-being Trajectories of chronic illnesses depend on patient socioeconomic status (SES). This study examines main and equity effects (age, gender, education, region of residence) of a brief telephone self-management intervention on self-rated health and depressive symptoms of health insurance clients with chronic illnesses. Randomized invitation design (n = 2628) with predominantly male (82%) older individuals (modal age = 65-74) with one or more chronic illnesses. Primary outcomes: Self-rated health and depressive symptoms. Intervention: Brief CBT-based telephone counseling. Propensity score matching was used to equate intervention and control groups (n = 1314 pairs). Change score models were used to analyze changes in health-related outcome measures. The intervention resulted in improvements in self-rated health (d = .37) and fewer depressive symptoms (d = .17) over 4 and 6 months. There were comparable effects across education and regions, but younger and female participants profited more from the intervention compared with older and male participants. A brief telephone-based intervention led to improved self-rated health and well-being in a large sample of participants with chronic health conditions. This effect was observed over and above regular medical care. The intervention was equitable with respect to education and region, but not age and gender. 10.1111/aphw.12322
    Supporting healthful lifestyles during pregnancy: a health coach intervention pilot study. Seward Michael W,Simon Denise,Richardson Martha,Oken Emily,Gillman Matthew W,Hivert Marie-France BMC pregnancy and childbirth BACKGROUND:Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse health outcomes in both the mother and child. Many previous lifestyle interventions in women with excess weight during pregnancy encouraging appropriate GWG have been unsuccessful, and there remains no consensus about the content, format, or theoretical framework of GWG interventions. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a remote health coach intervention to promote healthful lifestyle behaviors and appropriate GWG among overweight pregnant women. METHODS:At one northeastern US clinic, we enrolled 30 overweight (pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 25 kg/m) pregnant women at a median gestation of 12.5 weeks (IQR: 11-15) into a one-arm trial. We connected participants with a health coach to provide behavioral support to help participants adopt healthful lifestyles during pregnancy. Health coaches contacted participants by phone every 2-3 weeks to monitor goals, and sent emails and text messages between calls. Participants completed baseline (N = 30) and follow-up (N = 26) surveys at the end of the intervention (36 weeks gestation), as well as follow-up phone interviews (N = 18). RESULTS:Among 30 participants, median age was 32 years (IQR: 28-33), median self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI was 27.3 kg/m (IQR: 25.7-31.1), and 17/30 were white, 9/30 African-American, and 3/30 Asian. Three-quarters (22/29) of participants completed at least a college degree. Although 25/30 participants reported in baseline surveys that they worried about being able to lose the weight postpartum that they expected to gain during pregnancy, just 12/26 participants reported the same at follow-up (P < 0.001). In follow-up surveys, 21/26 participants reported that health coaches were helpful in keeping them motivated, and 22/26 thought the phone conversations helped them face problems and find solutions. Based on qualitative assessment, several themes emerged in follow-up interviews about the quality of the intervention including accountability and support from health coaches. Participants also expressed desire for more visual resources and integration with standard clinical care to improve the intervention. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated feasibility and high participant satisfaction with our remote health coach intervention during pregnancy. We identified areas in which we could refine the intervention for inclusion in a full-scale RCT, such as integration with clinical care and additional visual resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03080064 , 3/14/2017). 10.1186/s12884-018-2010-z
    Motivational Interviewing as a tool to enhance access to mental health treatment in adolescents with chronic medical conditions and need for psychological support (COACH-MI): study protocol for a clusterrandomised controlled trial. Reinauer Christina,Viermann Rabea,Förtsch Katharina,Linderskamp Hannah,Warschburger Petra,Holl Reinhard W,Staab Doris,Minden Kirsten,Muche Rainer,Domhardt Matthias,Baumeister Harald,Meissner Thomas, Trials BACKGROUND:This cluster-randomised monocentric controlled trial focuses on improving the uptake symptoms of mental health care in adolescents with chronic medical conditions who have been identified by screening to have depression or anxiety. The study aims to determine the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) delivered by trained physicians to increase 12- to 20-year-old adolescents' utilisation of psychological health care for symptoms of anxiety or depression. METHODS/DESIGN:In this single-centre approach, n = 1,000 adolescents will be screened (using PHQ-9 and GAD-7), and adolescents with results indicative of anxiety or depressive symptoms (n = 162) will be advised to seek psychological health care in clusters from treating physicians in specialised outpatient departments. Participants who screen positive will receive either two sessions of MI or treatment as usual (TAU; regarded as the typical daily clinical practice), which is focused on recommending them to seek psychological health care for further evaluation. MI efficacy will be compared to the current TAU as the control condition. The primary outcome is the utilisation rate of psychological health care after counselling by an MI-trained physician vs. an untrained physician. Additionally, reasons for not claiming psychological support and changes in disease-related parameters will be evaluated in a 6-month follow-up session. DISCUSSION:This trial will evaluate the feasibility of MI as a way to improve the utilisation of mental health-care services by adolescents who need further support other than that provided by standard care for chronic diseases. Physicians offering MI to adolescents may serve as a model for optimising health-care management in daily clinical practice, which may improve adolescents' long-term well-being by improving adherence to medical treatment and preventing negative lifelong consequences into adulthood. TRIAL REGISTRATION:German Trials Register (DRKS), DRKS00014043 . Registered on 26 April 2018. Düsseldorf University study ID: 2017114504. 10.1186/s13063-018-2997-5
    Does participation in the community outreach for asthma care and healthy lifestyles (COACH) program alter subsequent use of hospital services for children discharged with asthma? Pinto Jamie M,Navallo Lauren J,Petrova Anna The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma Transition from hospital to home is a challenging time for children with asthma and their caregivers because of the high risk for reutilization of acute hospital services. Detecting effective quality improvement initiatives to reduce utilization of urgent services in children discharged with asthma is an important clinical and public health question. This study was designed to identify the role of a multimodal, nurse-driven, inpatient initiated Community Outreach for Asthma Care and Healthy lifestyles (COACH) program on subsequent use of hospital services for pediatric patients with asthma. We utilized comparative effectiveness design to identify the difference in recurrent emergency department (ED) visits and/or admissions within 12-months after discharge between patients with asthma who engaged in the COACH program (Intervention group) and those who did not (Comparison group). We used administrative databases of hospitals included in the Meridian Health system to identify the number of and time to asthma-related readmissions and ED re-attendances. We found no difference in the rate or number of recurrent hospital-based services used within 12 months, but found a reduction in ED re-visitation and/or readmission within 30 days for COACH program participants prior to and after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and clinical presentation (Odd Ratio 0.44, 95% Confidence Interval 0.20, 0.93). Participation in the COACH program decreases the likelihood for subsequent use of hospital services within a month of discharge for children with asthma. Enhanced post-discharge interactions with families may reduce long-term reuse of hospital-based services for COACH program participants. 10.1080/02770903.2019.1672719
    The development, feasibility and acceptability of a coach-led intervention to ease novice community pharmacists' transition to practice. Magola Esnath,Willis Sarah C,Schafheutle Ellen I Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP BACKGROUND:Despite reported benefits of transition support programmes for other healthcare professionals, no evidence-based support interventions exist to ease newly-registered novice community pharmacists' (NCPs) transition into practice. OBJECTIVES:To develop an intervention to provide psychosocial support, support the development of professional behaviours and skills of novice pharmacists in community pharmacy and conduct an evaluation. METHODS:The Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance for developing complex interventions was applied to develop a 17-week, pharmacist coach-led intervention, using a social media group, a face-to-face introductory workshop, two webinars, weekly case studies, portfolios (reflective logs and development plans) and a handbook. Twelve newly-registered NCPs participated. A coach log and semi-structured interviews collected data on feasibility, acceptability and perceived impact. RESULTS:Findings suggest the intervention was feasible and highly acceptable to NCPs, who perceived the coach and social media group to be the most valuable components. The coach was described as non-judgemental, approachable and collaborative. Provision of guided one-to-one reflection was viewed as useful for debriefing, feedback and meaningful reflection, and supported development of reflection-in-action. The face-to-face workshop was considered important for establishing rapport and trust. The social media group was most valued for providing an accessible, confidential and responsive support network, in which NCPs felt psychologically safe to learn. This component was reported to present opportunities for developmental discourse and shared reflection with peers, thus reducing the sense of professional isolation. NCPs reported that the intervention led to increases in meaningful learning, confidence, critical reasoning, self-awareness and self-reflection. The webinars and handbook were identified as the least valuable components. CONCLUSIONS:A transition-support intervention using an experienced pharmacist coach, delivered within a safe, supportive, albeit online facilitated learning environment, appeared feasible and valuable in supporting guided reflection and developmental discourse. This facilitates transformative learning, and supports NCPs to gain proficiency and become independent reflective practitioners. 10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.03.013
    A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of the Insomnia Coach Mobile App to Assess Its Feasibility, Acceptability, and Potential Efficacy. Behavior therapy Insomnia is highly prevalent among military veterans but access to cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is limited. Thus, this study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of Insomnia Coach, a CBT-I-based, free, self-management mobile app. Fifty U.S. veterans, who were mostly male (58%) and mean age 44.5 (range = 28-55) years with moderate insomnia symptoms were randomized to Insomnia Coach (n = 25) or a wait-list control condition (n = 25) for 6 weeks. Participants completed self-report measures and sleep diaries at baseline, posttreatment, and follow-up (12 weeks postrandomization), and app participants (n = 15) completed a qualitative interview at posttreatment. Findings suggest that Insomnia Coach is feasible to use, with three quarters of participants using the app through 6 weeks and engaging with active elements. For acceptability, perceptions of Insomnia Coach were very favorable based on both self-report and qualitative interview responses. Finally, for potential efficacy, at posttreatment, a larger proportion of Insomnia Coach (28%) than wait-list control participants (4%) achieved clinically significant improvement (p = .049) and there was a significant treatment effect on daytime sleep-related impairment (d = -0.6, p = .044). Additional treatment effects emerged at follow-up for insomnia severity (d = -1.1, p = .001), sleep onset latency (d = -0.6, p = .021), global sleep quality (d = -0.9, p = .002), and depression symptoms (d = -0.8, p = .012). These findings provide preliminary evidence that among veterans with moderate insomnia symptoms, a CBT-I-based self-management app is feasible, acceptable, and promising for improving insomnia severity and other sleep-related outcomes. Given the vast unmet need for insomnia treatment in the population, Insomnia Coach may provide an easily accessible, convenient public health intervention for individuals not receiving care. 10.1016/j.beth.2021.11.003
    Iterative Development and Applicability of a Tablet-Based e-Coach for Older Adults in Rehabilitation Units to Improve Nutrition and Physical Activity: Usability Study. JMIR human factors BACKGROUND:Maintaining nutrition and exercise strategies after rehabilitation can be difficult for older people with malnutrition or limited mobility. A technical assistance system such as an e-coach could help to positively influence changes in dietary and exercise behavior and contribute to a sustainable improvement in one's nutrition and mobility status. Most apps do not provide a combination of nutrition and exercise content. In most cases, these apps were evaluated with healthy individuals aged <70 years, making transferability to vulnerable patients, with functional limitations and an assumed lower affinity for technology, in geriatric rehabilitation unlikely. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to identify the potential for optimization and enhance usability through iterative test phases to develop a nutrition and mobility e-coach suitable for older adults (≥65 years) based on individual health behavior change stages in a rehabilitation setting. METHODS:Iterative testing was performed with patients aged ≥65 years in a rehabilitation center. During testing, participants used an e-coach prototype with educational elements and active input options on nutrition and mobility as a 1-time application test. The participants performed navigation and comprehension tasks and subsequently provided feedback on the design aspects. Hints were provided by the study team when required, documented, and used for improvements. After testing, the participants were asked to rate the usability of the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). RESULTS:In all, 3 iterative test phases (T1-T3) were conducted with 49 participants (24/49, 49% female; mean 77.8, SD 6.2 years). Improvements were made after each test phase, such as adding explanatory notes on overview screens or using consistent chart types. The use of the user-centered design in this specific target group facilitated an increase in the average SUS score from 69.3 (SD 16.3; median 65) at T1 to 78.1 (SD 11.8; median 82.5) at T3. Fewer hints were required for navigation tasks (T1: 14.1%; T2: 26.5%; T3: 17.2%) than for comprehension questions (T1: 30.5%; T2: 21.6%; T3: 20%). However, the proportion of unsolved tasks, calculated across all participants in all tasks, was higher for navigation tasks (T1: 0%, T2: 15.2%, T3: 4.3%) than for comprehension tasks (T1: 1.9%, T2: 0%, T3: 2.5%). CONCLUSIONS:The extensive addition of explanatory sentences and terms, instead of shorter keywords, to make it easier for users to navigate and comprehend the content was a major adjustment. Thus, good usability (SUS: 80th-84th percentile) was achieved using iterative optimizations within the user-centered design. Long-term usability and any possible effects on nutritional and physical activity behavior need to be evaluated in an additional study in which patients should be able to use the e-coach with increasing independence, thereby helping them to gain access to content that could support their long-term behavior change. 10.2196/31823
    What do health coaches do? Direct observation of health coach activities during medical and patient-health coach visits at 3 federally qualified health centers. Johnson Christopher,Saba George,Wolf Jessica,Gardner Heather,Thom David H Patient education and counseling OBJECTIVE:To examine activities of health coaches during patient medical visits and when meeting one-on-one with patients at 3 urban federally qualified health centers. METHODS:Encounters were videotaped and transcribed. Data was analyzed using a matrix analysis approach that allowed a priori identification of expected categories of activity, based on the health coach training model and previously developed conceptual framework, which were modified based on activities observed. RESULTS:A total of 10 medical visits (patient, clinician and health coach), and 8 patient-coach visits were recorded. We identified 9 categories common to both medical and patient-coach visits and 2 categories unique to the medical visit. While observed activities were generally consistent with expected categories, some activities were observed infrequently or not at all. We also observed additional activity categories, including information gathering and personal conversation. The average amount of time spent on some categories of coaching activities differed substantially between medical visits and patient-coach visits. CONCLUSIONS:Health coaching activities observed differed in several respects to those expected, and differed between medical visits and coaching only visits. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:These results provide insights into health coaching behaviors that can be used to inform training and improve utilization of health coaches in practice. 10.1016/j.pec.2017.11.017
    Exploring Usage of COVID Coach, a Public Mental Health App Designed for the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evaluation of Analytics Data. Jaworski Beth K,Taylor Katherine,Ramsey Kelly M,Heinz Adrienne,Steinmetz Sarah,Pagano Ian,Moraja Giovanni,Owen Jason E Journal of medical Internet research BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted mental health and well-being. Mobile mental health apps can be scalable and useful tools in large-scale disaster responses and are particularly promising for reaching vulnerable populations. COVID Coach is a free, evidence-informed mobile app designed specifically to provide tools and resources for addressing COVID-19-related stress. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to characterize the overall usage of COVID Coach, explore retention and return usage, and assess whether the app was reaching individuals who may benefit from mental health resources. METHODS:Anonymous usage data collected from COVID Coach between May 1, 2020, through October 31, 2020, were extracted and analyzed for this study. The sample included 49,287 unique user codes and 3,368,931 in-app events. RESULTS:Usage of interactive tools for coping and stress management comprised the majority of key app events (n=325,691, 70.4%), and the majority of app users tried a tool for managing stress (n=28,009, 58.8%). COVID Coach was utilized for ≤3 days by 80.9% (n=34,611) of the sample whose first day of app use occurred within the 6-month observation window. Usage of the key content in COVID Coach predicted returning to the app for a second day. Among those who tried at least one coping tool on their first day of app use, 57.2% (n=11,444) returned for a second visit; whereas only 46.3% (n=10,546) of those who did not try a tool returned (P<.001). Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were prevalent among app users. For example, among app users who completed an anxiety assessment on their first day of app use (n=4870, 11.4% of users), 55.1% (n=2680) reported levels of anxiety that were moderate to severe, and 29.9% (n=1455) of scores fell into the severe symptom range. On average, those with moderate levels of depression on their first day of app use returned to the app for a greater number of days (mean 3.72 days) than those with minimal symptoms (mean 3.08 days; t=3.01, P=.003). Individuals with significant PTSD symptoms on their first day of app use utilized the app for a significantly greater number of days (mean 3.79 days) than those with fewer symptoms (mean 3.13 days; t=2.29, P=.02). CONCLUSIONS:As the mental health impacts of the pandemic continue to be widespread and increasing, digital health resources, such as apps like COVID Coach, are a scalable way to provide evidence-informed tools and resources. Future research is needed to better understand for whom and under what conditions the app is most helpful and how to increase and sustain engagement. 10.2196/26559
    Telehealth coaching to improve self-management for secondary prevention after stroke: A randomized controlled trial of Stroke Coach. International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society BACKGROUND:Stroke Coach is a lifestyle coaching telehealth program to improve self-management of stroke risk factors. AIMS:To examine the efficacy of Stroke Coach on lifestyle behavior and risk factor control among community-living stroke survivors within one-year post stroke. METHODS:Participants were randomized to Stroke Coach or an attention control Memory Training group. Lifestyle behavior was measured using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Secondary outcomes included specific behavioral and cardiometabolic risk factors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive status, and depressive symptoms. Measurements were taken at baseline, post-intervention (6 months), and retention (12 month). Linear mixed-effects models were used to test the study hypotheses (p < 0.05). All analyses were intention-to-treat. RESULTS:The mean age of the Stroke Coach (n = 64) and Memory Training (n = 62) groups was 67.2 and 69.1 years, respectively. The majority of participants (n = 100) had mild stroke (modified Rankin Scale = 1 or 2), were active, with controlled blood pressure (mean = 129/79 mmHg) at baseline. At post-intervention, there were no significant differences in lifestyle (b = -2.87; 95%CI - 8.03 to 2.29; p = 0.28). Glucose control, as measured by HbA1c (b = 0.17; 95%CI 0.17 to 0.32; p = 0.03), and HRQoL, measured using SF-36 Physical Component Summary (b = -3.05; 95%CI -5.88 to -0.21; p = 0.04), were significantly improved in Stroke Coach compared to Memory Training, and the improvements were maintained at retention. CONCLUSION:Stroke Coach did not improve lifestyle behavior; however, there were improvements to HbA1c and HRQoL among community-living stroke survivors with mild stroke-related disability. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02207023). 10.1177/17474930211017699
    Concussion coach for postconcussive symptoms: a randomized, controlled trial of a smartphone application with Afghanistan and Iraq war Veterans. Belanger Heather G,Toyinbo Peter,Barrett Blake,King Emily,Sayer Nina A The Clinical neuropsychologist Investigate the effectiveness of Concussion Coach, an interactive smartphone application, as a treatment for residual neurobehavioral symptoms and distress in Veterans with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI). Veterans with mild TBI were randomized to Concussion Coach (n = 238) or Treatment-as-Usual (TAU) (n = 241) in a 3-month randomized controlled trial. Primary outcome measures included postconcussive symptom (PCS) severity as measured by the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and psychological distress as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). Measures of self-efficacy, social support, and comfort with technology were administered as potential moderators and mediators. An intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed (N = 461: Concussion Coach = 231 and TAU = 230) using Bayesian Network (BN)modeling. The probability of decreased PCS severity was significantly greater for those assigned to Concussion Coach, .35 [.32,.37], than for TAU, .29 (.27, .32), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.29. Also, Concussion Coach showed a significantly greater probability of increased self-efficacy (.36 [.32, .39]) than did TAU (.28 [.25, .30], OR = 1.42). In turn, self-efficacy (increased vs. decreased) showed a significantly greater probability of decreased PCS severity (.51 [.47, .54] vs. .27 [.24, .30], OR = 2.71) and decreased psychological distress (.53 [.49, .56] vs. .32 [.29, .35], OR = 2.35), suggesting that self-efficacy may have mediated Concussion Coach effects. Concussion Coach is effective at reducing PCS severity and psychological distress. Increased self-efficacy/perception of self-management of symptoms may be key to successful treatment of residual symptoms in those with history of concussion. 10.1080/13854046.2021.1936188
    Health care coach support to assist with advance care planning and symptom management -A randomized controlled trial. Patel Manali I,Aguilar Veronica,Sanchez Blanca,Sisay Etsegenet,Park David J Contemporary clinical trials Advance care planning and symptom management (supportive cancer care) improves patient experiences and reduces acute care use (hospitalizations and emergency department visits). Strong evidence supports team-based approaches to deliver supportive cancer care. However no studies, to our knowledge, have evaluated the use of lay or community health workers to deliver supportive cancer care as compared to usual cancer care. The "Health Care Coach Support" intervention was developed to improve cancer care. The intervention assigns a lay or community health worker "health coach" to all patients newly diagnosed with advanced stages of cancer or patients with recurrent or progressive disease. The intervention aims to educate and activate patients in advance care planning discussions and symptom management with their clinicians. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 allocation to either the 12-month health coach intervention combined with usual oncology care or usual oncology care alone. The primary outcome is to evaluate whether the intervention reduces acute care use measured at 6-months follow-up more than usual care. Secondary outcomes include the effect on acute care, palliative care, and hospice at 12-months follow-up and one month prior to death for patients who die. Additional secondary outcomes include changes in patient satisfaction with decision and patient satisfaction with care from baseline (time of enrollment) to 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-months post-enrollment. The Health Coach Support study addresses an important gap in supportive cancer care by testing whether a team-based approach using non-professional personnel can ensure delivery of these services. Findings can assist in our understanding of how to improve care for patients with cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov Registration #NCT03154190. 10.1016/j.cct.2021.106617
    What do geriatric rehabilitation patients and experts consider relevant? Requirements for a digitalised e-coach for sustainable improvement of nutrition and physical activity in older adults - a qualitative focus group study. Happe Lisa,Hein Andreas,Diekmann Rebecca BMC geriatrics BACKGROUND:During geriatric rehabilitation, attempts are made to increase the patients' health and functional capacity. In order to maintain these improvements in the medium- and long-term, behavioural changes regarding mobility and nutrition are also targeted, but these are often not sustainable. International studies show positive effects on the sustainability of the improvement of physical activity behaviour in healthy seniors through the use of electronic devices and software applications. Comparable approaches that include nutrition topics or combine them and were additionally developed for geriatric rehabilitation patients (≥70 years) to date are not known. The aim of this study was to identify what geriatric rehabilitation patients require from an electronic coaching system (e-coach) to support them in improving their nutritional and physical activity behaviour, and what content and features physiotherapists and dieticians consider relevant. METHOD:Focus group interviews (09-11/2019) were conducted in a geriatric rehabilitation centre in Germany with patients aged 70 years and older, relatives and experts (physiotherapists and nutritionists). The focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. RESULTS:Three focus groups with patients and relatives (n = 17, 65% female, 16 (94%) in age category 70-99 years) and one focus group with experts (2 dieticians and 1 physiotherapist) were conducted. Relevant contents and feedback elements for nutrition and physical activity in old age were identified. The patients' comments show that an e-coach must offer obvious benefits for the older persons and promote motivation in order to be used. The willingness to change nutrition and physical activity behaviour and the previous experiences in these areas are very heterogeneous, therefore content should be adaptable to different requirements. CONCLUSION:Experts and patients identified quite similar contents, barriers and facilitators for a nutrition and physical activity e-coach. The e-coach needs to be able to address different points of behaviour change, enable adaptations to the individual patient and convince the older person that using it will help them to improve their nutrition and physical activity. It is also important that the e-coach is easy to use and can be easily integrated into the patient's everyday life after rehabilitation. 10.1186/s12877-021-02692-y
    The effect of a single visit to a health coach on perceived health in 50-year old residents in a high-income country - a randomised controlled trial. Scandinavian journal of primary health care OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the one-year-effect of a single visit to a health coach on perceived health and exercise level in 50-year-old citizens. DESIGN:One factor design randomised controlled trial. SETTING:Participants were randomly selected from the Swedish Population Register. SUBJECTS:50-year-old residents of the town of Alingsås, Sweden ( = 105). INTERVENTION:The intervention group ( = 52) received a single one-hour visit to a health coach. The control group ( = 53) received no intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Change over 12 months in the SF-36 dimensions physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, mental health, physical component summary and mental component summary. Reported health transition at follow-up. Change in exercise level. RESULTS:The control group changed their perceived health more favourable than the intervention group in the following dimensions of the SF-36; general health ( = 0.0055-0.025), role-emotional ( = 0.034-0.040) and mental component summary ( = 0.033-0.073). CONCLUSION:A single visit to a health coach does not improve perceived health or exercise-level in 50-year-old citizens. On the contrary it may make perceived health worse.Key pointsResearch on health coaching has emerged in the last 20 years, but is diverse and the characteristics of a successful health coaching intervention are still unknown.There is a lack of randomised controlled trials evaluating long-term effectiveness of health coaching.This randomised controlled trial concludes that a single visit to a health coach does not improve, but rather impairs, perceived health in 50-year olds. 10.1080/02813432.2022.2057035