Metabolic syndrome, inflammation and atherosclerosis.
Paoletti Rodolfo,Bolego Chiara,Poli Andrea,Cignarella Andrea
Vascular health and risk management
The inflammatory component of atherogenesis has been increasingly recognized over the last decade. Inflammation participates in all stages of atherosclerosis, not only during initiation and during evolution of lesions, but also with precipitation of acute thrombotic complications. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of both cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes in humans. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to represent common underlying factors of the syndrome, which features a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome occurs using defined threshold values for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and dyslipidemia. The metabolic syndrome appears to affect a significant proportion of the population. Therapeutic approaches that reduce the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and address traditional risk factors are particularly important in preventing cardiovascular disease and, potentially, diabetes. The primary management of metabolic syndrome involves healthy lifestyle promotion through moderate calorie restriction, moderate increase in physical activity and change in dietary composition. Treatment of individual components aims to control atherogenic dyslipidemia using fibrates and statins, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia. While no single treatment for the metabolic syndrome as a whole yet exists, emerging therapies offer potential as future therapeutic approaches.
NADPH oxidase contributes to vascular inflammation, insulin resistance, and remodeling in the transgenic (mRen2) rat.
Wei Yongzhong,Whaley-Connell Adam T,Chen Kemin,Habibi Javad,Uptergrove Grace M-E,Clark Suzanne E,Stump Craig S,Ferrario Carlos M,Sowers James R
Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
Reduced insulin sensitivity is characteristic of various pathological conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Angiotensin II, acting through its angiotensin type 1 receptor, inhibits the actions of insulin in the vasculature which may lead to deleterious effects such as vascular inflammation, remodeling, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance. In contrast, insulin normally exerts vasodilatory, antiinflammatory, and prosurvival actions. To explore the impact of angiotensin II on insulin signaling, NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species formation, vascular inflammation, apoptosis, and remodeling, we used transgenic TG(mRen2)27 (Ren2) rats, which harbor the mouse renin transgene and exhibits elevated tissue angiotensin II levels. Compared with Sprague-Dawley controls, Ren2 aortas exhibited greater NADPH oxidase activity, reactive oxygen species levels, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression, apoptosis, and wall thickness, which were significantly attenuated by in vivo treatment with angiotensin type 1 receptor blockade (valsartan) or the superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic (tempol). There was substantially diminished Akt and endothelial NO synthase activation in Ren2 aortas in response to in vivo insulin stimulation, and this was significantly improved by in vivo treatment with valsartan or tempol. In vivo treatment with valsartan, but not tempol, significantly reduced blood pressure in Ren2 rats. Further, there was reduced insulin induced Akt activation and increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in vascular smooth muscle cells from Ren2 and Sprague-Dawley rats treated with angiotensin II, abnormalities that were abrogated by angiotensin type 1 receptor blockade with valsartan or antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Collectively, these data suggest that increased angiotensin type 1 receptor/NADPH oxidase activation/reactive oxygen species contribute to vascular insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation.
Fingolimod for the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage: a 2-arm proof-of-concept study.
Fu Ying,Hao Junwei,Zhang Ningnannan,Ren Li,Sun Na,Li Yu-Jing,Yan Yaping,Huang DeRen,Yu Chunshui,Shi Fu-Dong
IMPORTANCE:Pronounced inflammatory reactions occurring shortly after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) contribute to the formation and progression of perihematomal edema (PHE) and secondary brain injury. We hypothesized that modulation of brain inflammation reduces edema, thus improving clinical outcomes in patients with ICH. OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether oral administration of fingolimod, a Food and Drug Administration-approved sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator for multiple sclerosis, is safe and effective in alleviating PHE and neurologic deficits in patients with ICH. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:In this 2-arm, evaluator-blinded study, we included 23 patients with primary supratentorial ICH with hematomal volume of 5 to 30 mL. Clinical and neuroimaging feature-matched patients were treated with standard care with or without oral fingolimod. The study was conducted in Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China. INTERVENTIONS:All patients received standard management alone (control participants) or combined with fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya), 0.5 mg, orally for 3 consecutive days. Treatment was initiated within 1 hour after the baseline computed tomographic scan and no later than 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Neurologic status and hematomal and PHE volumes (Ev) and relative PHE, defined as Ev divided by hematomal volume, were monitored by clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively, for 3 months. RESULTS:Patients treated with fingolimod exhibited a reduction of neurologic impairment compared with control individuals, regained a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 by day 7 (100% vs 50%, P = .01), and had a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score reduction of 7.5 vs 0.5 (P < .001). Neurologic functions improved in these patients in the first week coincident with a reduction of circulating lymphocyte counts. At 3 months, a greater proportion of patients receiving fingolimod achieved full recovery of neurologic functions (modified Barthel Index score range, 95-100; 63% vs 0%; P = .001; modified Rankin Scale score range, 0-1; 63% vs 0%; P = .001), and fewer reported ICH-related lung infections. Perihematomal edema volume and rPHE were significantly smaller in fingolimod-treated patients than in control individuals (Ev at day 7, 47 mL vs 108 mL, P = .04; Ev at day 14, 55 mL vs 124 mL, P = .07; rPHE at day 7, 2.5 vs 6.4, P < .001; rPHE at day 14, 2.6 vs 7.7, P = .003, respectively). We recorded no differences between groups in the occurrence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In patients with small- to moderate-sized deep primary supratentorial ICH, administration of oral fingolimod within 72 hours of disease onset was safe, reduced PHE, attenuated neurologic deficits, and promoted recovery. The efficacy of fingolimod in preventing secondary brain injury in patients with ICH warrants further investigation in late-phase trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:NCT02002390.
Selective Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Modulation Attenuates Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Sun Na,Shen Yi,Han Wei,Shi Kaibin,Wood Kristofer,Fu Ying,Hao Junwei,Liu Qiang,Sheth Kevin N,Huang DeRen,Shi Fu-Dong
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Preclinical studies and a proof-of-concept clinical study have shown that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, fingolimod, improves the clinical outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the specific subtype of the S1PRs through which immune modulation provides protection in ICH remains unclear. In addition, fingolimod-induced adverse effects could limit its use in patients with stroke because of interactions with other S1PR subtypes, particularly with S1PR3. RP101075 is a selective S1PR1 agonist with superior cardiovascular safety profile. In this study, we investigated the impact of RP101075 treatment in a mouse model of ICH. METHODS:ICH was induced by injection of autologous blood in 294 male C57BL/6J and Rag2(-/-) mice. ICH mice randomly received vehicle, RP101075, or RP101075 plus S1PR1 antagonist W146 by daily oral gavage for three consecutive days, starting from 30 minutes after surgery. Neurodeficits, brain edema, brain infiltration of immune cells, blood-brain barrier integrity, and cell death were assessed after ICH. RESULTS:RP101075 significantly attenuated neurological deficits and reduced brain edema in ICH mice. W146 blocked the effects of RP101075 on neurodeficits and brain edema. RP101075 reduced the counts of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes, neutrophils, and microglia, as well as cytokine expression after ICH. Enhanced blood-brain barrier integrity and alleviated neuronal death were also seen in ICH mice after RP101075 treatment. CONCLUSIONS:S1PR1 modulation via RP101075 provides protection in experimental ICH. Together with the advantageous pharmacological features of RP101075, these results warrant further investigations of its mechanisms of action and translational values in ICH patients.
Fingolimod reduces cerebral lymphocyte infiltration in experimental models of rodent intracerebral hemorrhage.
Rolland William B,Lekic Tim,Krafft Paul R,Hasegawa Yu,Altay Orhan,Hartman Richard,Ostrowski Robert,Manaenko Anatol,Tang Jiping,Zhang John H
T-lymphocytes promote cerebral inflammation, thus aggravating neuronal injury after stroke. Fingolimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor analog, prevents the egress of lymphocytes from primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Based on these findings, we hypothesized fingolimod treatment would reduce the number of T-lymphocytes migrating into the brain, thereby ameliorating cerebral inflammation following experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the effects of fingolimod in two well-established murine models of ICH, implementing intrastriatal infusions of either bacterial collagenase (cICH) or autologous blood (bICH). Furthermore, we tested the long term neurological improvements by Fingolimod in a collagenase-induced rat model of ICH. Fingolimod, in contrast to vehicle administration alone, improved neurological functions and reduced brain edema at 24 and 72 h following experimental ICH in CD-1 mice (n=103; p<0.05). Significantly fewer lymphocytes were found in blood and brain samples of treated animals when compared to the vehicle group (p<0.05). Moreover, fingolimod treatment significantly reduced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interferon-γ (INF-γ), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) in the mouse brain at 72 h post-cICH (p<0.05 compared to vehicle). Long-term neurocognitive performance and histopathological analysis were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats between 8 and 10 weeks post-cICH (n=28). Treated rats showed reduced spatial and motor learning deficits, along with significantly reduced brain atrophy and neuronal cell loss within the basal ganglia (p<0.05 compared to vehicle). We conclude that fingolimod treatment ameliorated cerebral inflammation, at least to some extent, by reducing the availability and subsequent brain infiltration of T-lymphocytes, which improved the short and long-term sequelae after experimental ICH in rodents.
Fingolimod exerts neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage.
Lu Lei,Barfejani Arnavaz Hajizadeh,Qin Tao,Dong Qiang,Ayata Cenk,Waeber Christian
Recent studies have shown that fingolimod (FTY720) is neuroprotective in CNS injury models of cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of fingolimod in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage. ICH was produced in adult CD1 mice by injecting collagenase VII-S (0.5 µL, 0.06 U) into the basal ganglia. Fingolimod (or saline) was given 30 min after surgery and once daily for two days. Three days after intracerebral hemorrhage, brain edema, hematoma volume and the number of apoptotic cells were quantified. In another cohort of mice, brain atrophy was evaluated two weeks following intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurobehavioral tests were performed on the 3rd, the 7th and the 14th day. Fingolimod significantly decreased edema, apoptosis and brain atrophy. More importantly, fingolimod enhanced neurobehavioral recovery. Preliminary experiments showed no difference in the number of inflammatory (CD68-positive) cells between the two groups. In conclusion, fingolimod exerts protective effects in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage; the mechanisms underlying these neuroprotective effects deserve further study.
Combination of the Immune Modulator Fingolimod With Alteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Pilot Trial.
Zhu Zilong,Fu Ying,Tian Decai,Sun Na,Han Wei,Chang Guoqiang,Dong Yinhua,Xu Xiaolin,Liu Qiang,Huang Deren,Shi Fu-Dong
BACKGROUND:Inflammatory and immune responses triggered by brain ischemia worsen clinical outcomes of stroke and contribute to hemorrhagic transformation, massive edema, and reperfusion injury associated with intravenous alteplase. We assessed whether a combination of the immune-modulator fingolimod and alteplase is safe and effective in attenuating reperfusion injury in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated within the first 4.5 hours of symptom onset. METHODS AND RESULTS:In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 25 eligible patients with hemispheric ischemic stroke stemming from anterior or middle cerebral arterial occlusion to receive alteplase alone and 22 patients to receive alteplase plus oral fingolimod 0.5 mg daily for 3 consecutive days within 4.5 hours of the onset of ischemic stroke. Compared with patients who received alteplase alone, patients who received the combination of fingolimod with alteplase exhibited lower circulating lymphocytes, smaller lesion volumes (10.1 versus 34.3 mL; P=0.04), less hemorrhage (1.2 versus 4.4 mL; P=0.01), and attenuated neurological deficits in National Institute of Health Stroke Scales (4 versus 2; P=0.02) at day 1. Furthermore, restrained lesion growth from day 1 to 7 (-2.3 versus 12.1 mL; P<0.01) with a better recovery at day 90 (modified Rankin Scale score 0-1, 73% versus 32%; P<0.01) was evident in patients given fingolimod and alteplase. No serious adverse events were recorded in all patients. CONCLUSIONS:In this pilot study, combination therapy of fingolimod and alteplase was well tolerated, attenuated reperfusion injury, and improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. These findings need to be tested in further clinical trials. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02002390.
Impact of an immune modulator fingolimod on acute ischemic stroke.
Fu Ying,Zhang Ningnannan,Ren Li,Yan Yaping,Sun Na,Li Yu-Jing,Han Wei,Xue Rong,Liu Qiang,Hao Junwei,Yu Chunshui,Shi Fu-Dong
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Peripheral lymphocytes entering brain ischemic regions orchestrate inflammatory responses, catalyze tissue death, and worsen clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in preclinical studies. However, it is not known whether modulating brain inflammation can impact the outcome of patients with AIS. In this open-label, evaluator-blinded, parallel-group clinical pilot trial, we recruited 22 patients matched for clinical and MRI characteristics, with anterior cerebral circulation occlusion and onset of stroke that had exceeded 4.5 h, who then received standard management alone (controls) or standard management plus fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya, Novartis), 0.5 mg per day orally for 3 consecutive days. Compared with the 11 control patients, the 11 fingolimod recipients had lower circulating lymphocyte counts, milder neurological deficits, and better recovery of neurological functions. This difference was most profound in the first week when reduction of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 4 vs. -1, respectively (P = 0.0001). Neurological rehabilitation was faster in the fingolimod-treated group. Enlargement of lesion size was more restrained between baseline and day 7 than in controls (9 vs. 27 mL, P = 0.0494). Furthermore, rT1%, an indicator of microvascular permeability, was lower in the fingolimod-treated group at 7 d (20.5 vs. 11.0; P = 0.005). No drug-related serious events occurred. We conclude that in patients with acute and anterior cerebral circulation occlusion stroke, oral fingolimod within 72 h of disease onset was safe, limited secondary tissue injury from baseline to 7 d, decreased microvascular permeability, attenuated neurological deficits, and promoted recovery.
Fingolimod provides long-term protection in rodent models of cerebral ischemia.
Wei Ying,Yemisci Muge,Kim Hyung-Hwan,Yung Lai Ming,Shin Hwa Kyoung,Hwang Seo-Kyoung,Guo Shuzhen,Qin Tao,Alsharif Nafiseh,Brinkmann Volker,Liao James K,Lo Eng H,Waeber Christian
Annals of neurology
OBJECTIVE:The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist fingolimod (FTY720), that has shown efficacy in advanced multiple sclerosis clinical trials, decreases reperfusion injury in heart, liver, and kidney. We therefore tested the therapeutic effects of fingolimod in several rodent models of focal cerebral ischemia. To assess the translational significance of these findings, we asked whether fingolimod improved long-term behavioral outcomes, whether delayed treatment was still effective, and whether neuroprotection can be obtained in a second species. METHODS:We used rodent models of middle cerebral artery occlusion and cell-culture models of neurotoxicity and inflammation to examine the therapeutic potential and mechanisms of neuroprotection by fingolimod. RESULTS:In a transient mouse model, fingolimod reduced infarct size, neurological deficit, edema, and the number of dying cells in the core and periinfarct area. Neuroprotection was accompanied by decreased inflammation, as fingolimod-treated mice had fewer activated neutrophils, microglia/macrophages, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-positive blood vessels. Fingolimod-treated mice showed a smaller infarct and performed better in behavioral tests up to 15 days after ischemia. Reduced infarct was observed in a permanent model even when mice were treated 4 hours after ischemic onset. Fingolimod also decreased infarct size in a rat model of focal ischemia. Fingolimod did not protect primary neurons against glutamate excitotoxicity or hydrogen peroxide, but decreased ICAM-1 expression in brain endothelial cells stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. INTERPRETATION:These findings suggest that anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and possibly vasculoprotection, rather than direct effects on neurons, underlie the beneficial effects of fingolimod after stroke. S1P receptors are a highly promising target in stroke treatment.
Activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 by FTY720 is neuroprotective after ischemic stroke in rats.
Hasegawa Yu,Suzuki Hidenori,Sozen Takumi,Rolland William,Zhang John H
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:FTY720 is a known sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of postischemic administration of FTY720 in rats with 2 hours transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). METHODS:One hundred eleven male rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated and MCAO treated with vehicle, 0.25 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg of FTY720, another selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor-1 agonist SEW2871 (5 mg/kg), or 0.25 mg/kg of FTY720 plus a sphingosine 1-phosphate antagonist, VPC23019 (0.5 mg/kg). Drugs were injected intraperitoneally immediately after reperfusion. Neurological score and infarct volume were assessed at 24 and 72 hours after MCAO. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling were conducted at 24 hours after MCAO. RESULTS:FTY720 significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological score at 24 and 72 hours after MCAO compared with the vehicle group. SEW2871 showed similar neuroprotective effects to FTY720, whereas VPC 20319 abolished the neuroprotective effects of FTY720. FTY720 significantly retained Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and Bcl-2 expression and decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling-positive neurons at 24 hours after MCAO. VPC23019 blocked the antiapoptotic effects of FTY720. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate-1 by FTY720 reduces neuronal death after transient MCAO.
FTY720 attenuates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in normal and cirrhotic livers.
Man Kwan,Ng Kevin T,Lee Terence K,Lo Chung Mau,Sun Chris K,Li Xian Liang,Zhao Yi,Ho Joanna W,Fan Sheung Tat
American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury is an inevitable consequence during liver surgery. The outcome is particularly poor in cirrhotic livers, which are more prone to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. We aim to study whether FTY720 could attenuate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury both in normal and in cirrhotic livers. We applied a 70% liver-ischemia (60 min) model in rats with normal or cirrhotic livers. FTY720 was given 20 min before ischemia and 10 min before reperfusion (1 mg/kg, i.v.). Liver tissues and blood were sampled at 20 min, 60 min, 90 min, 6 h and 24 h after reperfusion for detection of MAPK-Egr-1, Akt pathways and caspase cascade. Hepatic ultrastructure and apoptosis were also compared. FTY720 significantly improved liver function in the rats with normal and cirrhotic livers. Akt pathway was activated at 6 and 24 h after reperfusion. FTY720 significantly down-regulated Egr-1, ET-1, iNOS and MIP-2 accompanied with up-regulation of A20, IL-10, HO-1 and Hsp70. MAPK (Raf-MEK-Erk) pathway was down-regulated. Hepatic ultrastructure was well maintained and fewer apoptotic liver cells were found in the FTY720 groups. In conclusion, FTY720 attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in both normal and cirrhotic livers by activation of cell survival Akt signaling and down-regulation of Egr-1 via Raf-MEK-Erk pathway.
Reduction of ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat kidney by FTY720, a synthetic derivative of sphingosine.
Delbridge Michael S,Shrestha Badri M,Raftery Andrew T,El Nahas A Meguid,Haylor John L
BACKGROUND:The current shortage of organ donors has led many centers to use marginal and nonheart-beating donors (NHBDs). Recent research has implicated the infiltration of lymphocytes as an important mediator of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). FTY720 is an immunosuppressant that promotes lymphocyte sequestration into lymph nodes. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for FTY720 to abrogate IRI when subjected to increasing ischemic times. METHODS:Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral flank incision with removal of the right kidney and clamping of the left hilum. Groups were divided into ischemia times of 45, 55, and 65min; each group was further divided into a control group (IRI only), IRI+FTY720 (1 mg/kg/d), and IRI+cyclosporine (15 mg/kg/d), n=4 per group. RESULTS:Thre days after 45 min of ischemia, serum creatinine in the ischemia only (477+/-37 micromol/L) and cyclosporine groups (698+/-32 micromol/L) was significantly increased compared with the FTY720-treated animals (194+/-66 micromol/L). The beneficial effect of FTY720 was also observed at 55 and 65 min; indeed, FTY720-treated animals demonstrated signs of recovery from 65 min of ischemia whereas control and cyclosporine-treated animals required sacrifice between days 3 and 5. Treatment with FTY720 reduced renal damage assessed histologically and also reduced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. CONCLUSION:Treatment with FTY720 reduced IRI and prevented unrecoverable acute renal failure after significant ischemic injury. This study suggests that FTY720 may help improve the quality of grafts from NHBD and marginal donors by abrogating the IRI insult.
Evaluation of the Effect of Fingolimod Treatment on Microglial Activation Using Serial PET Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis.
Sucksdorff Marcus,Rissanen Eero,Tuisku Jouni,Nuutinen Salla,Paavilainen Teemu,Rokka Johanna,Rinne Juha,Airas Laura
Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) has been considered a white matter disease with focal inflammatory lesions. It is, however, becoming clear that significant pathology, such as microglial activation, also takes place outside the plaque areas, that is, in areas of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and gray matter (GM). Microglial activation can be detected in vivo using 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO)-binding radioligands and PET. It is unknown whether fingolimod affects microglial activation in MS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serial PET can be used to evaluate the effect of fingolimod treatment on microglial activation. Ten relapsing-remitting MS patients were studied using the TSPO radioligand C-()-PK11195. Imaging was performed at baseline and after 8 and 24 wk of fingolimod treatment. Eight healthy individuals were imaged for comparison. Microglial activation was evaluated as distribution volume ratio of C-()-PK11195. The patients had MS for an average of 7.9 ± 4.3 y (mean ± SD), their total relapses averaged 4 ± 2.4, and their Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.7 ± 0.5. The patients were switched to fingolimod because of safety reasons or therapy escalation. The mean washout period before the initiation of fingolimod was 2.3 ± 1.1 mo. The patients were clinically stable on fingolimod. At baseline, microglial activation was significantly higher in the combined NAWM and GM areas of MS patients than in healthy controls ( 0.021). C-()-PK11195 binding was reduced (-12.31%) within the combined T2 lesion area after 6 mo of fingolimod treatment ( 0.040) but not in the areas of NAWM or GM. Fingolimod treatment reduced microglial/macrophage activation at the site of focal inflammatory lesions, presumably by preventing leukocyte trafficking from the periphery. It did not affect the widespread, diffuse microglial activation in the NAWM and GM. The study opens new vistas for designing future therapeutic studies in MS that use the evaluation of microglial activation as an imaging outcome measure.
FTY720 (fingolimod) regulates key target genes essential for inflammation in microglial cells as defined by high-resolution mRNA sequencing.
Das Amitabh,Arifuzzaman Sarder,Kim Sun Hwa,Lee Young Seek,Jung Kyoung Hwa,Chai Young Gyu
Although microglial cells have an essential role in the host defense of the brain, the abnormal activation of microglia can lead to devastating outcomes, such as neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Emerging evidence indicates that FTY720 (fingolimod), an FDA-approved drug, has beneficial effects on brain cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and, more recently, immunosuppressive activities in microglia via modulation of the sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) 1 receptor. However, the exact molecular aspects of FTY720 contribution in microglia remain largely unaddressed. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the roles of FTY720 in microglia, we performed gene expression profiling in resting, FTY720, LPS and LPS + FTY720 challenged primary microglial (PM) cells isolated from 3-day-old ICR mice, and we identified FTY720 target genes and co-regulated modules that were critical in inflammation. By examining RNA sequencing and binding motif datasets from FTY720 suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory mediators, we also identified unexpected relationships between the inducible transcription factors (TFs), motif strength, and the transcription of key inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, we showed that FTY720 controls important inflammatory genes targets by modulating STAT1 and IRF8 levels at their promoter site. Our unprecedented findings demonstrate that FTY720 could be a useful therapeutic application for neuroinflammatory diseases associated with microglia activation, as well as provide a rich resource and framework for future analyses of FTY720 effects on microglia interaction.
Fingolimod Protects Against Ischemic White Matter Damage by Modulating Microglia Toward M2 Polarization via STAT3 Pathway.
Qin Chuan,Fan Wen-Hui,Liu Qian,Shang Ke,Murugan Madhuvika,Wu Long-Jun,Wang Wei,Tian Dai-Shi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:White matter (WM) ischemic injury, a major neuropathological feature of cerebral small vessel diseases, is an important cause of vascular cognitive impairment in later life. The pathogenesis of demyelination after WM ischemic damage are often accompanied by microglial activation. Fingolimod (FTY720) was approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis for its immunosuppression property. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of FTY720 in a WM ischemia model. METHODS:Chronic WM ischemic injury model was induced by bilateral carotid artery stenosis. Cognitive function, WM integrity, microglial activation, and potential pathway involved in microglial polarization were assessed after bilateral carotid artery stenosis. RESULTS:Disruption of WM integrity was characterized by demyelination in the corpus callosum and disorganization of Ranvier nodes using Luxol fast blue staining, immunofluorescence staining, and electron microscopy. In addition, radial maze test demonstrated that working memory performance was decreased at 1-month post-bilateral carotid artery stenosis-induced injury. Interestingly, FTY720 could reduce cognitive decline and ameliorate the disruption of WM integrity. Mechanistically, cerebral hypoperfusion induced microglial activation, production of associated proinflammatory cytokines, and priming of microglial polarization toward the M1 phenotype, whereas FTY720 attenuated microglia-mediated neuroinflammation after WM ischemia and promoted oligodendrocytogenesis by shifting microglia toward M2 polarization. FTY720's effect on microglial M2 polarization was largely suppressed by selective signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) blockade in vitro, revealing that FTY720-enabled shift of microglia from M1 to M2 polarization state was possibly mediated by STAT3 signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Our study suggested that FTY720 might be a potential therapeutic drug targeting brain inflammation by skewing microglia toward M2 polarization after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
Sphingosine kinase 1 regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in activated microglia.
Nayak D,Huo Y,Kwang W X T,Pushparaj P N,Kumar S D,Ling E-A,Dheen S T
Microglial activation has been implicated as one of the causative factors for neuroinflammation in various neurodegenerative diseases. The sphingolipid metabolic pathway plays an important role in inflammation, cell proliferation, survival, chemotaxis, and immunity in peripheral macrophages. In this study, we demonstrate that sphingosine kinase1 (SphK1), a key enzyme of the sphingolipid metabolic pathway, and its receptors are expressed in the mouse BV2 microglial cells and SphK1 alters the expression and production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in microglia treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS treatment increased the SphK1 mRNA and protein expression in microglia as revealed by the RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Suppression of SphK1 by its inhibitor, N, N Dimethylsphingosine (DMS), or siRNA resulted in decreased mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and iNOS and release of TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-activated microglia. Moreover, addition of sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P), a breakdown product of sphingolipid metabolism, increased the expression levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and iNOS and production of TNF-alpha and NO in activated microglia. Hence to summarize, suppression of SphK1 in activated microglia inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and NO and the addition of exogenous S1P to activated microglia enhances their inflammatory responses. Since the chronic proinflammatory cytokine production by microglia has been implicated in neuroinflammation, modulation of SphK1 and S1P in microglia could be looked upon as a future potential therapeutic method in the control of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.
Sphingosine kinase signalling in immune cells: potential as novel therapeutic targets.
Melendez Alirio J
Biochimica et biophysica acta
During the last few years, it has become clear that sphingolipids are sources of important signalling molecules. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide and S1P, have emerged as a new class of potent bioactive molecules, implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as cell differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. Sphingomyelin (SM) is the major membrane sphingolipid and is the precursor for the bioactive products. Ceramide is formed from SM by the action of sphingomyelinases (SMase), however, ceramide can be very rapidly hydrolysed, by ceramidases to yield sphingosine, and sphingosine can be phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase (SphK) to yield S1P. In immune cells, the sphingolipid metabolism is tightly related to the main stages of immune cell development, differentiation, activation, and proliferation, transduced into physiological responses such as survival, calcium mobilization, cytoskeletal reorganization and chemotaxis. Several biological effectors have been shown to promote the synthesis of S1P, including growth factors, cytokines, and antigen and G-protein-coupled receptor agonists. Interest in S1P focused recently on two distinct cellular actions of this lipid, namely its function as an intracellular second messenger, capable of triggering calcium release from internal stores, and as an extracellular ligand activating specific G protein-coupled receptors. Inhibition of SphK stimulation strongly reduced or even prevented cellular events triggered by several proinflammatory agonists, such as receptor-stimulated DNA synthesis, Ca(2+) mobilization, degranulation, chemotaxis and cytokine production. Another very important observation is the direct role played by S1P in chemotaxis, and cellular escape from apoptosis. As an extracellular mediator, several studies have now shown that S1P binds a number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) encoded by endothelial differentiation genes (EDG), collectively known as the S1P-receptors. Binding of S1P to these receptors trigger an wide range of cellular responses including proliferation, enhanced extracellular matrix assembly, stimulation of adherent junctions, formation of actin stress fibres, and inhibition of apoptosis induced by either ceramide or growth factor withdrawal. Moreover, blocking S1P1-receptor inhibits lymphocyte egress from lymphatic organs. This review summarises the evidence linking SphK signalling pathway to immune-cell activation and based on these data discuss the potential for targeting SphKs to suppress inflammation and other pathological conditions.
Sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling in central nervous system.
Okada Taro,Kajimoto Taketoshi,Jahangeer Saleem,Nakamura Shun-ichi
Sphingolipids were once regarded as inert structural components of cell membranes. Now these metabolites are generally believed to be important bioactive molecules that control a wide repertoire of cellular processes such as proliferation and survival of cells. Along with these ubiquitous cell functions observed in many peripheral tissues sphingolipid metabolites, especially sphingosine 1-phosphate, exert important neuron-specific functions such as regulation of neurotransmitter release. This review summarizes physiological and pathological roles of sphingolipid metabolites emphasizing the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate in the central nervous system.
Neurological S1P signaling as an emerging mechanism of action of oral FTY720 (fingolimod) in multiple sclerosis.
Lee Chang Wook,Choi Ji Woong,Chun Jerold
Archives of pharmacal research
FTY720 (fingolimod, Novartis) is a promising investigational drug for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. It is currently under FDA review in the United States, and could represent the first approved oral treatment for MS. Extensive, ongoing clinical trials in Phase II/III have supported both the efficacy and safety of FTY720. FTY720 itself is not bioactive, but when phosphorylated (FTY720-P) by sphingosine kinase 2, it becomes active through modulation of 4 of the 5 known G protein-coupled sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. The mechanism of action (MOA) is thought to be immunological, where FTY720 alters lymphocyte trafficking via S1P1. However, MOA for FTY720 in MS may also involve a direct, neurological action within the central nervous system in view of documented S1P receptor-mediated signaling influences in the brain, and this review considers observations that support an emerging neurological MOA.
FTY720, a new class of immunomodulator, inhibits lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and thymus by agonistic activity at sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors.
Pharmacology & therapeutics
FTY720 is the first of a new immunomodulator class: sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist. In 1994, an immunosuppressive natural product, ISP-I (myriocin), was isolated from the culture broth of Isaria sinclairii, a type of vegetative wasp. The chemical modification of ISP-I yielded a new compound, FTY720, which has more potent immunosuppressive activity and less toxicity than ISP-I does. FTY720 has been shown to be highly effective in experimental allotransplantation models and autoimmune disease models. A striking feature of FTY720 is the induction of a marked decrease in peripheral blood T- and B-cells at doses that show immunosuppressive activity in these models. Reportedly, FTY720 is rapidly converted to FTY720-phosphate (FTY720-P) by sphingosine kinase 2 in vivo, and FTY720-P acts as a potent agonist at S1P receptors. Recently, it has been suggested that FTY720-P internalizes S1P1 on lymphocytes and thereby inhibits the migration of lymphocytes toward S1P. Thus, it is likely that the reduction of circulating lymphocytes by FTY720 is due to the inhibition of S1P/S1P1-dependent lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and thymus. Because FTY720 displays a novel mechanism of action that has not been observed with other immunosuppressive agents and shows a synergism with cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus, it is presumed that FTY720 provides a useful tool for the prevention of transplant rejection and a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Fingolimod: direct CNS effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulation and implications in multiple sclerosis therapy.
Groves Aran,Kihara Yasuyuki,Chun Jerold
Journal of the neurological sciences
Fingolimod is the first oral disease-modifying therapy approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Following phosphorylation in vivo, the active agent, fingolimod phosphate (fingolimod-P), acts as a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, binding with high affinity to four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P1, S1P3, S1P4 and S1P5). The mechanism of action of fingolimod in MS has primarily been considered as immunomodulatory, whereby fingolimod-P modulates S1P1 on lymphocytes, selectively retaining autoreactive lymphocytes in lymph nodes to reduce damaging infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). However, emerging evidence indicates that fingolimod has direct effects in the CNS in MS. For example, in the MS animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), fingolimod is highly efficacious in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting, yet becomes ineffective in animals selectively deficient for S1P1 on astrocytes, despite maintained normal immunologic receptor expression and functions, and S1P-mediated immune activities. Here we review S1P signaling effects relevant to MS in neural cell types expressing S1P receptors, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, microglia and dendritic cells. The direct effects of fingolimod on these CNS cells observed in preclinical studies are discussed in view of the functional consequences of reducing neurodegenerative processes and promoting myelin preservation and repair. The therapeutic implications of S1P modulation in the CNS are considered in terms of the clinical outcomes of MS, such as reducing MS-related brain atrophy, and other CNS disorders. Additionally, we briefly outline other existing and investigational MS therapies that may also have effects in the CNS.
Safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (FREEDOMS II): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.
Calabresi Peter A,Radue Ernst-Wilhelm,Goodin Douglas,Jeffery Douglas,Rammohan Kottil W,Reder Anthony T,Vollmer Timothy,Agius Mark A,Kappos Ludwig,Stites Tracy,Li Bingbing,Cappiello Linda,von Rosenstiel Philipp,Lublin Fred D
The Lancet. Neurology
BACKGROUND:Fingolimod has shown reductions in clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of fingolimod in such patients. METHODS:We did this placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 study predominantly in the USA (101 of 117 centres). Using a computer-generated sequence, we randomly allocated eligible patients-those aged 18-55 years with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis-to receive fingolimod 0·5 mg, fingolimod 1·25 mg, or placebo orally once daily (1:1:1; stratified by study centre). On Nov 12, 2009, all patients assigned to fingolimod 1·25 mg were switched to the 0·5 mg dose in a blinded manner after a review of data from other phase 3 trials and recommendation from the data and safety monitoring board, but were analysed as being in the 1·25 mg group in the primary outcome analysis. Our primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate at month 24, analysed by intention to treat. Secondary endpoints included percentage brain volume change (PBVC) from baseline and time-to-disability-progression confirmed at 3 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrilals.gov, number NCT00355134. FINDINGS:Between June 30, 2006, and March 4, 2009, we enrolled and randomly allocated 1083 patients: 370 to fingolimod 1·25 mg, 358 to fingolimod 0·5 mg, and 355 to placebo. Mean annualised relapse rate was 0·40 (95% CI 0·34-0·48) in patients given placebo and 0·21 (0·17-0·25) in patients given fingolimod 0·5 mg: rate ratio 0·52 (95% CI 0·40-0·66; p<0·0001), corresponding to a reduction of 48% with fingolimod 0·5 mg versus placebo. Mean PBVC was -0·86 (SD 1·22) for fingolimod 0·5 mg versus -1·28 (1·50) for placebo (treatment difference -0·41, 95% CI -0·62 to -0·20; p=0·0002). We recorded no statistically significant between-group difference in confirmed disability progression (hazard rate 0·83 with fingolimod 0·5 mg vs placebo; 95% CI 0·61-1·12; p=0·227). Fingolimod 0·5 mg caused more of the following adverse events versus placebo: lymphopenia (27 [8%] patients vs 0 patients), increased alanine aminotransferase (29 [8%] vs six [2%]), herpes zoster infection (nine [3%] vs three [1%]), hypertension (32 [9%] vs 11 [3%]), first-dose bradycardia (five [1%] vs one [<0·5%]), and first-degree atrioventricular block (17 [5%] vs seven [2%]). 53 (15%) of 358 patients given fingolimod 0·5 mg and 45 (13%) of 355 patients given placebo had serious adverse events over 24 months, which included basal-cell carcinoma (ten [3%] patients vs two [1%] patients), macular oedema (three [1%] vs two [1%]), infections (11 [3%] vs four [1%]), and neoplasms (13 [4%] vs eight [2%]). INTERPRETATION:Our findings expand knowledge of the safety profile of fingolimod and strengthen evidence for its beneficial effects on relapse rates in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We saw no effect of fingolimod on disability progression. Our findings substantiate the beneficial profile of fingolimod as a disease-modifying agent in the management of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. FUNDING:Novartis Pharma AG.
A placebo-controlled trial of oral fingolimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis.
Kappos Ludwig,Radue Ernst-Wilhelm,O'Connor Paul,Polman Chris,Hohlfeld Reinhard,Calabresi Peter,Selmaj Krzysztof,Agoropoulou Catherine,Leyk Malgorzata,Zhang-Auberson Lixin,Burtin Pascale,
The New England journal of medicine
BACKGROUND:Oral fingolimod, a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator that prevents the egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes, significantly improved relapse rates and end points measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as compared with either placebo or intramuscular interferon beta-1a, in phase 2 and 3 studies of multiple sclerosis. METHODS:In our 24-month, double-blind, randomized study, we enrolled patients who had relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, were 18 to 55 years of age, had a score of 0 to 5.5 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (which ranges from 0 to 10, with higher scores indicating greater disability), and had had one or more relapses in the previous year or two or more in the previous 2 years. Patients received oral fingolimod at a dose of 0.5 mg or 1.25 mg daily or placebo. End points included the annualized relapse rate (the primary end point) and the time to disability progression (a secondary end point). RESULTS:A total of 1033 of the 1272 patients (81.2%) completed the study. The annualized relapse rate was 0.18 with 0.5 mg of fingolimod, 0.16 with 1.25 mg of fingolimod, and 0.40 with placebo (P<0.001 for either dose vs. placebo). Fingolimod at doses of 0.5 mg and 1.25 mg significantly reduced the risk of disability progression over the 24-month period (hazard ratio, 0.70 and 0.68, respectively; P=0.02 vs. placebo, for both comparisons). The cumulative probability of disability progression (confirmed after 3 months) was 17.7% with 0.5 mg of fingolimod, 16.6% with 1.25 mg of fingolimod, and 24.1% with placebo. Both fingolimod doses were superior to placebo with regard to MRI-related measures (number of new or enlarged lesions on T(2)-weighted images, gadolinium-enhancing lesions, and brain-volume loss; P<0.001 for all comparisons at 24 months). Causes of study discontinuation and adverse events related to fingolimod included bradycardia and atrioventricular conduction block at the time of fingolimod initiation, macular edema, elevated liver-enzyme levels, and mild hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:As compared with placebo, both doses of oral fingolimod improved the relapse rate, the risk of disability progression, and end points on MRI. These benefits will need to be weighed against possible long-term risks. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00289978.)
Exit Strategies: S1P Signaling and T Cell Migration.
Baeyens Audrey,Fang Victoria,Chen Cynthia,Schwab Susan R
Trends in immunology
Whereas the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) in T cell egress and the regulation of S1P gradients between lymphoid organs and circulatory fluids in homeostasis are increasingly well understood, much remains to be learned about S1P signaling and distribution during an immune response. Recent data suggest that the role of S1PR1 in directing cells from tissues into circulatory fluids is reprised again and again, particularly in guiding activated T cells from non-lymphoid tissues into lymphatics. Conversely, S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2), which antagonizes migration towards chemokines, confines cells within tissues. Here we review the current understanding of the roles of S1P signaling in activated T cell migration. In this context, we outline open questions, particularly regarding the shape of S1P gradients in different tissues in homeostasis and inflammation, and discuss recent strategies to measure S1P.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate and its receptors: structure, signaling, and influence.
Rosen Hugh,Stevens Raymond C,Hanson Michael,Roberts Edward,Oldstone Michael B A
Annual review of biochemistry
The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor signaling system has biological and medical importance and is the first lipid G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structure to be solved to 2.8-Å resolution. S1P binds to five high-affinity GPCRs generating multiple downstream signals that play essential roles in vascular development and endothelial integrity, control of cardiac rhythm, and routine oral treatment of multiple sclerosis. Genetics, chemistry, and now structural biology have advanced this integrated biochemical system. The S1P receptors have a novel N-terminal fold that occludes access to the binding pocket from the extracellular environment as well as orthosteric and bitopic ligands with very different physicochemical properties. S1P receptors and metabolizing enzymes have been deleted, inducibly deleted, and knocked in as tagged or altered receptors in mice. An array of genetic models allows analysis of integrated receptor function in vivo. We can now directly understand causal relationships among protein expression, signal, and control points in physiology and pathology.
Mechanism of action of oral fingolimod (FTY720) in multiple sclerosis.
Chun Jerold,Hartung Hans-Peter
Fingolimod (FTY720) is a first-in-class orally bioavailable compound that has shown efficacy in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). In vivo, fingolimod is phosphorylated to form fingolimod-phosphate, which resembles naturally occurring sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), an extracellular lipid mediator whose major effects are mediated by cognate G protein-coupled receptors. There are at least 5 S1P receptor subtypes, known as S1P subtypes 1-5 (S1P1-5), 4 of which bind fingolimod-phosphate. These receptors are expressed on a wide range of cells that are involved in many biological processes relevant to MS. S1P1 plays a key role in the immune system, regulating lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues into the circulation. Fingolimod-phosphate initially activates lymphocyte S1P1 via high-affinity receptor binding yet subsequently induces S1P1 down-regulation that prevents lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thereby reducing autoaggressive lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS). S1P receptors are also expressed by many CNS cell types and have been shown to influence cell proliferation, morphology, and migration. Fingolimod crosses the blood-brain barrier and may therefore have direct CNS effects, distinguishing it from immunologically targeted MS therapies. Prophylactic administration of fingolimod to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), a model of MS, completely prevents development of EAE features, whereas therapeutic administration significantly reduces clinical severity of EAE. Therapeutic efficacy observed in animal studies has been substantiated in phase 2 and 3 trials involving patients with relapsing or relapsing-remitting MS.
Mechanisms of fingolimod's efficacy and adverse effects in multiple sclerosis.
Cohen Jeffrey A,Chun Jerold
Annals of neurology
Until recently, all approved multiple sclerosis (MS) disease treatments were administered parenterally. Oral fingolimod was approved in September 2010 by the US Food and Drug Administration to reduce relapses and disability progression in relapsing forms of MS. In the clinical trials that led to approval, fingolimod reduced not only acute relapses and magnetic resonance imaging lesion activity but also disability progression and brain volume loss, suggesting preservation of tissue. Fingolimod's mechanism of action in MS is not known with certainty. Its active form, fingolimod-phosphate (fingolimod-P), is a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator that inhibits egress of lymphocytes from lymph nodes and their recirculation, potentially reducing trafficking of pathogenic cells into the central nervous system (CNS). Fingolimod also readily penetrates the CNS, and fingolimod-P formed in situ may have direct effects on neural cells. Fingolimod potently inhibits the MS animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but is ineffective in mice with selective deficiency of the S1P₁ S1PR subtype on astrocytes despite normal expression in the immune compartment. These findings suggest that S1PR modulation by fingolimod in both the immune system and CNS, producing a combination of beneficial anti-inflammatory and possibly neuroprotective/reparative effects, may contribute to its efficacy in MS. In clinical trials, fingolimod was generally safe and well tolerated. Its interaction with S1PRs in a variety of tissues largely accounts for the reported adverse effects, which were seen more frequently with doses 2.5 to 10x the approved 0.5 mg dose. Fingolimod's unique mechanism of action distinguishes it from all other currently approved MS therapies.
Roles of programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 in secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: selective modulation of microglia polarization to anti-inflammatory phenotype.
Wu Jie,Sun Liang,Li Haiying,Shen Haitao,Zhai Weiwei,Yu Zhengquan,Chen Gang
Journal of neuroinflammation
BACKGROUND:Microglia and its polarization play critical roles in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury. Programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 has been reported to regulate neuroimmune cell functions. Signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 participate in microglia polarization, and programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 could regulate the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1. We herein show the critical role of programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 in the polarization of microglia during intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury in rat models. METHODS:An autologous blood intracerebral hemorrhage model was established in Sprague Dawley rats (weighing 250-300 g), and primary cultured microglia was exposed to oxyhemoglobin to mimic intracerebral hemorrhage in vitro. Specific siRNAs and pDNA for programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 were exploited both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS:In the brain tissue around hematoma, the protein levels of programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 and the interaction between them, as well as the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, were higher than that of the sham group and collectively peaked at 24 h after intracerebral hemorrhage. Overexpression of programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 ameliorated intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury, including brain cell death, neuronal degeneration, and inflammation, while their knockdown induced an opposite effect. In addition, overexpression of programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 selectively promoted microglia polarization to anti-inflammation phenotype after intracerebral hemorrhage and inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, suggesting that intracerebral hemorrhage-induced increases in programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 maybe a self-help. CONCLUSIONS:Enhancing the expressions of programmed death protein 1 and programmed death-ligand 1 may induce a selective modulation of microglia polarization to anti-inflammation phenotype for intracerebral hemorrhage treatment.
Programmed death (PD)-1 attenuates macrophage activation and brain inflammation via regulation of fibrinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl-2) after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.
Yuan Bangqing,Huang Shaokuan,Gong Shuangfeng,Wang Feihong,Lin Li,Su Tonggang,Sheng Hanchao,Shi Hui,Ma Kunlong,Yang Zhao
Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the recovery of brain injury in ICH. Macrophage is the major executor in the neuroinflammation and initiates neurological defects. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) delivers inhibitory signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. PD-1 expression by macrophages plays a pathologic role in the innate inflammatory response. However, the exact role of PD-1 on inflammatory responses following ICH has not been well identified. In this experiment, PD-1 KO (PD-1 -/-) ICH mice and Wild-type (WT) ICH mice were caused by intracranial injection of type IV collagenase. The level of macrophage activation, inflammatory cytokines and fibrinogen-like protein 2 (Fgl-2) were detected using immunofluorescence staining and ELISA assays. In addition, brain edema and neurological scores of ICH mice were also measured. Our data demonstrated that ICH promoted PD-1 expression of macrophage and enhanced inflammatory cytokines and Fgl-2 concentrations. PD-1 -/- mice exhibited significantly higher expression of the inflammatory cytokines which initiate Fgl-2, than did their wild-type (WT) littermates. As a result, macrophage activation, cerebral edema and neurological deficit scores of PD-1 -/- mice were higher. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that PD-1 plays a vital role in brain inflammation via regulation of Fgl-2 after ICH, and that manipulation of PD-1 might be a promising therapeutical target in ICH.
Regulation of Neuroinflammation through Programed Death-1/Programed Death Ligand Signaling in Neurological Disorders.
Zhao Shangfeng,Li Fengwu,Leak Rehana K,Chen Jun,Hu Xiaoming
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
Immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS), which involve both resident glial cells and infiltrating peripheral immune cells, play critical roles in the progress of brain injuries and neurodegeneration. To avoid inflammatory damage to the compromised brain, the immune cell activities in the CNS are controlled by a plethora of chemical mediators and signal transduction cascades, such as inhibitory signaling through programed death-1 (PD-1) and programed death ligand (PD-L) interactions. An increasing number of recent studies have highlighted the importance of PD-1/PD-L pathway in immune regulation in CNS disorders such as ischemic stroke, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we review the current knowledge of the impact of PD-1/PD-L signaling on brain injury and neurodegeneration. An improved understanding of the function of PD-1/PD-L in the cross-talk between peripheral immune cells, CNS glial cells, and non-immune CNS cells is expected to shed further light on immunomodulation and help develop effective and safe immunotherapies for CNS disorders.
PD-L1 enhances CNS inflammation and infarct volume following experimental stroke in mice in opposition to PD-1.
Bodhankar Sheetal,Chen Yingxin,Vandenbark Arthur A,Murphy Stephanie J,Offner Halina
Journal of neuroinflammation
BACKGROUND:Stroke severity is worsened by recruitment of inflammatory immune cells into the brain. This process depends in part on T cell activation, in which the B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules plays a pivotal role. Previous studies demonstrated more severe infarcts in mice lacking programmed death-1 (PD-1), a member of the B7 family, thus implicating PD-1 as a key factor in limiting stroke severity. The purpose of this study was to determine if this protective effect of PD-1 involves either of its ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2. METHODS:Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and infarct volume were evaluated in male PD-L1 and PD-L2 knockout (-/-) mice undergoing 60 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 96 hours of reperfusion and compared to wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS:PD-L1-/- and PD-L2-/- mice had smaller total infarct volumes compared to WT mice. The PD-L1-/- and to a lesser extent PD-L2-/- mice had reduced levels of proinflammatory activated microglia and/or infiltrating monocytes and CD4+ T cells in the ischemic hemispheres. There was a reduction in ischemia-related splenic atrophy accompanied by lower activation status of splenic T cells and monocytes in the absence of PD-L1, suggesting a pathogenic rather than a regulatory role for both PD-1 ligands (PD-Ls). Suppressor T cells (IL-10-producing CD8+CD122+ T cells) trafficked to the brain in PD-L1-/- mice and there was decreased expression of CD80 on splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as compared to the WT and PD-L2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS:Our novel observations are the first to implicate PD-L1 involvement in worsening outcome of experimental stroke. The presence of suppressor T cells in the right MCAO-inflicted hemisphere in mice lacking PD-L1 implicates these cells as possible key contributors for controlling adverse effects of ischemia. Increased expression of CD80 on APCs in WT and PD-L2-/- mice suggests an overriding interaction leading to T cell activation. Conversely, low CD80 expression by APCs, along with increased PD-1 and PD-L2 expression in PD-L1-/- mice suggests alternative T cell signaling pathways, leading to a suppressor phenotype. These results suggest that agents (for example antibodies) that can target and neutralize PD-L1/2 may have therapeutic potential for treatment of human stroke.
Role of PD-1 in regulating T-cell immunity.
Jin Hyun-Tak,Ahmed Rafi,Okazaki Taku
Current topics in microbiology and immunology
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is a member of the CD28 superfamily that delivers negative signals upon interaction with its two ligands, PD-L1 or PD-L2. PD-1 and its ligands are broadly expressed and exert a wider range of immunoregulatory roles in T cells activation and tolerance compared with other CD28 members. Subsequent studies show that PD-1-PD-L interaction regulates the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance and protect tissues from autoimmune attack. PD-1 and its ligands are also involved in attenuating infectious immunity and tumor immunity, and facilitating chronic infection and tumor progression. The biological significance of PD-1 and its ligand suggests the therapeutic potential of manipulation of PD-1 pathway against various human diseases. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of PD-1 and its ligands ranging from discovery to clinical significance.
The PD-1/PD-Ls pathway and autoimmune diseases.
Dai Suya,Jia Ru,Zhang Xiao,Fang Qiwen,Huang Lijuan
The programmed death (PD)-1/PD-1 ligands (PD-Ls) pathway, is a new member of the B7/CD28 family, and consists of the PD-1 receptor and its ligands PD-L1 (B7-H1, CD274) and PD-L2 (B7-DC, CD273). Recently, it is reported that PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 also have soluble forms aside from their membrane bound forms. The soluble forms increase the diversity and complexity of PD-1/PD-Ls pathway in both composition and function. The PD-1/PD-Ls pathway is broadly expressed and exerts a wider range of immunoregulatory roles in T-cell activation and tolerance compared with other B7/CD28 family members. Studies show that the PD-1/PD-Ls pathway regulates the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance and protects tissues from autoimmune attack in physiological conditions. In addition, it is also involved in various diseases mediated by T cells, such as autoimmunity, tumor immunity, chronic viral infections, and transplantation immunity. In this review, we will summarize the relevance of the soluble forms and the latest researches on the role of PD-1/PD-Ls pathway in autoimmune diseases.
The programmed death-1 immune-suppressive pathway: barrier to antitumor immunity.
Ostrand-Rosenberg Suzanne,Horn Lucas A,Haile Samuel T
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, also known as B7 homolog 1 or CD274) is a major obstacle to antitumor immunity because it tolerizes/anergizes tumor-reactive T cells by binding to its receptor programmed death-1 (CD279), renders tumor cells resistant to CD8(+) T cell- and FasL-mediated lysis, and tolerizes T cells by reverse signaling through T cell-expressed CD80. PD-L1 is abundant in the tumor microenvironment, where it is expressed by many malignant cells, as well as by immune cells and vascular endothelial cells. The critical role of PD-L1 in obstructing antitumor immunity has been demonstrated in multiple animal models and in recent clinical trials. This article reviews the mechanisms by which PD-L1 impairs antitumor immunity and discusses established and experimental strategies for maintaining T cell activation in the presence of PD-L1-expressing cells in the tumor microenvironment.
A rheostat for immune responses: the unique properties of PD-1 and their advantages for clinical application.
Okazaki Taku,Chikuma Shunsuke,Iwai Yoshiko,Fagarasan Sidonia,Honjo Tasuku
PD-1, a negative coreceptor expressed on antigen-stimulated T cells and B cells, seems to serve as a 'rheostat' of the immune response. The molecular mechanisms of the functions of PD-1, in conjunction with the mild, chronic and strain-specific autoimmune phenotypes of PD-1-deficient mice, in contrast to the devastating fatal autoimmune disease of mice deficient in the immunomodulatory receptor CTLA-4, suggest that immunoregulation by PD-1 is rather antigen specific and is mainly cell intrinsic. Such unique properties make PD-1 a powerful target for immunological therapy, with highly effective clinical applications for cancer treatment.
B7-H1 (programmed death-1 ligand) on dendritic cells is involved in the induction and maintenance of T cell anergy.
Selenko-Gebauer Nicole,Majdic Otto,Szekeres Andreas,Höfler Gerald,Guthann Elisabeth,Korthäuer Ulf,Zlabinger Gerhard,Steinberger Peter,Pickl Winfried F,Stockinger Hannes,Knapp Walter,Stöckl Johannes
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
In an effort to identify immunoregulatory molecules on dendritic cells (DC), we generated and screened for mAbs capable of modulating the T cell stimulatory function of DC. A particularly interesting mAb was mAb DF272. It recognizes monocyte-derived DC, but not blood monocytes or lymphocytes, and has profound immunomodulatory effects on DC. Treatment of DC with intact IgG or Fab of mAb DF272 enhanced their T cell stimulatory capacity. This effect on DC was accompanied by neither an up-regulation of costimulatory molecules such as B7.1 (CD80), B7.2 (CD86), and MHC class II molecules nor by an induction of cytokine production, including IL-1, TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-12. Moreover, the well-established inhibitory function of IL-10-treated DC could be reverted with mAb DF272. Even T cells, anergized because of stimulation with IL-10-treated DC, could be reactivated and induced to proliferate upon stimulation with mAb DF272-treated DC. Furthermore, mAb DF272-treated DC favored the induction of a type-1 cytokine response in T cells and inhibited IL-10 production. By using a retrovirus-based cDNA expression library generated from DC, we cloned and sequenced the mAb DF272-defined cell surface receptor and could demonstrate that it is identical with B7-H1 (programmed death-1 ligand), a recently identified new member of the B7 family of costimulatory molecules. Our results thus demonstrate that the mAb DF272-defined surface molecule B7-H1 represents a unique receptor structure on DC that might play a role in the induction and maintenance of T cell anergy.
Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induce an immunoinhibitory molecule, B7-H1, via nuclear factor-kappaB activation in blasts in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Kondo Asaka,Yamashita Taishi,Tamura Hideto,Zhao Wanhong,Tsuji Takashi,Shimizu Masumi,Shinya Eiji,Takahashi Hidemi,Tamada Koji,Chen Lieping,Dan Kazuo,Ogata Kiyoyuki
During disease progression in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), clonal blasts gain a more aggressive nature, whereas nonclonal immune cells become less efficient via an unknown mechanism. Using MDS cell lines and patient samples, we showed that the expression of an immunoinhibitory molecule, B7-H1 (CD274), was induced by interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) on MDS blasts. This induction was associated with the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and nearly completely blocked by an NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). B7-H1(+) MDS blasts had greater intrinsic proliferative capacity than B7-H1(-) MDS blasts when examined in various assays. Furthermore, B7-H1(+) blasts suppressed T-cell proliferation and induced T-cell apoptosis in allogeneic cocultures. When fresh bone marrow samples from patients were examined, blasts from high-risk MDS patients expressed B7-H1 molecules more often compared with those from low-risk MDS patients. Moreover, MDS T cells often overexpressed programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) molecules that transmit an inhibitory signal from B7-H1 molecules. Taken together, these findings provide new insight into MDS pathophysiology. IFNgamma and TNFalpha activate NF-kappaB that in turn induces B7-H1 expression on MDS blasts. B7-H1(+) MDS blasts have an intrinsic proliferative advantage and induce T-cell suppression, which may be associated with disease progression in MDS.
Programmed death-1 pathway limits central nervous system inflammation and neurologic deficits in murine experimental stroke.
Ren Xuefang,Akiyoshi Kozaburo,Vandenbark Arthur A,Hurn Patricia D,Offner Halina
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Evaluation of infarct volumes and infiltrating immune cell populations in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion strongly implicates a mixture of both pathogenic and regulatory immune cell subsets that affect stroke outcome. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of the well-described coinhibitory pathway, programmed death (PD)-1, to the development of middle cerebral artery occlusion. METHODS:Infarct volumes, functional outcomes, and effects on infiltrating immune cell populations were compared in wild-type C57BL/6 versus PD-1-deficient mice after 60 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion and 96 hours reperfusion. RESULTS:The results clearly demonstrate a previously unrecognized activity of the PD-1 pathway to limit infarct volume, recruitment of inflammatory cells from the periphery, activation of macrophages and central nervous system microglia, and functional neurological deficits. These regulatory functions were associated with increased percentages of circulating PD-ligand-1 and PD-ligand-2 expressing CD19(+) B-cells in blood, the spleen, and central nervous system with the capacity to inhibit activation of inflammatory T-cells and central nervous system macrophages and microglial cells through upregulated PD-1. CONCLUSIONS:Our novel observations are the first to implicate PD-1 signaling as a major protective pathway for limiting central nervous system inflammation in middle cerebral artery occlusion. This inhibitory circuit would likely be pivotal in reducing stroke-associated Toll-like receptor-2- and Toll like receptor-4-mediated release of neurotoxic factors by activated central nervous system microglia.
Regulatory T cells inhibit microglia activation and protect against inflammatory injury in intracerebral hemorrhage.
Yang Zhao,Yu Anyong,Liu Yongping,Shen Hanchao,Lin Chuangan,Lin Li,Wang Shousen,Yuan Bangqing
Numerous evidence demonstrate that microglia mediated inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore, the way to inhibit the inflammatory response is greatly needed. Treg cells have been shown to play a critical role in immunologic self-tolerance as well as anti-tumor immune responses and transplantation. In the current study, we transfered Treg cells in the ICH model, and investigated the effect. The cytokines of microglia were measured by ELISA, JNK/ERK and NF-κB were measured by Western blot and EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay), animal behavior was evaluated by animal behavioristics. We found that Treg cells could inhibit microglia mediated inflammatory response through NF-κB activation via the JNK/ERK pathway in vitro, and improve neurological function in vivo. Our findings suggest that Treg cells could suppress inflammatory injury and represent a novel cell-based therapeutical strategy in ICH.
Obstacles and opportunities for understanding macrophage polarization.
Murray Peter J,Wynn Thomas A
Journal of leukocyte biology
Macrophages are now routinely categorized into phenotypic subtypes based on gene expression induced in response to cytokine and pathogen-derived stimulation. In the broadest division, macrophages are described as being CAMs (M1 macrophages) or AAMs (M2 macrophages) based on their exposure to TLR and IFN signals or Th2 cytokines, respectively. Despite the prolific use of this simple classification scheme, little is known about the precise functions of effector molecules produced by AAMs, especially how representative the CAM and AAM subtypes are of tissue macrophages in homeostasis, infection, or tissue repair and how plasticity in gene expression regulates macrophage function in vivo. Furthermore, correlations between mouse and human tissue macrophages and their representative subtypes are lacking and are a major barrier to understanding human immunity. Here, we briefly summarize current features of macrophage polarization and discuss the roles of various macrophage subpopulations and macrophage-associated genes in health and disease.
Adoptive Regulatory T-cell Therapy Attenuates Perihematomal Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Mao Lei-Lei,Yuan Hui,Wang Wen-Wen,Wang Yu-Jing,Yang Ming-Feng,Sun Bao-Liang,Zhang Zong-Yong,Yang Xiao-Yi
Cellular and molecular neurobiology
The CD4CD25 regulatory T cells (Tregs), an innate immunomodulator, suppress cerebral inflammation and maintain immune homeostasis in multiple central nervous system injury, but its role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has not been fully characterized. This study investigated the effect of Tregs on brain injury using the mouse ICH model, which is established by autologous blood infusion. The results showed that tail intravenous injection of Tregs significantly reduced brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation of perihematoma at day (1, 3 and 7), and improved short- and long-term neurological deficits following ICH in mouse model. Tregs treatment reduced the content of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and malondialdehyde, while increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymatic activity at day (1, 3 and 7) following ICH. Furthermore, Tregs treatment obviously reduced the number of NF-κB, IL-6, TUNEL and active caspase-3 cells at day 3 after ICH. These results indicate that adoptive transfer of Tregs may provide neuroprotection following ICH in mouse models.
Transplanted neural stem cells modulate regulatory T, γδ T cells and corresponding cytokines after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.
Gao Lu,Lu Qin,Huang Li-Jie,Ruan Lin-Hui,Yang Jian-Jing,Huang Wei-Long,ZhuGe Wei-Shan,Zhang Yong-Liang,Fu Biao,Jin Kun-Lin,ZhuGe Qi-Chuan
International journal of molecular sciences
The immune system, particularly T lymphocytes and cytokines, has been implicated in the progression of brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although studies have shown that transplanted neural stem cells (NSCs) protect the central nervous system (CNS) from inflammatory damage, their effects on subpopulations of T lymphocytes and their corresponding cytokines are largely unexplored. Here, rats were subjected to ICH and NSCs were intracerebrally injected at 3 h after ICH. The profiles of subpopulations of T cells in the brain and peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. We found that regulatory T (Treg) cells in the brain and peripheral blood were increased, but γδT cells (gamma delta T cells) were decreased, along with increased anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β) and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, and IFN-γ), compared to the vehicle-treated control. Our data suggest that transplanted NSCs protect brain injury after ICH via modulation of Treg and γδT cell infiltration and anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokine release.
The plasticity of human Treg and Th17 cells and its role in autoimmunity.
Kleinewietfeld Markus,Hafler David A
Seminars in immunology
CD4(+) T helper cells are a central element of the adaptive immune system. They protect the organism against a wide range of pathogens and are able to initiate and control many immune reactions in combination with other cells of the adaptive and the innate immune system. Starting from a naive cell, CD4(+) T cells can differentiate into various effector cell populations with specialized function. This subset specific differentiation depends on numerous signals and the strength of stimulation. However, recent data have shown that differentiated CD4(+) T cell subpopulations display a high grade of plasticity and that their initial differentiation is not an endpoint of T cell development. In particular, FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 effector T cells demonstrate a high grade of plasticity, which allow a functional adaptation to various physiological situations during an immune response. However, the plasticity of Treg and Th17 cells might also be a critical factor for autoimmune disease. Here we discuss the recent developments in CD4(+) T cell plasticity with a focus on Treg and Th17 cells and its role in human autoimmune disease, in particular multiple sclerosis (MS).
Human TH17 lymphocytes promote blood-brain barrier disruption and central nervous system inflammation.
Kebir Hania,Kreymborg Katharina,Ifergan Igal,Dodelet-Devillers Aurore,Cayrol Romain,Bernard Monique,Giuliani Fabrizio,Arbour Nathalie,Becher Burkhard,Prat Alexandre
T(H)17 lymphocytes appear to be essential in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. We demonstrate here the expression of IL-17 and IL-22 receptors on blood-brain barrier endothelial cells (BBB-ECs) in multiple sclerosis lesions, and show that IL-17 and IL-22 disrupt BBB tight junctions in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, T(H)17 lymphocytes transmigrate efficiently across BBB-ECs, highly express granzyme B, kill human neurons and promote central nervous system inflammation through CD4+ lymphocyte recruitment.
Stat6 is necessary and sufficient for IL-4's role in Th2 differentiation and cell expansion.
Zhu J,Guo L,Watson C J,Hu-Li J,Paul W E
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
IL-4 plays a critical role in the differentiation of TCR-stimulated naive CD4 T cells to the Th2 phenotype. In response to IL-4, the IL-4R activates a set of phosphotyrosine binding domain-containing proteins, including insulin receptor substrate 1/2, Shc, and IL-4R interacting protein, as well as Stat6. Stat6 has been shown to be required for Th2 differentiation. To determine the roles of the phosphotyrosine binding adaptors in Th2 differentiation, we prepared a retrovirus containing a mutant of the human (h)IL-4R alpha-chain, Y497F, which is unable to recruit these adaptors. The mutant hIL-4Ralpha, as well as the wild-type (WT) hIL-4Ralpha, was introduced into naive CD4 T cells. Upon hIL-4 stimulation, Y497F worked as well as the WT hIL-4Ralpha in driving Th2 differentiation, as measured by Gata3 up-regulation and IL-4 production. Furthermore, IL-4-driven cell expansion was also normal in the cells infected with Y497F, although cells infected with Y497F were not capable of phosphorylating insulin receptor substrate 2. These results suggest that the signal pathway mediated by Y497 is dispensable for both IL-4-driven Th2 differentiation and cell expansion. Both WT and Y497F hIL-4Ralpha lose the ability to drive Th2 differentiation and cell expansion in Stat6-knockout CD4 T cells. A constitutively activated form of Stat6 introduced into CD4 T cells resulted in both Th2 differentiation and enhanced cell expansion. Thus, activated Stat6 is necessary and sufficient to mediate both IL-4-driven Th2 differentiation and cell expansion in CD4 T cells.
T-bet represses T(H)17 differentiation by preventing Runx1-mediated activation of the gene encoding RORγt.
Lazarevic Vanja,Chen Xi,Shim Jae-Hyuck,Hwang Eun-Sook,Jang Eunjung,Bolm Alexandra N,Oukka Mohamed,Kuchroo Vijay K,Glimcher Laurie H
Overactive responses by interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are tightly linked to the development of autoimmunity, yet the factors that negatively regulate the differentiation of this lineage remain unknown. Here we report that the transcription factor T-bet suppressed development of the T(H)17 cell lineage by inhibiting transcription of Rorc (which encodes the transcription factor RORγt). T-bet interacted with the transcription factor Runx1, and this interaction blocked Runx1-mediated transactivation of Rorc. T-bet Tyr304 was required for formation of the T-bet-Runx1 complex, for blockade of Runx1 activity and for inhibition of the T(H)17 differentiation program. Our data reinforce the idea of master regulators that shape immune responses by simultaneously activating one genetic program while silencing the activity of competing regulators in a common progenitor cell.
T helper cell fate specified by kinase-mediated interaction of T-bet with GATA-3.
Hwang Eun Sook,Szabo Susanne J,Schwartzberg Pamela L,Glimcher Laurie H
Science (New York, N.Y.)
Cell lineage specification depends on both gene activation and gene silencing, and in the differentiation of T helper progenitors to Th1 or Th2 effector cells, this requires the action of two opposing transcription factors, T-bet and GATA-3. T-bet is essential for the development of Th1 cells, and GATA-3 performs an equivalent role in Th2 development. We report that T-bet represses Th2 lineage commitment through tyrosine kinase-mediated interaction between the two transcription factors that interferes with the binding of GATA-3 to its target DNA. These results provide a novel function for tyrosine phosphorylation of a transcription factor in specifying alternate fates of a common progenitor cell.
CD4⁺T cells: differentiation and functions.
Luckheeram Rishi Vishal,Zhou Rui,Verma Asha Devi,Xia Bing
Clinical & developmental immunology
CD4⁺T cells are crucial in achieving a regulated effective immune response to pathogens. Naive CD4⁺T cells are activated after interaction with antigen-MHC complex and differentiate into specific subtypes depending mainly on the cytokine milieu of the microenvironment. Besides the classical T-helper 1 and T-helper 2, other subsets have been identified, including T-helper 17, regulatory T cell, follicular helper T cell, and T-helper 9, each with a characteristic cytokine profile. For a particular phenotype to be differentiated, a set of cytokine signaling pathways coupled with activation of lineage-specific transcription factors and epigenetic modifications at appropriate genes are required. The effector functions of these cells are mediated by the cytokines secreted by the differentiated cells. This paper will focus on the cytokine-signaling and the network of transcription factors responsible for the differentiation of naive CD4⁺T cells.
Modulating the Immune Response Towards a Neuroregenerative Peri-injury Milieu After Cerebral Hemorrhage.
Klebe Damon,McBride Devin,Flores Jerry J,Zhang John H,Tang Jiping
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Cerebral hemorrhages account for 15-20 % of stroke sub-types and have very poor prognoses. The mortality rate for cerebral hemorrhage patients is between 40 and 50 %, of which at least half of the deaths occur within the first 2 days, and 75 % of survivors are incapable of living independently after 1 year. Current emergency interventions involve lowering blood pressure and reducing intracranial pressure by controlled ventilations or, in the worst case scenarios, surgical intervention. Some hemostatic and coagulatherapeutic interventions are being investigated, although a few that were promising in experimental studies have failed in clinical trials. No significant immunomodulatory intervention, however, exists for clinical management of cerebral hemorrhage. The inflammatory response following cerebral hemorrhage is particularly harmful in the acute stage because blood-brain barrier disruption is amplified and surrounding tissue is destroyed by secreted proteases and reactive oxygen species from infiltrated leukocytes. In this review, we discuss both the destructive and regenerative roles the immune response play following cerebral hemorrhage and focus on microglia, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes as the primary agents directing the response. Microglia, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes each have sub-types that significantly influence the over-arching immune response towards either a pro-inflammatory, destructive, or an anti-inflammatory, regenerative, state. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies of cerebral hemorrhages that selectively target these immune cells are reviewed and we suggest immunomodulatory therapies that reduce inflammation, while augmenting neural repair, will improve overall cerebral hemorrhage outcomes.
The immunology of stroke: from mechanisms to translation.
Iadecola Costantino,Anrather Josef
Immunity and inflammation are key elements of the pathobiology of stroke, a devastating illness second only to cardiac ischemia as a cause of death worldwide. The immune system participates in the brain damage produced by ischemia, and the damaged brain, in turn, exerts an immunosuppressive effect that promotes fatal infections that threaten the survival of people after stroke. Inflammatory signaling is involved in all stages of the ischemic cascade, from the early damaging events triggered by arterial occlusion to the late regenerative processes underlying post-ischemic tissue repair. Recent developments have revealed that stroke engages both innate and adaptive immunity. But adaptive immunity triggered by newly exposed brain antigens does not have an impact on the acute phase of the damage. Nevertheless, modulation of adaptive immunity exerts a remarkable protective effect on the ischemic brain and offers the prospect of new stroke therapies. As immunomodulation is not devoid of deleterious side effects, a better understanding of the reciprocal interaction between the immune system and the ischemic brain is essential to harness the full therapeutic potential of the immunology of stroke.
[Study of relationship between inflammatory response and apoptosis in perihematoma region in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage].
Guo Fu-qiang,Li Xiao-jia,Chen Long-yi,Yang Hong,Dai Hong-yuan,Wei Yong-sheng,Huang Yu-lan,Yang You-song,Sun Hong-bin,Xu Yu-chuan,Yang Zheng-lin
Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue = Chinese critical care medicine = Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between inflammatory response and cell apoptosis in the perihematoma region in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS:Surgical specimens were obtained from the area 1 cm adjacent to the hematoma. Thirty patients with ICH were divided into five groups: 6, 7, 5, 6, 6 patients in surgery<6 hours, 6-12 hours, 12-24 hours, 24-72 hours and >72 hours groups after the onset, respectively. The control group specimens were obtained from the brain tissues distant to the hematoma in the process of craniotomy in the patients of two former groups. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for the examination of pathological changes. Immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to determine apoptosis cells, Bax and Bcl-x protein and mRNA. RESULTS:The tissues from perihematoma region were almost normal in control group and <6 hours group. They were slightly damaged in 6-12 hours group, became worse in 12-24 hours group and most severe in 24-48 hours group, and they became better latter and were similar to the control group on 8th day. Infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocyte appeared gradually at 6-12 hours, and became much more prominent at 12-24 hours (all P<0.01). The reactive gliosis began to appear at 24-72 hours, and enhanced after 72 hours (all P<0.01). The expression of the apoptosis and Bax protein increased gradually after 6 hours, reaching the peak at 12-24 hours (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and decreased gradually later. The changes in the levels of Bax mRNA were similar to that of the result of immunohistochemistry. Although the expression of Bcl-x protein and mRNA seemed to be increased at 12-72 hours, there was no significant difference between groups (P>0.05). The correlation analysis showed that the infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocyte was positively correlated to the TUNEL positive cells and expression of Bax protein and mRNA (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and showed no correlation to Bcl-x protein and mRNA (all >0.05). CONCLUSION:There is a close relationship between inflammatory response and apoptosis and tissue damage in the perihematoma area in ICH.
Intracerebral hemorrhage leads to infiltration of several leukocyte populations with concomitant pathophysiological changes.
Loftspring Matthew C,McDole Jeremiah,Lu Aigang,Clark Joseph F,Johnson Aaron J
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke subtype with high rates of mortality and morbidity. The immune system, particularly complement and cytokine signaling, has been implicated in brain injury after ICH. However, the cellular immunology associated with ICH has been understudied. In this report, we use flow cytometry to quantitatively profile immune cell populations that infiltrate the brain 1 and 4 days post-ICH. At 1 day CD45(hi) GR-1(+) cells were increased 2.0-fold compared with saline controls (P<or=0.05); however, we did not observe changes in any other cell populations analyzed. At 4 days ICH mice presented with a 2.4-fold increase in CD45(hi) cells, a 1.9-fold increase in CD45(hi) GR-1(-) cells, a 3.4-fold increase in CD45(hi) GR-1(+) cells, and most notably, a 1.7-fold increase in CD4(+) cells (P<or=0.05 for all groups), compared with control mice. We did not observe changes in the numbers of CD8(+) cells or CD45(lo) GR-1(-) cells (P=0.43 and 0.49, respectively). Thus, we have shown the first use of flow cytometry to analyze leukocyte infiltration in response to ICH. Our finding of a CD4 T-cell infiltrate is novel and suggests a role for the adaptive immune system in the response to ICH.
Comparison of brain cell death and inflammatory reaction in three models of intracerebral hemorrhage in adult rats.
Xue Mengzhou,Del Bigio Marc R
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with stroke and head trauma. Different experimental models are used, but it is unclear to what extent the tissue responses are comparable. The purpose of this study was to compare the temporal responses to brain hemorrhages created by injection of autologous whole blood, collagenase digestion of blood vessels, and avulsion of cerebral blood vessels. Adult rats were subjected to ICH. Rats were perfusion fixed with paraformaldehyde 1 hour to 28 days later. Hematoxylin and eosin, Fluoro-Jade, immunohistochemical, and TUNEL staining were used to allow quantification of damaged and dying neurons, neutrophils, CD8alpha immunoreactive lymphocytes, and RCA-1 positive microglia/macrophages, adjacent to the hemorrhagic lesion. In all models, eosinophilic neurons peaked between 2 and 3 days. TUNEL positive cells were observed maximal at 2 days in blood injection model, 3 days in vessel avulsion model, between 1 and 7 days in the collagenase injection model, and were evident in small quantities in 21 to 28 days in 3 models. Neutrophils appeared briefly from 1 to 3 days in all models, but they were substantially lower in the cortical vessel avulsion model, perhaps owing to the devitalized nature of the tissue. Influx of CD8alpha immunoreactive lymphocytes were maximal at 2 to 3 days in the autologous injection model, 3 to 7 days in other 2 models, and persisted for 21 to 28 days in all models. The microglial/macrophage reaction peaked between 2 and 3 days in the blood injection model and at 3 to 7 days in other 2 models, and persisted for weeks in all groups. These results suggest that different models of ICH are associated with similar temporal patterns of cell death and inflammation. However, the relative magnitude of these changes differs.
Regulatory T cells ameliorate intracerebral hemorrhage-induced inflammatory injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization through the IL-10/GSK3β/PTEN axis.
Zhou Kai,Zhong Qi,Wang Yan-Chun,Xiong Xiao-Yi,Meng Zhao-You,Zhao Ting,Zhu Wen-Yao,Liao Mao-Fan,Wu Li-Rong,Yang Yuan-Rui,Liu Juan,Duan Chun-Mei,Li Jie,Gong Qiu-Wen,Liu Liang,Yang Mei-Hua,Xiong Ao,Wang Jian,Yang Qing-Wu
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Inflammation mediated by the peripheral infiltration of inflammatory cells plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced secondary injury. Previous studies have indicated that regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) might reduce ICH-induced inflammation, but the precise mechanisms that contribute to ICH-induced inflammatory injury remain unclear. Our results show that the number of Tregs in the brain increases after ICH. Inducing Tregs deletion using a CD25 antibody or Foxp3-mice increased neurological deficient scores (NDS), the level of inflammatory factors, hematoma volumes, and neuronal degeneration. Meanwhile, boosting Tregs using a CD28 super-agonist antibody reduced the inflammatory injury. Furthermore, Tregs depletion shifted microglia/macrophage polarization toward the M1 phenotype while boosting Tregs shifted this transition toward the M2 phenotype. In vitro, a transwell co-culture model of microglia and Tregs indicated that Tregs changed the polarization of microglia, decreased the expression of MHC-II, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased CD206 expression. IL-10 originating from Tregs mediated the microglia polarization by increasing the expression of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), which phosphorylates and inactivates Phosphatase and Tensin homologue (PTEN) in microglia, TGF-β did not participate in this conversion. Thus, Tregs ameliorated ICH-induced inflammatory injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype through the IL-10/GSK3β/PTEN axis.
Regulatory T cells are key cerebroprotective immunomodulators in acute experimental stroke.
Liesz Arthur,Suri-Payer Elisabeth,Veltkamp Claudia,Doerr Henrike,Sommer Clemens,Rivest Serge,Giese Thomas,Veltkamp Roland
Systemic and local inflammatory processes have a key, mainly detrimental role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. Currently, little is known about endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms. We examined the role of the key immunomodulators CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (T(reg) cells), after experimental brain ischemia. Depletion of T(reg) cells profoundly increased delayed brain damage and deteriorated functional outcome. Absence of T(reg) cells augmented postischemic activation of resident and invading inflammatory cells including microglia and T cells, the main sources of deleterious cerebral tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), respectively. Early antagonization of TNF-alpha and delayed neutralization of IFN-gamma prevented infarct growth in T(reg) cell-depleted mice. Intracerebral interleukin-10 (IL-10) substitution abrogated the cytokine overexpression after T(reg) cell depletion and prevented secondary infarct growth, whereas transfer of IL-10-deficient T(reg) cells in an adoptive transfer model was ineffective. In conclusion, T(reg) cells are major cerebroprotective modulators of postischemic inflammatory brain damage targeting multiple inflammatory pathways. IL-10 signaling is essential for their immunomodulatory effect.
T- and B-cell-deficient mice with experimental stroke have reduced lesion size and inflammation.
Hurn Patricia D,Subramanian Sandhya,Parker Susan M,Afentoulis Michael E,Kaler Laurie J,Vandenbark Arthur A,Offner Halina
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Stroke induction in immunologically competent mice not only produces local ischemia and brain damage, but also induces early inflammatory changes in brain and peripheral immune responses. Although immune elements clearly are activated after brain vascular occlusion, the relative contribution of T and B lymphocytes to the developing lesion has not been quantified. We evaluated effects 22 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (90 mins) on histologic injury and peripheral immune activation in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice lacking T and B cells. Cortical and total infarct volumes were strikingly reduced in male SCID mice (n=14, 33+/-4% of contralateral cortex, n=10, 52+/-3% of contralateral hemisphere) versus immunologically intact C57BL/6 mice (wild type, n=9, 57+/-5% of contralateral cortex, 57+/-4% of contralateral hemisphere) (P<0.01). Striatal infarction was not altered (77+/-7% of contralateral striatum in SCID, 84+/-7% in wild type), suggesting that the core of the evolving ischemic lesion was not impacted by lack of T and B cells. As expected, inflammatory factors from immune cells in ischemic SCID brains were essentially absent, with the exception of interleukin-1beta increase in both SCID and wild type tissue. Spleen cell numbers were low in SCID mice, but were further reduced 22 h after stroke, with substantial reduction in most inflammatory factors except for increased expression of interferon-gamma and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2. These data quantify the damaging effect of T and B lymphocytes on early, evolving ischemic brain injury, and further implicate interleukin-1beta in brain and interferon-gamma and MIP-2 in spleen as inflammatory factors produced by cells other than T and B cells.
Role of T lymphocytes and interferon-gamma in ischemic stroke.
Yilmaz Gokhan,Arumugam Thiruma V,Stokes Karen Y,Granger D Neil
BACKGROUND:Although lymphocyte recruitment and activation are associated with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, the contributions of specific lymphocyte subpopulations and lymphocyte-derived interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to stroke remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to define the contribution of specific populations of lymphocytes to the inflammatory and prothrombogenic responses elicited in the cerebral microvasculature by I/R and to investigate the role of T-cell-associated IFN-gamma in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS:Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced for 1 hour (followed by 4 or 24 hours of reperfusion) in wild-type mice and mice deficient in lymphocytes (Rag1(-/-)), CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells, or IFN-gamma. Platelet and leukocyte adhesion was assessed in cortical venules with intravital video microscopy. Neurological deficit and infarct volume were determined 24 hours after reperfusion. Rag1(-/-), CD4+ T-cell(-/-), CD8+ T-cell(-/-), and IFN-gamma(-/-) mice exhibited comparable significant reductions in I/R-induced leukocyte and platelet adhesion compared with wild-type mice exposed to I/R. Infarct volume was reduced and I/R-induced neurological deficit was improved in immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) mice. These protective responses were reversed in Rag1(-/-) mice reconstituted with either wild-type or, to a lesser extent, IFN-gamma(-/-) splenocytes. B-cell-deficient mice failed to show improvement against ischemic stroke injury. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, but not B lymphocytes, contribute to the inflammatory and thrombogenic responses, brain injury, and neurological deficit associated with experimental stroke. Although IFN-gamma plays a pivotal role in stroke-induced inflammatory responses, T lymphocytes appear to be a minor source of this cytokine.
Human cerebrospinal fluid central memory CD4+ T cells: evidence for trafficking through choroid plexus and meninges via P-selectin.
Kivisäkk Pia,Mahad Don J,Callahan Melissa K,Trebst Corinna,Tucky Barbara,Wei Tao,Wu Lijun,Baekkevold Espen S,Lassmann Hans,Staugaitis Susan M,Campbell James J,Ransohoff Richard M
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy individuals contains between 1,000 and 3,000 leukocytes per ml. Little is known about trafficking patterns of leukocytes between the systemic circulation and the noninflamed CNS. In the current study, we characterized the surface phenotype of CSF cells and defined the expression of selected adhesion molecules on vasculature in the choroid plexus, the subarachnoid space surrounding the cerebral cortex, and the cerebral parenchyma. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we found that CSF cells predominantly consisted of CD4+/CD45RA-/CD27+/CD69+-activated central memory T cells expressing high levels of CCR7 and L-selectin. CD3+ T cells were present in the choroid plexus stroma in autopsy CNS tissue sections from individuals who died without known neurological disorders. P- and E-selectin immunoreactivity was detected in large venules in the choroid plexus and subarachnoid space, but not in parenchymal microvessels. CD4+ T cells in the CSF expressed high levels of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1, and a subpopulation of circulating CD4+ T cells displayed P-selectin binding activity. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1, but not vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1, was expressed in choroid plexus and subarachnoid space vessels. Based on these findings, we propose that T cells are recruited to the CSF through interactions between P-selectin/P-selectin ligands and intercellular adhesion molecule 1/lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 in choroid plexus and subarachnoid space venules. These results support the overall hypothesis that activated memory T cells enter CSF directly from the systemic circulation and monitor the subarachnoid space, retaining the capacity to either initiate local immune reactions or return to secondary lymphoid organs.
The role of T helper cells in neuroprotection and regeneration.
Hendrix Sven,Nitsch Robert
Journal of neuroimmunology
The inflammatory wound healing response of the central nervous system (CNS) following mechanical injury is characterized by at least one or two phases of T cell infiltration. Surprisingly, whether T cells play a beneficial or detrimental role in these processes is still controversial. It has been suggested that autoimmune T cells may provide "protective autoimmunity", however, after CNS injury, injections of autoimmune T cells and vaccine strategies led to both improvement in some models and exacerbation of the damage in others. Here, we review increasing evidence that a specific T cell subpopulation, namely T helper cells type 2 (Th2 cells) are particularly beneficial in the context of CNS lesions. CNS injuries such as mechanical lesions or stroke induce a systemic immunosuppression, which is characterized by a systemic shift towards a Th2 cytokine pattern. Simplified, this systemic Th2 shift results in reduced cell-mediated immune responses, and, to a lesser extent, humoral immune responses. Furthermore, treatment with potent Th2 inducers such as glatiramer acetate or statins, as well as vaccination strategies using Th2-inducing adjuvants for immunization such as aluminum hydroxide, result in increased neuroprotection and regeneration -- without development of autoimmune CNS inflammation. Thus, it is tempting to speculate that a systemic Th2 shift is part of a necessary CNS wound healing response after injury, by furthering regeneration and preventing autoimmune disease of the CNS. Within this context, investigating the potential of a systemic Th2 shift to improve outcome after CNS injury, including the control of possible side-effects such as increased susceptibility to infection and allergic responses, is extremely promising.
Post-ischemic inflammation in the brain.
Shichita Takashi,Sakaguchi Ryota,Suzuki Mayu,Yoshimura Akihiko
Frontiers in immunology
Post-ischemic inflammation is an essential step in the progression of brain ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this review, we focus on the post-ischemic inflammation triggered by infiltrating immune cells, macrophages, and T lymphocytes. Brain ischemia is a sterile organ, but injury-induced inflammation is mostly dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. Some endogenous TLR ligands, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin family proteins, in particular, are implicated in the activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in infiltrating macrophages. Following macrophage activation, T lymphocytes infiltrate the ischemic brain and regulate the delayed phase inflammation. IL-17-producing γδT lymphocytes induced by IL-23 from macrophages promote ischemic brain injury, whereas regulatory T lymphocytes suppress the function of inflammatory mediators. A deeper understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms of infiltrating immune cells may lead to the development of novel neuroprotective therapies.
Inhibition of astrocytic activity alleviates sequela in acute stages of intracerebral hemorrhage.
Chiu Cheng-Di,Yao Nai-Wei,Guo Jeng-Hung,Shen Chiung-Chyi,Lee Hsu-Tung,Chiu You-Pen,Ji Hui-Ru,Chen Xianxiu,Chen Chun-Chung,Chang Chen
Neurological deterioration of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) mostly occurs within the first 24 hours. Together with the microglia/macrophages (MMΦ), astrocytes are important cell population responsible for many brain injuries but rarely being highlighted in acute stage of ICH. In present study, we induced rats ICH either by collagenase or autologous blood injection. Experimental groups were classified as vehicle or Ethyl-1-(4-(2,3,3-trichloroacrylamide)phenyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (Pyr3) treatment group ( = 9, each group). MRI assessments after ICH were used to evaluate the hematoma progression and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. The glia cells accumulations were examined by GFAP and Iba1 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Abundant astrocytes but few MMΦ were observed in hyperacute and acute ICH. Upon suppression of astrocyte activity, ICH rats exhibited decreased size of hematoma expansion, less BBB destruction, reduced astrocyte accumulation in perihematomal regions, postponed course of hemoresolution and gain better outcomes. These finding provide evidence that activated astrocytes are crucial cell populations in hyperacute and acute ICH, and their modulation may offer opportunities for novel therapy and patient management.
PAR1 activation induces rapid changes in glutamate uptake and astrocyte morphology.
Sweeney Amanda M,Fleming Kelsey E,McCauley John P,Rodriguez Marvin F,Martin Elliot T,Sousa Alioscka A,Leapman Richard D,Scimemi Annalisa
The G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a membrane protein expressed in astrocytes. Fine astrocytic processes are in tight contact with neurons and blood vessels and shape excitatory synaptic transmission due to their abundant expression of glutamate transporters. PAR1 is proteolytically-activated by bloodstream serine proteases also involved in the formation of blood clots. PAR1 activation has been suggested to play a key role in pathological states like thrombosis, hemostasis and inflammation. What remains unclear is whether PAR1 activation also regulates glutamate uptake in astrocytes and how this shapes excitatory synaptic transmission among neurons. Here we show that, in the mouse hippocampus, PAR1 activation induces a rapid structural re-organization of the neuropil surrounding glutamatergic synapses, which is associated with faster clearance of synaptically-released glutamate from the extracellular space. This effect can be recapitulated using realistic 3D Monte Carlo reaction-diffusion simulations, based on axial scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography reconstructions of excitatory synapses. The faster glutamate clearance induced by PAR1 activation leads to short- and long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission. Together, these findings identify PAR1 as an important regulator of glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus and a possible target molecule to limit brain damage during hemorrhagic stroke.
Anatomical localization of protease-activated receptor-1 and protease-mediated neuroglial crosstalk on peri-synaptic astrocytic endfeet.
Shavit Efrat,Michaelson Daniel M,Chapman Joab
Journal of neurochemistry
We studied the localization, activation and function of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) at the CNS synapse utilizing rat brain synaptosomes and slices. Confocal immunofluoresence and transmission electron microscopy in brain slices with pre-embedding diaminobenzidine (DAB) immunostaining found PAR-1 predominantly localized to the peri-synaptic astrocytic endfeet. Structural confocal immunofluorescence microscopy studies of isolated synaptosomes revealed spherical structures stained with anti-PAR-1 antibody which co-stained mainly for glial-filament acidic protein compared with the neuronal markers synaptophysin and PSD-95. Immunoblot studies of synaptosomes demonstrated an appropriate major band corresponding to PAR-1 and activation of the receptor by a specific agonist peptide (SFLLRN) significantly modulated phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase. A significant membrane potential depolarization was produced by thrombin (1 U/mL) and the PAR-1 agonist (100 μM) and depolarization by high K(+) elevated extracellular thrombin-like activity in the synaptosomes preparation. The results indicate PAR-1 localized to the peri-synaptic astrocytic endfeet is most likely activated by synaptic proteases and induces cellular signaling and modulation of synaptic electrophysiology. A protease mediated neuron-glia pathway may be important in both physiological and pathological regulation of the synapse.
Neuroprotection by inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases in a mouse model of intracerebral haemorrhage.
Wang Jian,Tsirka Stella E
Brain : a journal of neurology
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is an acute neurological disorder without effective treatment. Mechanisms of acute brain injury after ICH remain to be clarified. Although a few studies suggested a detrimental role for the gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in ICH, the relationship between MMP-9 activity and acute brain injury after ICH is not determined. In this study, we first examined the expression of gelatinases in vivo using a collagenase-induced mouse model of ICH. Gel zymography revealed that MMP-9 was activated and upregulated after ICH. In situ zymography showed that gelatinase activity was mostly co-localized with neurons and endothelial cells of the blood vessel matrix. Inhibition with a broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 (100 mg/kg) ameliorated dysregulated gelatinase activity, neutrophil infiltration, production of oxidative stress, brain oedema and degenerating neurons. Functional improvement and a decrease in injury volume were also observed. We provide evidence that MMP-9 may play a deleterious role in acute brain injury within the first 3 days after ICH. Blockade of MMP activity during this critical period may have efficacy as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of acute brain injury after ICH.
Astrocytic induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and edema in brain hemorrhage.
Tejima Emiri,Zhao Bing-Qiao,Tsuji Kiyoshi,Rosell Anna,van Leyen Klaus,Gonzalez R Gilberto,Montaner Joan,Wang Xiaoying,Lo Eng H
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
We tested the hypothesis that astrocytic matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mediates hemorrhagic brain edema. In a clinical case of hemorrhagic stroke, MMP-9 co-localized with astrocytes and neurons in peri-hematoma areas. In a mouse model where blood was injected into striatum, MMP-9 was colocalized with astrocytes surrounding the hemorrhagic lesion. Because MMP-9 is present in blood as well as brain, we compared four groups of wild type (WT) and MMP-9 knockout (KO) mice: WT blood injected into WT brain, KO blood into KO brain, WT blood into KO brain, and KO blood into WT brain. Gel zymography showed that MMP-9 was elevated in WT hemorrhagic brain tissue but absent from KO hemorrhagic brain tissue. Edematous water content was elevated when WT blood was injected into WT brain. However, edema was ameliorated when MMP-9 was absent in either blood or brain or both. To further assess the mechanisms involved in astrocytic induction of MMP-9, we next examined primary mouse astrocyte cultures. Exposure to hemoglobin rapidly upregulated MMP-9 in conditioned media within 1 to 24 h. Hemoglobin-induced MMP-9 was reduced by the free radical scavenger U83836E. Taken together, these data suggest that although there are large amounts of MMP-9 in blood, hemoglobin-induced oxidative stress can trigger MMP-9 in astrocytes and these parenchymal sources of matrix degradation may also be an important factor in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic brain edema.
Age-related comparisons of evolution of the inflammatory response after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.
Lively Starlee,Schlichter Lyanne C
Translational stroke research
UNLABELLED:In the hours to days after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), there is an inflammatory response within the brain characterized by the infiltration of peripheral neutrophils and macrophages and the activation of brain-resident microglia and astrocytes. Despite the strong correlation of aging and ICH incidence, and increasing information about cellular responses, little is known about the temporal- and age-related molecular responses of the brain after ICH. Here, we monitored a panel of 27 genes at 6 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after ICH was induced by injecting collagenase into the striatum of young adult and aged rats. Several molecules (CR3, TLR2, TLR4, IL-1β, TNFα, iNOS, IL-6) were selected to reflect the classical activation of innate immune cells (macrophages, microglia) and the potential to exacerbate inflammation and damage brain cells. Most of the others are associated with the resolution of innate inflammation, alternative pathways of macrophage/microglial activation, and the repair phase after acute injury (TGFβ, IL-1ra, IL-1r2, IL-4, IL-13, IL-4Rα, IL-13Rα1, IL-13Rα2, MRC1, ARG1, CD163, CCL22). In young animals, the up-regulation of 26 in 27 genes (not IL-4) was detected within the first week. Differences in timing or levels between young and aged animals were detected for 18 of 27 genes examined (TLR2, GFAP, IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-1r2, iNOS, IL-6, TGFβ, MMP9, MMP12, IL-13, IL-4Rα, IL-13Rα1, IL-13Rα2, MRC1, ARG1, CD163, CCL22), with a generally less pronounced or delayed inflammatory response in the aged animals. Importantly, within this complex response to experimental ICH, the induction of pro-inflammatory, potentially harmful mediators often coincided with resolving and beneficial molecules. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL:The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12975-012-0151-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Neurotoxic reactive astrocytes are induced by activated microglia.
Liddelow Shane A,Guttenplan Kevin A,Clarke Laura E,Bennett Frederick C,Bohlen Christopher J,Schirmer Lucas,Bennett Mariko L,Münch Alexandra E,Chung Won-Suk,Peterson Todd C,Wilton Daniel K,Frouin Arnaud,Napier Brooke A,Panicker Nikhil,Kumar Manoj,Buckwalter Marion S,Rowitch David H,Dawson Valina L,Dawson Ted M,Stevens Beth,Barres Ben A
Reactive astrocytes are strongly induced by central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease, but their role is poorly understood. Here we show that a subtype of reactive astrocytes, which we termed A1, is induced by classically activated neuroinflammatory microglia. We show that activated microglia induce A1 astrocytes by secreting Il-1α, TNF and C1q, and that these cytokines together are necessary and sufficient to induce A1 astrocytes. A1 astrocytes lose the ability to promote neuronal survival, outgrowth, synaptogenesis and phagocytosis, and induce the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes. Death of axotomized CNS neurons in vivo is prevented when the formation of A1 astrocytes is blocked. Finally, we show that A1 astrocytes are abundant in various human neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Taken together these findings help to explain why CNS neurons die after axotomy, strongly suggest that A1 astrocytes contribute to the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in neurodegenerative disorders, and provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for these diseases.
Microglia-Astrocyte Crosstalk: An Intimate Molecular Conversation.
Jha Mithilesh Kumar,Jo Myungjin,Kim Jae-Hong,Suk Kyoungho
The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
Microglia-astrocyte crosstalk has recently been at the forefront of glial research. Emerging evidence illustrates that microglia- and astrocyte-derived signals are the functional determinants for the fates of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. By releasing diverse signaling molecules, both microglia and astrocytes establish autocrine feedback and their bidirectional conversation for a tight reciprocal modulation during central nervous system (CNS) insult or injury. Microglia, the constant sensors of changes in the CNS microenvironment and restorers of tissue homeostasis, not only serve as the primary immune cells of the CNS but also regulate the innate immune functions of astrocytes. Similarly, microglia determine the functions of reactive astrocytes, ranging from neuroprotective to neurotoxic. Conversely, astrocytes through their secreted molecules regulate microglial phenotypes and functions ranging from motility to phagocytosis. Altogether, the microglia-astrocyte crosstalk is fundamental to neuronal functions and dysfunctions. This review discusses the current understanding of the intimate molecular conversation between microglia and astrocytes and outlines its potential implications in CNS health and disease.
Functional polarization of neuroglia: Implications in neuroinflammation and neurological disorders.
Jha Mithilesh Kumar,Lee Won-Ha,Suk Kyoungho
Recent neuroscience research has established the adult brain as a dynamic organ having a unique ability to undergo changes with time. Neuroglia, especially microglia and astrocytes, provide dynamicity to the brain. Activation of these glial cells is a major component of the neuroinflammatory responses underlying brain injury and neurodegeneration. Glial cells execute functional reaction programs in response to diverse microenvironmental signals manifested by neuropathological conditions. Activated microglia exist along a continuum of two functional states of polarization namely M1-type (classical/proinflammatory activation) and M2-type (alternative/anti-inflammatory activation) as in macrophages. The balance between classically and alternatively activated microglial phenotypes influences disease progression in the CNS. The classically activated state of microglia drives the neuroinflammatory response and mediates the detrimental effects on neurons, whereas in their alternative activation state, which is apparently a beneficial activation state, the microglia play a crucial role in tissue maintenance and repair. Likewise, in response to immune or inflammatory microenvironments astrocytes also adopt neurotoxic or neuroprotective phenotypes. Reactive astrocytes exhibit two distinctive functional phenotypes defined by pro- or anti-inflammatory gene expression profile. In this review, we have thoroughly covered recent advances in the understanding of the functional polarization of brain and peripheral glia and its implications in neuroinflammation and neurological disorders. The identifiable phenotypes adopted by neuroglia in response to specific insult or injury can be exploited as promising diagnostic markers of neuroinflammatory diseases. Furthermore, harnessing the beneficial effects of the polarized glia could undoubtedly pave the way for the formulation of novel glia-based therapeutic strategies for diverse neurological disorders.
Astrocytes and the Warning Signs of Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Stroke.
Two decades into the two thousands, intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (ICH) continues to reap lives across the globe. In the US, nearly 12,000 people suffer from ICH every year. Half of them survive, but many are left with permanent physical and cognitive disabilities, the severity of which depends on the location and broadness of the brain region affected by the hemorrhage. The ongoing efforts to identify risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke have been instrumental for the development of new medical practices to prevent, aid the recovery and reduce the risk of recurring ICH. Recent efforts approach the study of ICH from a different angle, providing information on how we can limit brain damage by manipulating astrocyte receptors. These results provide a novel understanding of how astrocytes contribute to brain injury and recovery from small ICH. Here, we discuss current knowledge on the risk factors and molecular pathology of ICH and the functional properties of astrocytes and their role in ICH. Last, we discuss candidate astrocyte receptors that may prove to be valuable therapeutic targets to treat ICH. Together, these findings provide basic and clinical scientists useful information for the future development of strategies to improve the detection of small ICH, limit brain damage, and prevent the onset of more severe episodes of brain hemorrhage.
SnapShot: Astrocytes in Health and Disease.
Liddelow Shane,Barres Ben
Astrocytes are central nervous system (CNS) glial cells with many important functions for normal development and neural functioning. They help control extracellular ion and neurotransmitter concentrations; provide neurotrophic support; are implicated in synapse formation, function, and pruning; and help maintain the blood-brain barrier. Following injury and in disease, they undergo rapid and chronic alterations in function that can either promote or hinder recovery, depending on the disease.
Evolution of the inflammatory response in the brain following intracerebral hemorrhage and effects of delayed minocycline treatment.
Wasserman Jason K,Zhu Xiaoping,Schlichter Lyanne C
There are no effective treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although inflammation is a potential therapeutic target, there is a dearth of information about time-dependent and cell-specific changes in the expression of inflammation-related genes. Using the collagenase-induced ICH model in rats and real-time quantitative RT-PCR we monitored mRNA levels of markers of glial activation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes responsible for cytokine activation and several matrix metalloproteases at 6 h and 1, 3 and 7 days after ICH onset. For the most highly up-regulated genes, immunohistochemistry was then used to identify cell-specific protein expression. Finally, minocycline, a drug widely reported to reduce damage in several models of brain injury, was used to test the hypothesis that it can reduce up-regulation of inflammation-related genes when administered using a clinically relevant dosing regime: intraperitoneal injection beginning 6 h after ICH. Our results show a complex inflammatory response, with different brain cell types producing several pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules for at least 7 days after ICH onset. Included is the first demonstration that astrocytes are an important source of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and MMP-12. Importantly, our results demonstrate that while delayed minocycline treatment effectively reduces early up-regulation of TNFalpha and MMP-12, its efficacy is lost when treatment is extended for up to a week, and it does not reduce several other genes associated with microglia activation. These results suggest caution in extrapolating to ICH the promising results of minocycline treatment in other models of brain injury.
Minocycline selectively inhibits M1 polarization of microglia.
Kobayashi K,Imagama S,Ohgomori T,Hirano K,Uchimura K,Sakamoto K,Hirakawa A,Takeuchi H,Suzumura A,Ishiguro N,Kadomatsu K
Cell death & disease
Minocycline is commonly used to inhibit microglial activation. It is widely accepted that activated microglia exert dual functions, that is, pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) functions. The in vivo status of activated microglia is probably on a continuum between these two extreme states. However, the mechanisms regulating microglial polarity remain elusive. Here, we addressed this question focusing on minocycline. We used SOD1(G93A) mice as a model, which exhibit the motor neuron-specific neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Administration of minocycline attenuated the induction of the expression of M1 microglia markers during the progressive phase, whereas it did not affect the transient enhancement of expression of M2 microglia markers during the early pathogenesis phase. This selective inhibitory effect was confirmed using primary cultured microglia stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin (IL)-4, which induced M1 or M2 polarization, respectively. Furthermore, minocycline inhibited the upregulation of NF-κB in the LPS-stimulated primary cultured microglia and in the spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) mice. On the other hand, IL-4 did not induce upregulation of NF-κB. This study indicates that minocycline selectively inhibits the microglia polarization to a proinflammatory state, and provides a basis for understanding pathogeneses of many diseases accompanied by microglial activation.
Adenosine augments IL-10-induced STAT3 signaling in M2c macrophages.
Koscsó Balázs,Csóka Balázs,Kókai Endre,Németh Zoltán H,Pacher Pál,Virág László,Leibovich S Joseph,Haskó György
Journal of leukocyte biology
The alternatively activated macrophage phenotype induced by IL-10 is called M2c. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that accumulates in the extracellular space in response to metabolic disturbances, hypoxia, inflammation, physical damage, or apoptosis. As adenosine is known to regulate classically activated M1 and IL4- and IL-13-activated M2a macrophages, the goal of the present study was to explore its effects on M2c macrophages. We found that adenosine augmented the IL-10-induced expression of TIMP-1 and arginase-1 by the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and by mouse BMDMs. The effects of AR stimulation on IL-10-induced TIMP-1 or arginase-1 expression were lacking in A2BAR KO macrophages. The role of A2BAR on TIMP-1 production of RAW 264.7 cells was confirmed with specific agonist BAY606583 and antagonist PSB0788. AR stimulation augmented IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in macrophages, and pharmacological inhibition or silencing of STAT3 using siRNA reduced the stimulatory effect of AR stimulation on TIMP-1 production. In contrast to its stimulatory effect on IL-10-induced STAT3 activation, adenosine inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and SAA3 expression. In conclusion, adenosine enhances IL-10-induced STAT3 signaling and M2c macrophage activation.
SOCS3 deficiency promotes M1 macrophage polarization and inflammation.
Qin Hongwei,Holdbrooks Andrew T,Liu Yudong,Reynolds Stephanie L,Yanagisawa Lora L,Benveniste Etty N
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Macrophages participate in both the amplification of inflammation at the time of injury and downregulation of the inflammatory response to avoid excess tissue damage. These divergent functions of macrophages are dictated by their microenvironment, especially cytokines, which promote a spectrum of macrophage phenotypes. The M1 proinflammatory phenotype is induced by LPS, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF, and IL-4, IL-13, and M-CSF induce anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins function as feedback inhibitors of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, and they can terminate innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we have evaluated the influence of SOCS3 on macrophage polarization and function. Macrophages obtained from LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl) mice, which lack SOCS3 in myeloid lineage cells, exhibit enhanced and prolonged activation of the JAK/STAT pathway compared with macrophages from SOCS3(fl/fl) mice. Furthermore, SOCS3-deficient macrophages have higher levels of the M1 genes IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-23, and inducible NO synthase owing to enhanced transcriptional activation and chromatin modifications. SOCS3-deficient M1 macrophages also have a stronger capacity to induce Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation than M1 macrophages from SOCS3(fl/fl) mice. Lastly, LPS-induced sepsis is exacerbated in LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl) mice and is associated with enhanced STAT1/3 activation and increased plasma levels of M1 cytokines/chemokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL11. These findings collectively indicate that SOCS3 is involved in repressing the M1 proinflammatory phenotype, thereby deactivating inflammatory responses in macrophages.
Melatonin attenuates brain contusion-induced oxidative insult, inactivation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, and upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in rats.
Tsai Ming Che,Chen Wei Ju,Tsai Ming Shi,Ching Cheng Hsin,Chuang Jih Ing
Journal of pineal research
The induction of oxidative stress and inflammation has been closely linked in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Transcriptional factors of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins are redox sensitive and participate in the regulation of cytokine signaling. Previous studies demonstrated that melatonin protects neurons through its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in various neuropathological conditions. However, the effect of melatonin on STAT activity after TBI has not yet been explored. In this study, we used a controlled weight-drop TBI model and found that brain contusion induced oxidative stress (a decreased level of total glutathione and an increased ratio of oxidized glutathione to total glutathione), a reduction in STAT1 DNA-binding activity, and consequently neuronal loss in a contusion depth-dependent manner. A significant increased mRNA expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3), inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), and interleukine-6 (IL-6), but a decreased protein expression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS1), was found 24 hr after brain contusion. SOCS3 and PIAS1 are endogenous negative regulators of STAT1. Moreover, the combination of intraperitoneal and local (presoaked in gelfoam and placed on the traumatic cortex) administration of melatonin had the most pronounced influence in inhibiting all effects except the PIAS1 downregulation induced by brain contusion. The results suggest that SOCS-3 upregulation and oxidative stress may contribute to the STAT1 inactivation after TBI. Melatonin protects neurons from TBI by reducing oxidative stress, STAT1 inactivation, and upregulation of SOCS-3 and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Shaping the murine macrophage phenotype: IL-4 and cyclic AMP synergistically activate the arginase I promoter.
Sheldon Kathryn E,Shandilya Harish,Kepka-Lenhart Diane,Poljakovic Mirjana,Ghosh Arundhati,Morris Sidney M
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Arginase I is a marker of murine M2 macrophages and is highly expressed in many inflammatory diseases. The basis for high arginase I expression in macrophages in vivo is incompletely understood but likely reflects integrated responses to combinations of stimuli. Our objective was to elucidate mechanisms involved in modulating arginase I induction by IL-4, the prototypical activator of M2 macrophages. IL-4 and 8-bromo-cAMP individually induce arginase I, but together they rapidly and synergistically induce arginase I mRNA, protein, and promoter activity in murine macrophage cells. Arginase I induction by IL-4 requires binding of the transcription factors STAT6 and C/EBPβ to the IL-4 response element of the arginase I gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that the synergistic response involves binding of both transcription factors to the IL-4 response element at levels significantly greater than in response to IL-4 alone. The results suggest that C/EBPβ is a limiting factor for the level of STAT6 bound to the IL-4 response element. The enhanced binding in the synergistic response was not due to increased expression of either STAT6 or C/EBPβ but was correlated primarily with increased nuclear abundance of C/EBPβ. Our findings also suggest that induction of arginase I expression is stochastic; that is, differences in induction reflect differences in probability of transcriptional activation and not simply differences in rate of transcription. Results of the present study also may be useful for understanding mechanisms underlying regulated expression of other genes in macrophages and other myeloid-derived cells in health and disease.
The interleukin 13 (IL-13) pathway in human macrophages is modulated by microRNA-155 via direct targeting of interleukin 13 receptor alpha1 (IL13Ralpha1).
Martinez-Nunez Rocio T,Louafi Fethi,Sanchez-Elsner Tilman
The Journal of biological chemistry
Macrophages play a central role in the balance and efficiency of the immune response and are at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Their phenotype is a delicate equilibrium between the M1 (classical, pro-Th(1)) and M2 (alternative, pro-Th(2)) profiles. This balance is regulated by cytokines such as interleukin 13 (IL-13), a typical pro-M2-Th(2) cytokine that has been related to allergic disease and asthma. IL-13 binds to IL-13 receptor α1 (IL13Rα1), a component of the Type II IL-4 receptor, and exerts its effects by activating the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) through phosphorylation. MicroRNAs are short (∼22 nucleotide) inhibitory non-coding RNAs that block the translation or promote the degradation of their specific mRNA targets. By bioinformatics analysis, we found that microRNA-155 (miR-155) is predicted to target IL13Rα1. This suggested that miR-155 might be involved in the regulation of the M1/M2 balance in macrophages by modulating IL-13 effects. miR-155 has been implicated in the development of a healthy immune system and function as well as in the inflammatory pro-Th(1)/M1 immune profile. Here we have shown that in human macrophages, miR-155 directly targets IL13Rα1 and reduces the levels of IL13Rα1 protein, leading to diminished activation of STAT6. Finally we also demonstrate that miR-155 affects the IL-13-dependent regulation of several genes (SOCS1, DC-SIGN, CCL18, CD23, and SERPINE) involved in the establishment of an M2/pro-Th(2) phenotype in macrophages. Our work shows a central role for miR-155 in determining the M2 phenotype in human macrophages.
Roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in interferon-gamma-dependent phosphorylation of STAT1 on serine 727 and activation of gene expression.
Nguyen H,Ramana C V,Bayes J,Stark G R
The Journal of biological chemistry
STAT1 must be phosphorylated on serine 727 to be fully active in transcription. We show that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its effector kinase Akt play an important role in the serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and in the activation of gene expression in response to interferon-gamma (IFN gamma). IFN gamma activates PI3K as well as Akt in a variety of cell lines. Specific inhibition of PI3K abrogates IFN gamma-induced, but not interleukin-1- or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced, phosphorylation of STAT1 on serine and reduces STAT1-dependent transcription and gene expression by approximately 7-fold. Constitutively active forms of PI3K or Akt activate and their dominant-negative derivatives inhibit STAT1-driven transactivation in response to IFN gamma. In addition to PI3K and Akt, JAK1, JAK2, and the tyrosine 440 STAT1 docking residue of IFNGR1 are required for STAT1 to be phosphorylated on serine. Taken together, these results suggest that the following events lead to the activation of STAT1 upon IFN gamma stimulation: 1) PI3K and Akt are activated by the occupied receptor and Tyr-440 is phosphorylated by the activated JAKs; 2) STAT1 docks to Tyr-440; and 3) Tyr-701 is phosphorylated by the JAKs and Ser-727 is phosphorylated by a kinase downstream of Akt.
Transcriptional regulation of macrophage polarization: enabling diversity with identity.
Lawrence Toby,Natoli Gioacchino
Nature reviews. Immunology
In terms of both phenotype and function, macrophages have remarkable heterogeneity, which reflects the specialization of tissue-resident macrophages in microenvironments as different as liver, brain and bone. Also, marked changes in the activity and gene expression programmes of macrophages can occur when they come into contact with invading microorganisms or injured tissues. Therefore, the macrophage lineage includes a remarkable diversity of cells with different functions and functional states that are specified by a complex interplay between microenvironmental signals and a hardwired differentiation programme that determines macrophage identity. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of transcriptional and chromatin-mediated control of macrophage polarization in physiology and disease.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3/suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (STAT3/SOCS3) axis in myeloid cells regulates neuroinflammation.
Qin Hongwei,Yeh Wen-I,De Sarno Patrizia,Holdbrooks Andrew T,Liu Yudong,Muldowney Michelle T,Reynolds Stephanie L,Yanagisawa Lora L,Fox Thomas H,Park Keun,Harrington Laurie E,Raman Chander,Benveniste Etty N
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are feedback inhibitors of the JAK/STAT pathway. SOCS3 has a crucial role in inhibiting STAT3 activation, cytokine signaling, and inflammatory gene expression in macrophages/microglia. To determine the role of SOCS3 in myeloid cells in neuroinflammation, mice with conditional SOCS3 deletion in myeloid cells (LysMCre-SOCS3(fl/fl)) were tested for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice are vulnerable to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE, with a severe, nonresolving atypical form of disease. In vivo, enhanced infiltration of inflammatory cells and demyelination is prominent in the cerebellum of myeloid-specific SOCS3-deficient mice, as is enhanced STAT3 signaling and expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and an immune response dominated by Th1 and Th17 cells. In vitro, SOCS3-deficient macrophages exhibit heightened STAT3 activation and are polarized toward the classical M1 phenotype. SOCS3-deficient M1 macrophages provide the microenvironment to polarize Th1 and Th17 cells and induce neuronal death. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages into myeloid SOCS3-deficient mice leads to delayed onset and reduced severity of atypical EAE by decreasing STAT3 activation, Th1/Th17 cells, and proinflammatory mediators in the cerebellum. These findings indicate that myeloid cell SOCS3 provides protection from EAE through deactivation of neuroinflammatory responses.
The emerging role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in cerebral ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Liang Zhenxing,Wu Guiling,Fan Chongxi,Xu Jing,Jiang Shuai,Yan Xiaolong,Di Shouyin,Ma Zhiqiang,Hu Wei,Yang Yang
Progress in neurobiology
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) comprise a family of cytoplasmic transcription factors that mediate intracellular signaling. This signaling is typically generated at cell surface receptors, the activation of which results in the translocation of STATs to the nucleus. STATs are involved in biological events as diverse as embryonic development, programmed cell death, organogenesis, innate immunity, adaptive immunity and cell growth regulation in organisms ranging from slime molds to insects to humans. Numerous studies have demonstrated the activation of STAT3 in neurological diseases, particularly in cerebral ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Additionally, STAT3 has also been reported to play a critical role in neuroprotective therapies. In light of the pleiotropic effects of STAT3 on the nervous system, we present the elaborate network of roles that STAT3 plays in cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage in this review. First, we introduce basic knowledge regarding STAT3 and briefly summarize the activation, inactivation, and regulation of the STAT3 pathway. Next, we describe the activation of STAT3 following cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage. Subsequently, we discuss the physiopathological roles of STAT3 in cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage. Moreover, we summarize several significant cerebral ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke treatments that target the STAT3 signaling pathway, including pharmacological and physical therapies. Finally, we highlight research progress on STAT3 in stroke. This review presents the important roles of STAT3 in the nervous system and may contribute to the promotion of STAT3 as a new therapeutic target.
Targeting Microglial Activation States as a Therapeutic Avenue in Parkinson's Disease.
Subramaniam Sudhakar R,Federoff Howard J
Frontiers in aging neuroscience
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive disorder characterized neuropathologically by loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, intracellular proteinaceous inclusions, reduction of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum, and increased neuroinflammatory cells. The consequent reduction of dopamine in the basal ganglia results in the classical parkinsonian motor phenotype. A growing body of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by microglia, the resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, play a contributory role in PD pathogenesis. Microglia participate in both physiological and pathological conditions. In the former, microglia restore the integrity of the central nervous system and, in the latter, they promote disease progression. Microglia acquire different activation states to modulate these cellular functions. Upon activation to the M1 phenotype, microglia elaborate pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic molecules promoting inflammation and cytotoxic responses. In contrast, when adopting the M2 phenotype microglia secrete anti-inflammatory gene products and trophic factors that promote repair, regeneration, and restore homeostasis. Relatively little is known about the different microglial activation states in PD and a better understanding is essential for developing putative neuroprotective agents. Targeting microglial activation states by suppressing their deleterious pro-inflammatory neurotoxicity and/or simultaneously enhancing their beneficial anti-inflammatory protective functions appear as a valid therapeutic approach for PD treatment. In this review, we summarize microglial functions and, their dual neurotoxic and neuroprotective role in PD. We also review molecules that modulate microglial activation states as a therapeutic option for PD treatment.
Proinflammatory clearance of apoptotic neutrophils induces an IL-12(low)IL-10(high) regulatory phenotype in macrophages.
Filardy Alessandra A,Pires Dayana R,Nunes Marise P,Takiya Christina M,Freire-de-Lima Celio G,Ribeiro-Gomes Flavia L,DosReis George A
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Clearance of apoptotic exudate neutrophils (efferocytosis) induces either pro- or anti-inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages depending on host genetic background. In this study, we investigated whether neutrophil efferocytosis induces a stable macrophage phenotype that could be recalled by late restimulation with LPS. Bone marrow-derived macrophages previously stimulated by pro- but not anti-inflammatory neutrophil efferocytosis expressed a regulatory/M2b phenotype characterized by low IL-12 and high IL-10 production following restimulation, increased expression of LIGHT/TNF superfamily 14, Th2-biased T cell responses, and permissive replication of Leishmania major. Induction of regulatory/M2b macrophages required neutrophil elastase activity and was partially dependent on TLR4 signaling. These results suggested that macrophage differentiation to a regulatory phenotype plays a role in resolution of inflammation but could contribute to increased humoral Ab responses and parasite persistence in the infected host.
Selective modulation of microglia polarization to M2 phenotype for stroke treatment.
Xia Cong-Yuan,Zhang Shuai,Gao Yan,Wang Zhen-Zhen,Chen Nai-Hong
Resident microglia are the major immune cells in the brain, acting as the first defense of the central nervous system. Following cerebral ischemia, microglia respond to this injury at first and transform from surveying microglia to active state. The activated microglia play a dual role in the ischemic injury, due to distinct microglia phenotypes, including deleterious M1 and neuroprotective M2. However, microglia show transient M2 phenotype followed by a shift to M1. The high ratio of M1 to M2 is significantly related to ischemic injury. Many signal pathways participate in the alternation of microglial phenotype, presenting potential therapeutic targets for selectively modulating M2 polarization of microglia. In this review, we discuss how the M2 phenotype mediates neuroprotective effects and summarize the alternation of signaling cascades that control microglial phenotype after ischemic stroke.
Neuroinflammation and M2 microglia: the good, the bad, and the inflamed.
Cherry Jonathan D,Olschowka John A,O'Banion M Kerry
Journal of neuroinflammation
The concept of multiple macrophage activation states is not new. However, extending this idea to resident tissue macrophages, like microglia, has gained increased interest in recent years. Unfortunately, the research on peripheral macrophage polarization does not necessarily translate accurately to their central nervous system (CNS) counterparts. Even though pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines can polarize microglia to distinct activation states, the specific functions of these states is still an area of intense debate. This review examines the multiple possible activation states microglia can be polarized to. This is followed by a detailed description of microglial polarization and the functional relevance of this process in both acute and chronic CNS disease models described in the literature. Particular attention is given to utilizing M2 microglial polarization as a potential therapeutic option in treating diseases.
The Polarization States of Microglia in TBI: A New Paradigm for Pharmacological Intervention.
Xu Hangzhe,Wang Zhijiang,Li Jianru,Wu Haijian,Peng Yucong,Fan Linfeng,Chen Jingyin,Gu Chi,Yan Feng,Wang Lin,Chen Gao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Because of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of TBI, effective pharmacotherapy is still lacking. The microglial cells are resident tissue macrophages located in the brain and have two major polarization states, M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype, when activated. The M1 phenotype is related to the release of proinflammatory cytokines and secondary brain injury, while the M2 phenotype has been proved to be responsible for the release of anti-inflammation cytokines and for central nervous system (CNS) repair. In animal models, pharmacological strategies inhibiting the M1 phenotype and promoting the M2 phenotype of microglial cells could alleviate cerebral damage and improve neurological function recovery after TBI. In this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the pathological significance of microglial M1/M2 polarization in the pathophysiology of TBI. In addition, we reviewed several drugs that have provided neuroprotective effects against brain injury following TBI by altering the polarization states of the microglia. We emphasized that future investigation of the regulation mechanisms of microglial M1/M2 polarization in TBI is anticipated, which could contribute to the development of new targets of pharmacological intervention in TBI.
Hematoma resolution as a target for intracerebral hemorrhage treatment: role for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in microglia/macrophages.
Zhao Xiurong,Sun Guanghua,Zhang Jie,Strong Roger,Song Weitao,Gonzales Nicole,Grotta James C,Aronowski Jaroslaw
Annals of neurology
OBJECTIVE:Phagocytosis is necessary to eliminate the hematoma after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); however, release of proinflammatory mediators and free radicals during phagocyte activation is toxic to neighboring cells, leading to secondary brain injury. Promotion of phagocytosis in a timely and efficient manner may limit the toxic effects of persistent blood products on surrounding tissue and may be important for recovery after ICH. METHODS:Intrastriatal blood injection in rodents and primary microglia in culture exposed to red blood cells were used to model ICH and to study mechanisms of hematoma resolution and phagocytosis regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in microglia/macrophages. RESULTS:Our study demonstrated that the PPARgamma agonist, rosiglitazone, promoted hematoma resolution, decreased neuronal damage, and improved functional recovery in a mouse ICH model. Microglia isolated from murine brains showed more efficient phagocytosis in response to PPARgamma activators. PPARgamma activators significantly increased PPARgamma-regulated gene (catalase and CD36) expression, whereas reducing proinflammatory gene (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and inducible nitric oxide synthase) expression, extracellular H(2)O(2) level, and neuronal damage. Phagocytosis by microglia was significantly inhibited by PPARgamma gene knockdown or neutralizing anti-CD36 antibody, whereas it was enhanced by exogenous catalase. INTERPRETATION:PPARgamma in macrophages acts as an important factor in promoting hematoma absorption and protecting other brain cells from ICH-induced damage.
Scavenger receptors in neurobiology and neuropathology: their role on microglia and other cells of the nervous system.
Scavenger receptor class A (SR-A, CD204), scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI), and CD36 are cell surface proteins that mediate cell adhesion to, and endocytosis of, various native and pathologically modified substances, and participate in intracellular signaling, lipid metabolism, and host defense against bacterial pathogens. Microglia, Mato cells, astrocytes, cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, cerebral arterial smooth muscle cells, and retinal pigment epithelial cells express one or more of these SR. Expression of SR-A and SR-BI by microglia is developmentally regulated. Neonatal microglia express SR-A and SR-BI, while microglia in normal mouse and human adult brain express neither. Astrocytes in adult brain express SR-BI. In Alzheimer's disease, microglial expression of SR-A is increased. Such findings, and evidence that SR-A and SR-BI mediate adhesion and endocytosis of fibrillar beta-amyloid by microglia and astrocytes, respectively, and that SR-A, SR-BI, and CD36 participate in secretion of reactive oxygen species by microglia, suggest roles for these receptors in homeostasis and neuropathology.
Interleukin-4 Ameliorates the Functional Recovery of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Through the Alternative Activation of Microglia/Macrophage.
Yang Jianjing,Ding Saidan,Huang Weilong,Hu Jiangnan,Huang Shengwei,Zhang Yu,Zhuge Qichuan
Frontiers in neuroscience
Neuro-inflammation plays an important role in the recovery of brain injury after stroke. Microglia/macrophage is the major executor in the neuro-inflammation, which can be polarized into two distinct phenotypes: injurious/toxic classical activation (M1 phenotype) and protective alternative activation (M2 phenotype). Here, we investigated whether intracerebral administration of interleukin-4 (IL-4) at an early stage could affect the activation of microglia/macrophage and the corresponding outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The neuro-behavior was recorded between different groups in the rat ICH model. The M1 and M2 markers were then determined by qRT-PCR, western blotting, ELISA, and immunofluorescence, respectively. We observed aberrant activation of microglia/macrophage after ICH. After intracerebral injection of IL-4, M1 activation was greatly inhibited while M2 activation was enhanced, along with improving neurobehavioral recovery from deficits after ICH. Our study showed that early intracerebral injection of IL-4 potentially promotes neuro-functional recovery, probably through enhancing the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage.
Characterization of phenotype markers and neuronotoxic potential of polarised primary microglia in vitro.
Chhor Vibol,Le Charpentier Tifenn,Lebon Sophie,Oré Marie-Virgine,Celador Idoia Lara,Josserand Julien,Degos Vincent,Jacotot Etienne,Hagberg Henrik,Sävman Karin,Mallard Carina,Gressens Pierre,Fleiss Bobbi
Brain, behavior, and immunity
Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype is an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy but a comprehensive study of classical and more novel microglial phenotypic markers in vitro is lacking. The aim of this study was to outline the temporal expression of a battery of phenotype markers from polarised microglia to generate an in vitro tool for screening the immunomodulatory potential of novel compounds. We characterised expression of thirty-one macrophage/microglial phenotype markers in primary microglia over time (4, 12, 36, and 72 h), using RT-qPCR or multiplex protein assay. Firstly, we selected Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the strongest M1-M2 polarising stimuli, from six stimuli tested. At each time point, markers useful to identify that microglia were M1 included iNOS, Cox-2 and IL-6 and a loss of M2a markers. Markers useful for quantifying M2b-immunomodulatory microglia included, increased IL-1RA and SOCS3 and for M2a-repair and regeneration, included increased arginase-1, and a loss of the M1 and M2b markers were discriminatory. Additional markers were regulated at fewer time points, but are still likely important to monitor when assessing the immunomodulatory potential of novel therapies. Further, to facilitate identification of how novel immunomodulatory treatments alter the functional affects of microglia, we characterised how the soluble products from polarised microglia affected the type and rate of neuronal death; M1/2b induced increasing and M2a-induced decreasing neuronal loss. We also assessed any effects of prior activation state, to provide a way to identify how a novel compound may alter phenotype depending on the stage of injury/insult progression. We identified generally that a prior M1/2b reduced the ability of microglia to switch to M2a. Altogether, we have characterised a profile of phenotype markers and a mechanism of assessing functional outcome that we can use as a reference guide for first-line screening of novel immunomodulatory therapies in vitro in the search for viable neuroprotectants.
Distinct patterns of intracerebral hemorrhage-induced alterations in NF-kappaB subunit, iNOS, and COX-2 expression.
Zhao Xiurong,Zhang Yujian,Strong Roger,Zhang Jie,Grotta James C,Aronowski Jaroslaw
Journal of neurochemistry
Transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), plays a key role in regulating inflammation in brain pathologies. The goal of this study was to characterize temporal changes in NF-kappaB activation, NF-kappaB subunit expression, and expression of selected NF-kappaB-regulated gene products [inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2], at the transcriptional and translational level in the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Employing the intrastriatal injection of autologous blood in rats to model ICH, we demonstrated, using NF-kappaB-DNA binding assay, a robust and prolonged NF-kappaB activation, starting as early as 15 min after the onset of ICH. Consequently, we demonstrated that the mRNA and protein for p50, p52, p65, c-Rel, and RelB NF-kappaB subunits, as well as IkappaBalpha were all up-regulated, with a time course ranging from minutes to days following ICH, depending on the subunit. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to analyze mRNA and immunoblotting to analyze protein in ICH-affected tissue, we found robust induction of iNOS at both mRNA and protein levels that followed a time-course similar to changes in p65, p52, and RelB mRNA. Oddly, in contrast to iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein following an early transient increase demonstrated significant reduction in response to ICH. In summary, NF-kappaB activation occurs within minutes and persists for at least a week in response to ICH. This reaction utilizes different NF-kappaB regulatory subunits and is associated with the expression of selected target genes.
Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced inflammation and injury.
Fang Huang,Wang Peng-Fei,Zhou Yu,Wang Yan-Chun,Yang Qing-Wu
Journal of neuroinflammation
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common type of fatal stroke, accounting for about 15% to 20% of all strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes are associated with high mortality and morbidity, and increasing evidence shows that innate immune responses and inflammatory injury play a critical role in ICH-induced neurological deficits. However, the signaling pathways involved in ICH-induced inflammatory responses remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to a large family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in innate immunity and inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the involvement of TLR4 signaling in ICH-induced inflammation and brain injury. We discuss the key mechanisms associated with TLR4 signaling in ICH and explore the potential for therapeutic intervention by targeting TLR4 signaling.
A pro-inflammatory mediator USP11 enhances the stability of p53 and inhibits KLF2 in intracerebral hemorrhage.
Zhang Xiuqing,Liu Tiejun,Xu Shijun,Gao Peng,Dong Wei,Liu Weiran,Gao Ming,Song Lihua,Cui Lusha,Dong Xiaoliu
Molecular therapy. Methods & clinical development
Microglial cell activation and neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) lead to secondary brain damage. Ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11) has been correlated with ICH-induced neuron apoptosis. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanism of USP11 regulating neuroinflammation in ICH. First, an ICH rat model was developed by intracranial administration of collagenase. Silencing USP11 was found to alleviate nerve injury in rats with ICH-like symptoms. Then, through loss- and gain-of-function assays, USP11 knockdown was revealed to alleviate ICH-induced symptoms, corresponding to reduced modified neurological severity scores (mNSS) value, brain water content, blood-brain barrier permeability, neuron apoptosis, microglial cell activation, neutrophil infiltration, and inflammatory factor secretion. It was subsequently shown in microglial cells that USP11 stabilized p53 by deubiquitination and p53 targeted the Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) promoter to repress KLF2 transcription, thereby activating the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Further, rescue experiments were conducted to validate the function of the USP11/p53/KLF2/NF-κB axis in ICH-induced inflammation, which confirmed that USP11 silencing blocked the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines following ICH by downregulating p53, thus protecting against neurological impairment. Hence silencing USP11 may be a novel anti-inflammatory method for ICH treatment.
Toll-like receptor 4 contributes to poor outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Sansing Lauren H,Harris Tajie H,Welsh Frank A,Kasner Scott E,Hunter Christopher A,Kariko Katalin
Annals of neurology
OBJECTIVE:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating stroke subtype in which perihematomal inflammation contributes to neuronal injury and functional disability. Histologically, the region becomes infiltrated with neutrophils and activated microglia followed by neuronal loss, but little is known about the immune signals that coordinate these events. This study aimed to determine the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the innate immune response after ICH and its impact on neurobehavioral outcome. METHODS:Transgenic mice incapable of TLR4 signaling and wild-type controls were subjected to striatal blood injection to model ICH. The perihematomal inflammatory response was then quantified by immunohistochemistry, whole brain flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction. The critical location of TLR4 signaling was determined by blood transfer experiments between genotypes. Functional outcomes were quantified in all cohorts using the cylinder and open field tests. RESULTS:TLR4-deficient mice had markedly decreased perihematomal inflammation, associated with reduced recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes, fewer microglia, and improved functional outcome by day 3 after ICH. Moreover, blood transfer experiments revealed that TLR4 on leukocytes or platelets within the hemorrhage contributes to perihematomal leukocyte infiltration and the neurological deficit. INTERPRETATION:Together, these data identify a critical role for TLR4 signaling in perihematomal inflammation and injury and indicate this pathway may be a target for therapeutic intervention.
Heme activates TLR4-mediated inflammatory injury via MyD88/TRIF signaling pathway in intracerebral hemorrhage.
Lin Sen,Yin Qing,Zhong Qi,Lv Feng-Lin,Zhou Yu,Li Jing-Qi,Wang Jing-Zhou,Su Bing-yin,Yang Qing-Wu
Journal of neuroinflammation
BACKGROUND:Inflammatory injury plays a critical role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced neurological deficits; however, the signaling pathways are not apparent by which the upstream cellular events trigger innate immune and inflammatory responses that contribute to neurological impairments. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a role in inflammatory damage caused by brain disorders. METHODS:In this study, we investigate the role of TLR4 signaling in ICH-induced inflammation. In the ICH model, a significant upregulation of TLR4 expression in reactive microglia has been demonstrated using real-time RT-PCR. Activation of microglia was detected by immunohistochemistry, cytokines were measured by ELISA, MyD88, TRIF and NF-κB were measured by Western blot and EMSA, animal behavior was evaluated by animal behavioristics. RESULTS:Compared to WT mice, TLR4(-/-) mice had restrained ICH-induced brain damage showing in reduced cerebral edema and lower neurological deficit scores. Quantification of cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β and assessment of macrophage infiltration in perihematoma tissues from TLR4(-/-), MyD88(-/-) and TRIF(-/-) mice showed attenuated inflammatory damage after ICH. TLR4(-/-) mice also exhibited reduced MyD88 and TRIF expression which was accompanied by decreased NF-κB activity. This suggests that after ICH both MyD88 and TRIF pathways might be involved in TLR4-mediated inflammatory injury possibly via NF-κB activation. Exogenous hemin administration significantly increased TLR4 expression and microglial activation in cultures and also exacerbated brain injury in WT mice but not in TLR4(-/-) mice. Anti-TLR4 antibody administration suppressed hemin-induced microglial activation in cultures and in the mice model of ICH. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that heme potentiates microglial activation via TLR4, in turn inducing NF-κB activation via the MyD88/TRIF signaling pathway, and ultimately increasing cytokine expression and inflammatory injury in ICH. Targeting TLR4 signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy for ICH.
Activation of TLR4-mediated NFkappaB signaling in hemorrhagic brain in rats.
Teng Weiyu,Wang Lishu,Xue Weishuang,Guan Chao
Mediators of inflammation
Inflammation and immunity play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Toll-like receptor 4- (TLR4-) mediated nuclear factor kappa-B (NFkappaB) signaling plays critical roles in the activation and regulation of inflammatory responses in injured brain. However, the involvement of TLR4-mediated NFkappaB signaling in the pathogenesis of ICH remains unknown. The present study was to evaluate the temporal profile of the expression of TLR4 and the activation of TLR4-mediated NFkappaB signaling in brain tissues of Wistar rats after ICH. TLR4 mRNA and protein, the phosphorylation of inhibitors of kappa B (p-IkappaBalpha), and the activity of NFkappaB were examined in hemorrhagic cerebral tissue by Rt-PCR, Western blots, immunohistochemistry staining, and EMSA. Compared with saline control, the TLR4 mRNA and protein significantly increased starting at 6 hours after ICH, peaked on the 3rd day after ICH, and then decreased but still maintained at a higher level on the 7th day after ICH (P < .05). The level of p-IkappaBalpha and the activity of NFkappaB also increased in the brain after ICH compared with saline control. The present study firstly suggests that TLR4-mediated NFkappaB signaling participates in the pathogenesis of ICH, which may become a therapeutic target for ICH-induced brain damage.
Alternatively activated microglia and macrophages in the central nervous system.
Franco Rafael,Fernández-Suárez Diana
Progress in neurobiology
Macrophages are important players in the fight against viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections. From a resting state they may undertake two activation pathways, the classical known as M1, or the alternative known as M2. M1 markers are mostly mediators of pro-inflammatory responses whereas M2 markers emerge for resolution and cleanup. Microglia exerts in the central nervous system (CNS) a function similar to that of macrophages in the periphery. Microglia activation and proliferation occurs in almost any single pathology affecting the CNS. Often microglia activation has been considered detrimental and drugs able to stop microglia activation were considered for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Cumulative evidence shows that microglia may undergo the alternative activation pathway, express M2-type markers and contribute to neuroprotection. This review focuses on details about the role of M2 microglia and in the approaches available for its identification. Approaches to drive the M2 phenotype and data on its potential in CNS diseases are also reviewed.
Microglial cell origin and phenotypes in health and disease.
Saijo Kaoru,Glass Christopher K
Nature reviews. Immunology
Microglia - resident myeloid-lineage cells in the brain and the spinal cord parenchyma - function in the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis. Microglia also act as sentinels of infection and injury, and participate in both innate and adaptive immune responses in the central nervous system. Microglia can become activated and/or dysregulated in the context of neurodegenerative disease and cancer, and thereby contribute to disease severity. Here, we discuss recent studies that provide new insights into the origin and phenotypes of microglia in health and disease.
Galectin-1 deactivates classically activated microglia and protects from inflammation-induced neurodegeneration.
Starossom Sarah C,Mascanfroni Ivan D,Imitola Jaime,Cao Li,Raddassi Khadir,Hernandez Silvia F,Bassil Ribal,Croci Diego O,Cerliani Juan P,Delacour Delphine,Wang Yue,Elyaman Wassim,Khoury Samia J,Rabinovich Gabriel A
Inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration occurs in the acute and the chronic phases of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Classically activated (M1) microglia are key players mediating this process. Here, we identified Galectin-1 (Gal1), an endogenous glycan-binding protein, as a pivotal regulator of M1 microglial activation that targets the activation of p38MAPK-, CREB-, and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways and hierarchically suppresses downstream proinflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, TNF, and CCL2. Gal1 bound to core 2 O-glycans on CD45, favoring retention of this glycoprotein on the microglial cell surface and augmenting its phosphatase activity and inhibitory function. Gal1 was highly expressed in the acute phase of EAE, and its targeted deletion resulted in pronounced inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. Adoptive transfer of Gal1-secreting astrocytes or administration of recombinant Gal1 suppressed EAE through mechanisms involving microglial deactivation. Thus, Gal1-glycan interactions are essential in tempering microglial activation, brain inflammation, and neurodegeneration, with critical therapeutic implications for MS.
Chemokines and their receptors in intracerebral hemorrhage.
Yao Yao,Tsirka Stella E
Translational stroke research
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating clinical event which results in a high rate of disability and death. At present, no effective treatment is available for ICH. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory responses contribute significantly to the ICH-induced secondary brain outcomes. During ICH, inflammatory cells accumulate at the ICH site attracted by gradients of chemokines. This review summarizes recent progress in ICH studies and the chemoattractants that act during the injury and focuses on and introduces the basic biology of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) and its role in the progression of ICH. Better understanding of MCP1 signaling cascade and the compensation after its inhibition could shed light on the development of effective treatments for ICH.
Blood-brain barrier breakdown and repair by Src after thrombin-induced injury.
Liu Da-Zhi,Ander Bradley P,Xu Huichun,Shen Yan,Kaur Pali,Deng Wenbin,Sharp Frank R
Annals of neurology
OBJECTIVE:Thrombin mediates the life-threatening cerebral edema that occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we examined the mechanisms of thrombin-induced injury to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent mechanisms of BBB repair. METHODS:Intracerebroventricular injection of thrombin (20U) was used to model intraventricular hemorrhage in adult rats. RESULTS:Thrombin reduced brain microvascular endothelial cell (BMVEC) and perivascular astrocyte immunoreactivity-indicating either cell injury or death-and functionally disrupted the BBB as measured by increased water content and extravasation of sodium fluorescein and Evans blue dyes 24 hours later. Administration of nonspecific Src family kinase inhibitor (PP2) immediately after thrombin injections blocked brain edema and BBB disruption. At 7 to 14 days after thrombin injections, newborn endothelial cells and astrocytes were observed around cerebral vessels at the time when BBB permeability and cerebral water content resolved. Delayed administration of PP2 on days 2 through 6 after thrombin injections prevented resolution of the edema and abnormal BBB permeability. INTERPRETATION:Thrombin, via its protease-activated receptors, is postulated to activate Src kinase phosphorylation of molecules that acutely injure the BBB and produce edema. Thus, acute administration of Src antagonists blocks edema. In contrast, Src blockade for 2 to 6 days after thrombin injections is postulated to prevent resolution of edema and abnormal BBB permeability in part because Src kinase proto-oncogene members stimulate proliferation of newborn BMVECs and perivascular astrocytes in the neurovascular niche that repair the damaged BBB. Thus, Src kinases not only mediate acute BBB injury but also mediate chronic BBB repair after thrombin-induced injury.
Hemoglobin-induced nitric oxide synthase overexpression and nitric oxide production contribute to blood-brain barrier disruption in the rat.
Yang Shuo,Chen Yizhao,Deng Xinqing,Jiang Weiping,Li Bing,Fu Zhenghao,Du Mouxuan,Ding Rui
Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
Hemoglobin (Hb) released from extravasated erythrocytes may have a critical role in the process of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and subsequent edema formation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been well documented to contribute to BBB disruption. However, considerably less attention has been focused on the role of NO in Hb-induced BBB disruption. This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that Hb-induced NOS overexpression and excessive NO production may contribute to the changes of tight junction (TJ) proteins and subsequent BBB dysfunction. Hemoglobin was infused with stereotactic guidance into the right caudate nucleus of male Sprague Dawley rats. Then, we investigated the effect of Hb on the BBB permeability, changes of TJ proteins (claudin-5, occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAM-1)), iron deposition, expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS), as well as NO production. Hb injection caused a significant increase in BBB permeability. Significant reduction of claudin-5, ZO-1, and JAM-1 was observed after Hb injection as evidenced by PCR and immunofluorescence. After a decrease at early stage, occludin showed a fivefold increase in mRNA level at 7 days. Significant iron deposition was detectable from 48 h to 7 days in a time-dependent manner. The iNOS and eNOS levels dramatically increased after Hb injection concomitantly with large quantities of NO released. Furthermore, enhanced iNOS or eNOS immunoreactivity was co-localized with diffused or diminished claudin-5 staining. We concluded that overexpressed NOS and excessive NO production induced by Hb may contribute to BBB disruption, which may provide an important potential therapeutic target in the treatment of ICH.
The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases.
da Fonseca Anna Carolina Carvalho,Matias Diana,Garcia Celina,Amaral Rackele,Geraldo Luiz Henrique,Freitas Catarina,Lima Flavia Regina Souza
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders.
The classification of microglial activation phenotypes on neurodegeneration and regeneration in Alzheimer's disease brain.
Varnum Megan M,Ikezu Tsuneya
Archivum immunologiae et therapiae experimentalis
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive decline of cognitive function. There is no therapy that can halt or reverse its progression. Contemporary research suggests that age-dependent neuroinflammatory changes may play a significant role in the decreased neurogenesis and cognitive impairments in AD. The innate immune response is characterized by pro-inflammatory (M1) activation of macrophages and subsequent production of specific cytokines, chemokines, and reactive intermediates, followed by resolution and alternative activation for anti-inflammatory signaling (M2a) and wound healing (M2c). We propose that microglial activation phenotypes are analogous to those of macrophages and that their activation plays a significant role in regulating neurogenesis in the brain. Microglia undergo a switch from an M2- to an M1-skewed activation phenotype during aging. This review will assess the neuroimmunological studies that led to characterization of the different microglial activation states in AD mouse models. It will also discuss the roles of microglial activation on neurogenesis in AD and propose anti-inflammatory molecules as exciting therapeutic targets for research. Molecules such as interleukin-4 and CD200 have proven to be important anti-inflammatory mediators in the regulation of neuroinflammation in the brain, which will be discussed in detail for their therapeutic potential.
Microglial dynamics and role in the healthy and diseased brain: a paradigm of functional plasticity.
Gomez-Nicola Diego,Perry V Hugh
The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
The study of the dynamics and functions of microglia in the healthy and diseased brain is a matter of intense scientific activity. The application of new techniques and new experimental approaches has allowed the identification of novel microglial functions and the redefinition of classic ones. In this review, we propose the study of microglial functions, rather than their molecular profiles, to better understand and define the roles of these cells in the brain. We review current knowledge on the role of surveillant microglia, proliferating microglia, pruning/neuromodulatory microglia, phagocytic microglia, and inflammatory microglia and the molecular profiles that are associated with these functions. In the remodeling scenario of microglial biology, the analysis of microglial functional states will inform about the roles in health and disease and will guide us to a more precise understanding of the multifaceted roles of this never-resting cells.
Microglial activation and brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Wu J,Yang S,Xi G,Song S,Fu G,Keep R F,Hua Y
Acta neurochirurgica. Supplement
Microglial activation and thrombin formation contribute to brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) are 2 major proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated whether thrombin stimulates TNF-alpha and IL-1beta secretion in vitro, and whether microglial inhibition reduces ICH-induced brain injury in vivo. There were 2 parts to this study. In the first part, cultured rat microglial cells were treated with vehicle, thrombin (5 and 10U/mL), or thrombin plus tuftsin (0.05 microg/mL), an inhibitor of microglia activation. Levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in culture medium were measured by ELISA at 4, 8, and 24 h after thrombin treatment. In the second part of the study, rats received an intracerebral infusion of 100 microL autologous whole blood with or without 25 microg of tuftsin 1-3 fragment. Rats were killed at day 1 or day 3 for immunohistochemistry and brain water content measurement. We found that thrombin receptors were expressed in cultured microglia cells, and TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels in the culture medium were increased after thrombin treatment. Tuftsin reduced thrombin-induced upregulation of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. In vivo, microglia were activated after ICH, and intracerebral injection of tuftsin reduced brain edema in the ipsilateral basal ganglia (81.1 +/- 0.7% vs. 82.7 +/- 1.3% in vehicle-treated group; p < 0.05) after ICH. These results suggest a critical role of microglia activation in ICH-related brain injury.
Microglial phenotype and adaptation.
Eggen B J L,Raj D,Hanisch U-K,Boddeke H W G M
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Microglia are the prime innate immune cells of the central nervous system. They can transit from a (so-called) resting state under homeostatic conditions towards a pro-inflammatory activation state upon homeostatic disturbances. Under neurodegenerative conditions, microglia have been largely perceived as neurotoxic cells. It is now becoming clear that resting microglia are not inactive but that they serve house-keeping functions. Moreover, microglia activity is not limited to proinflammatory responses, but covers a spectrum of reactive profiles. Depending on the actual situation, activated microglia display specific effector functions supporting inflammation, tissue remodeling, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Many of these functions not only relate to the current state of the local neural environment but also depend on previous experience. In this review, we address microglia functions with respect to determining factors, phenotypic presentations, adaptation to environmental signals and aging. Finally, we point out primary mechanisms of microglia activation, which may comprise therapeutic targets to control neuro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative activity.
Microglial Polarization and Inflammatory Mediators After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Zhang Zhen,Zhang Ze,Lu Hong,Yang Qingwu,Wu He,Wang Jian
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with high mortality and morbidity. When a diseased artery within the brain bursts, expansion and absorption of the resulting hematoma trigger a series of reactions that cause primary and secondary brain injury. Microglia are extremely important for removing the hematoma and clearing debris, but they are also a source of ongoing inflammation. This article discusses the role of microglial activation/polarization and related inflammatory mediators, such as Toll-like receptor 4, matrix metalloproteinases, high-mobility group protein box-1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase, and iron, in secondary injury after ICH and highlights the potential targets for ICH treatment.
Modulators of microglial activation and polarization after intracerebral haemorrhage.
Lan Xi,Han Xiaoning,Li Qian,Yang Qing-Wu,Wang Jian
Nature reviews. Neurology
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most lethal subtype of stroke but currently lacks effective treatment. Microglia are among the first non-neuronal cells on the scene during the innate immune response to ICH. Microglia respond to acute brain injury by becoming activated and developing classic M1-like (proinflammatory) or alternative M2-like (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes. This polarization implies as yet unrecognized actions of microglia in ICH pathology and recovery, perhaps involving microglial production of proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Furthermore, alternatively activated M2-like microglia might promote phagocytosis of red blood cells and tissue debris, a major contribution to haematoma clearance. Interactions between microglia and other cells modulate microglial activation and function, and are also important in ICH pathology. This Review summarizes key studies on modulators of microglial activation and polarization after ICH, including M1-like and M2-like microglial phenotype markers, transcription factors and key signalling pathways. Microglial phagocytosis, haematoma resolution, and the potential crosstalk between microglia and T lymphocytes, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the ICH brain are described. Finally, the clinical and translational implications of microglial polarization in ICH are presented, including the evidence that therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating microglial function might mitigate ICH injury and improve brain repair.
Microglia/macrophage polarization dynamics reveal novel mechanism of injury expansion after focal cerebral ischemia.
Hu Xiaoming,Li Peiying,Guo Yanling,Wang Haiying,Leak Rehana K,Chen Songela,Gao Yanqin,Chen Jun
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Mononuclear phagocytes are highly plastic cells that assume diverse phenotypes in response to microenvironmental signals. The phenotype-specific roles of microglia/macrophages in ischemic brain injury are poorly understood. A comprehensive characterization of microglia/macrophage polarization after ischemia may advance our knowledge of poststroke damage/recovery. METHODS:Focal transient cerebral ischemia was induced in mice for 60 minutes; animals were euthanized at 1 to 14 days of reperfusion. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining for M1 and M2 markers were performed to characterize phenotypic changes in brain cells, including microglia and infiltrating macrophages. In vitro experiments using a transwell system, a conditioned medium transfer system, or a coculture system allowing cell-to-cell contacts were used to further elucidate the effect of neuronal ischemia on microglia/macrophage polarization and, conversely, the effect of microglia/macrophage phenotype on the fate of ischemic neurons. RESULTS:Local microglia and newly recruited macrophages assume the M2 phenotype at early stages of ischemic stroke but gradually transformed into the M1 phenotype in peri-infarct regions. In vitro experiments revealed that ischemic neurons prime microglial polarization toward M1 phenotype. M1-polarized microglia or M1-conditioned media exacerbated oxygen glucose deprivation-induced neuronal death. In contrast, maintaining the M2 phenotype of microglia protected neurons against oxygen glucose deprivation. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that microglia/macrophages respond dynamically to ischemic injury, experiencing an early "healthy" M2 phenotype, followed by a transition to a "sick" M1 phenotype. These dual and opposing roles of microglia/macrophages suggest that stroke therapies should be shifted from simply suppressing microglia/macrophage toward adjusting the balance between beneficial and detrimental microglia/macrophage responses.
Microglial and macrophage polarization—new prospects for brain repair.
Hu Xiaoming,Leak Rehana K,Shi Yejie,Suenaga Jun,Gao Yanqin,Zheng Ping,Chen Jun
Nature reviews. Neurology
The traditional view of the adult brain as a static organ has changed in the past three decades, with the emergence of evidence that it remains plastic and has some regenerative capacity after injury. In the injured brain, microglia and macrophages clear cellular debris and orchestrate neuronal restorative processes. However, activation of these cells can also hinder CNS repair and expand tissue damage. Polarization of macrophage populations toward different phenotypes at different stages of injury might account for this dual role. This Perspectives article highlights the specific roles of polarized microglial and macrophage populations in CNS repair after acute injury, and argues that therapeutic approaches targeting cerebral inflammation should shift from broad suppression of microglia and macrophages towards subtle adjustment of the balance between their phenotypes. Breakthroughs in the identification of regulatory molecules that control these phenotypic shifts could ultimately accelerate research towards curing brain disorders.
Microglia and Monocytes/Macrophages Polarization Reveal Novel Therapeutic Mechanism against Stroke.
Kanazawa Masato,Ninomiya Itaru,Hatakeyama Masahiro,Takahashi Tetsuya,Shimohata Takayoshi
International journal of molecular sciences
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and consists of two types, ischemic and hemorrhagic. Currently, there is no effective treatment to increase the survival rate or improve the quality of life after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the subacute to chronic phases. Therefore, it is necessary to establish therapeutic strategies to facilitate functional recovery in patients with stroke during both phases. Cell-based therapies, using microglia and monocytes/macrophages preconditioned by optimal stimuli and/or any therapies targeting these cells, might be an ideal therapeutic strategy for managing stroke. Microglia and monocytes/macrophages polarize to the classic pro-inflammatory type (M1-like) or alternative protective type (M2-like) by optimal condition. Cell-based therapies using M2-like microglia and monocytes/macrophages might be protective therapeutic strategies against stroke for three reasons. First, M2-like microglia and monocytes/monocytes secrete protective remodeling factors, thus prompting neuronal network recovery via tissue (including neuronal) and vascular remodeling. Second, these cells could migrate to the injured hemisphere through the blood-brain barrier or choroid-plexus. Third, these cells could mitigate the extent of inflammation-induced injuries by suitable timing of therapeutic intervention. Although future translational studies are required, M2-like microglia and monocytes/macrophages therapies are attractive for managing stroke based on their protective functions.
Microglial responses after ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage.
Taylor Roslyn A,Sansing Lauren H
Clinical & developmental immunology
Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. Ischemic stroke is caused by blockage of blood vessels in the brain leading to tissue death, while intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) occurs when a blood vessel ruptures, exposing the brain to blood components. Both are associated with glial toxicity and neuroinflammation. Microglia, as the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), continually sample the environment for signs of injury and infection. Under homeostatic conditions, they have a ramified morphology and phagocytose debris. After stroke, microglia become activated, obtain an amoeboid morphology, and release inflammatory cytokines (the M1 phenotype). However, microglia can also be alternatively activated, performing crucial roles in limiting inflammation and phagocytosing tissue debris (the M2 phenotype). In rodent models, microglial activation occurs very early after stroke and ICH; however, their specific roles in injury and repair remain unclear. This review summarizes the literature on microglial responses after ischemic stroke and ICH, highlighting the mediators of microglial activation and potential therapeutic targets for each condition.
Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Mracsko Eva,Veltkamp Roland
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a particularly severe type of stroke for which no specific treatment has been established yet. Although preclinical models of ICH have substantial methodological limitations, important insight into the pathophysiology has been gained. Mounting evidence suggests an important contribution of inflammatory mechanisms to brain damage and potential repair. Neuroinflammation evoked by intracerebral blood involves the activation of resident microglia, the infiltration of systemic immune cells and the production of cytokines, chemokines, extracellular proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies focused on innate immunity including microglia, monocytes and granulocytes. More recently, the role of adaptive immune cells has received increasing attention. Little is currently known about the interactions among different immune cell populations in the setting of ICH. Nevertheless, immunomodulatory strategies are already being explored in ICH. To improve the chances of translation from preclinical models to patients, a better characterization of the neuroinflammation in patients is desirable.
Microglial physiology: unique stimuli, specialized responses.
Ransohoff Richard M,Perry V Hugh
Annual review of immunology
Microglia, the macrophages of the central nervous system parenchyma, have in the normal healthy brain a distinct phenotype induced by molecules expressed on or secreted by adjacent neurons and astrocytes, and this phenotype is maintained in part by virtue of the blood-brain barrier's exclusion of serum components. Microglia are continually active, their processes palpating and surveying their local microenvironment. The microglia rapidly change their phenotype in response to any disturbance of nervous system homeostasis and are commonly referred to as activated on the basis of the changes in their morphology or expression of cell surface antigens. A wealth of data now demonstrate that the microglia have very diverse effector functions, in line with macrophage populations in other organs. The term activated microglia needs to be qualified to reflect the distinct and very different states of activation-associated effector functions in different disease states. Manipulating the effector functions of microglia has the potential to modify the outcome of diverse neurological diseases.
P2Y receptor is expressed on human microglia under physiological conditions throughout development and is sensitive to neuroinflammatory diseases.
Mildner Alexander,Huang Hao,Radke Josefine,Stenzel Werner,Priller Josef
Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which are essential for immune defence and critically contribute to neuronal functions during homeostasis. Until now, little is known about microglia biology in humans in part due to the lack of microglia-specific markers. We therefore investigated the expression of the purinergic receptor P2Y in human brain tissue. Compared to classical markers used to identify microglia such as Iba1, CD68 or MHCII, we found that P2Y is expressed on parenchymal microglia but is absent from perivascular or meningeal macrophages. We further demonstrate that P2Y expression is stable throughout human brain development, including fetal phases, and quantification of P2 Y12+ microglia revealed that the density of human microglia is constant throughout lifetime. In contrast, CD68 expression increases during aging in cerebellar but not in cortical microglia, indicating regional heterogeneity. CNS pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis-but not schizophrenia-result in decreased P2Y immunoreactivity in plaque- or lesion-associated myeloid cells, whereas Iba1 expression remains detectable. Our results suggest that P2Y is a useful marker for the identification of human microglia throughout the lifespan. Moreover, P2Y expression might help to discriminate activated microglia and infiltrating myeloid cells from quiescent microglia in the human CNS. GLIA 2017;65:375-387.
The P2Y12 receptor regulates microglial activation by extracellular nucleotides.
Haynes Sharon E,Hollopeter Gunther,Yang Guang,Kurpius Dana,Dailey Michael E,Gan Wen-Biao,Julius David
Microglia are primary immune sentinels of the CNS. Following injury, these cells migrate or extend processes toward sites of tissue damage. CNS injury is accompanied by release of nucleotides, serving as signals for microglial activation or chemotaxis. Microglia express several purinoceptors, including a G(i)-coupled subtype that has been implicated in ATP- and ADP-mediated migration in vitro. Here we show that microglia from mice lacking G(i)-coupled P2Y(12) receptors exhibit normal baseline motility but are unable to polarize, migrate or extend processes toward nucleotides in vitro or in vivo. Microglia in P2ry(12)(-/-) mice show significantly diminished directional branch extension toward sites of cortical damage in the living mouse. Moreover, P2Y(12) expression is robust in the 'resting' state, but dramatically reduced after microglial activation. These results imply that P2Y(12) is a primary site at which nucleotides act to induce microglial chemotaxis at early stages of the response to local CNS injury.
Microglia: actively surveying and shaping neuronal circuit structure and function.
Wake Hiroaki,Moorhouse Andrew J,Miyamoto Akiko,Nabekura Junichi
Trends in neurosciences
The traditional role of microglia has been in brain infection and disease, phagocytosing debris and secreting factors to modify disease progression. Recent evidence extends their role to healthy brain homeostasis, including the regulation of cell death, synapse elimination, neurogenesis, and neuronal surveillance. These actions contribute to the maturation and plasticity of neural circuits that ultimately shape behavior. Here we review microglial contributions to the development, plasticity, and maintenance of neural circuits with a focus on interactions with synapses. We introduce this topic by reviewing recent studies on the migration and proliferation of microglia within the brain, and conclude with the proposal that microglia dysfunction may adversely affect brain function, and thereby contribute to the development of psychiatric and neurological disorders.
Exploring the full spectrum of macrophage activation.
Mosser David M,Edwards Justin P
Nature reviews. Immunology
Macrophages display remarkable plasticity and can change their physiology in response to environmental cues. These changes can give rise to different populations of cells with distinct functions. In this Review we suggest a new grouping of macrophage populations based on three different homeostatic activities - host defence, wound healing and immune regulation. We propose that similarly to primary colours, these three basic macrophage populations can blend into various other 'shades' of activation. We characterize each population and provide examples of macrophages from specific disease states that have the characteristics of one or more of these populations.
Sublime microglia: expanding roles for the guardians of the CNS.
Salter Michael W,Beggs Simon
Recent findings challenge the concept that microglia solely function in disease states in the central nervous system (CNS). Rather than simply reacting to CNS injury, infection, or pathology, emerging lines of evidence indicate that microglia sculpt the structure of the CNS, refine neuronal circuitry and network connectivity, and contribute to plasticity. These physiological functions of microglia in the normal CNS begin during development and persist into maturity. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for functions of microglia beyond neuroinflammation and discuss the rich repertoire of signaling and communication motifs in microglia that are critical both in pathology and for the normal physiology of the CNS.
Review: activation patterns of microglia and their identification in the human brain.
Boche D,Perry V H,Nicoll J A R
Neuropathology and applied neurobiology
Microglia in the central nervous system are usually maintained in a quiescent state. When activated, they can perform many diverse functions which may be either beneficial or harmful depending on the situation. Although microglial activation may be accompanied by changes in morphology, morphological changes cannot accurately predict the function being undertaken by a microglial cell. Studies of peripheral macrophages and in vitro and animal studies of microglia have resulted in the definition of specific activation states: M1 (classical activation) and M2 (sometimes subdivided into alternative activation and acquired deactivation). Some authors have suggested that these might be an overlapping continuum of functions rather than discrete categories. In this review, we consider translational aspects of our knowledge of microglia: specifically, we discuss the question as to what extent different activation states of microglia exist in the human central nervous system, which tools can be used to identify them and emerging evidence for such changes in ageing and in Alzheimer's disease.
Functions and mechanisms of microglia/macrophages in neuroinflammation and neurogenesis after stroke.
Xiong Xiao-Yi,Liu Liang,Yang Qing-Wu
Progress in neurobiology
Microglia/macrophages are the major immune cells involved in the defence against brain damage. Their morphology and functional changes are correlated with the release of danger signals induced by stroke. These cells are normally responsible for clearing away dead neural cells and restoring neuronal functions. However, when excessively activated by the damage-associated molecular patterns following stroke, they can produce a large number of proinflammatory cytokines that can disrupt neural cells and the blood-brain barrier and influence neurogenesis. These effects indicate the important roles of microglia/macrophages in the pathophysiological processes of stroke. However, the modifiable and adaptable nature of microglia/macrophages may also be beneficial for brain repair and not just result in damage. These distinct roles may be attributed to the different microglia/macrophage phenotypes because the M1 population is mainly destructive, while the M2 population is neuroprotective. Additionally, different gene expression signature changes in microglia/macrophages have been found in diverse inflammatory milieus. These biofunctional features enable dual roles for microglia/macrophages in brain damage and repair. Currently, it is thought that the proper inflammatory milieu may provide a suitable microenvironment for neurogenesis; however, detailed mechanisms underlying the inflammatory responses that initiate or inhibit neurogenesis remain unknown. This review summarizes recent progress concerning the mechanisms involved in brain damage, repair and regeneration related to microglia/macrophage activation and phenotype transition after stroke. We also argue that future translational studies should be targeting multiple key regulating molecules to improve brain repair, which should be accompanied by the concept of a "therapeutic time window" for sequential therapies.
Heterogeneity in the distribution and morphology of microglia in the normal adult mouse brain.
Lawson L J,Perry V H,Dri P,Gordon S
We have examined the distribution of microglia in the normal adult mouse brain using immunocytochemical detection of the macrophage specific plasma membrane glycoprotein F4/80. We were interested to learn whether the distribution of microglia in the adult brain is related to regional variation in the magnitude of cell death during development and resulting monocyte recruitment, or whether the adult distribution is influenced by other local microenvironmental cues. We further investigated the possibility that microglia are sensitive to their microenvironment by studying their morphology in different brain regions. Microglia are present in large numbers in all major divisions of the brain but are not uniformly distributed. There is a more than five-fold variation in the density of immunostained microglial processes between different regions. More microglia are found in gray matter than white. Particularly, densely populated areas include the hippocampus, olfactory telencephalon, basal ganglia and substantia nigra. In comparison, the less densely populated areas include fibre tracts, cerebellum and much of the brainstem. The cerebral cortex, thalamus and hypothalamus have average cell densities. There was no simple relationship between the amount of developmental cell death and the adult distribution of microglia. An estimate of the total number of microglia in the adult mouse brain, 3.5 x 10(6), is comparable to that found in the liver on a weight for weight basis. However, microglia possess up to twice the surface area of membrane of Kupffer cells, the large resident macrophages of the liver. The proportion of cells that were microglia varied from 5% in the cortex and corpus callosum, to 12% in the substantia nigra. Microglia vary in morphology depending on their location. They were broadly classified into three categories. Compact cells are rounded cells, sometimes with one or two short thick limbs, bearing short processes ("bristles"). They resemble Kupffer cells of the liver and are found exclusively in sites lacking a blood-brain barrier. Longitudinally branched cells are found in fibre tracts and possess several long processes which are usually aligned parallel to, or more occasionally perpendicular to, the longitudinal axis of the nerve fibres. Radially branched cells are found throughout the neuropil. They can be extremely elaborate and there is wide variation in the length and complexity of branching of the processes. There was no evidence of monocyte-like cells in the adult CNS. The systematic variation in microglial morphology provides further evidence that these cells are sensitive to their microenvironment.
Intracerebral haemorrhage: mechanisms of injury and therapeutic targets.
Keep Richard F,Hua Ya,Xi Guohua
The Lancet. Neurology
Intracerebral haemorrhage accounts for about 10-15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. No successful phase 3 clinical trials for this disorder have been completed. In the past 6 years, the number of preclinical and clinical studies focused on intracerebral haemorrhage has risen. Important advances have been made in animal models of this disorder and in our understanding of mechanisms underlying brain injury after haemorrhage. Several therapeutic targets have subsequently been identified that are now being pursued in clinical trials. Many clinical trials have been based on limited preclinical data, and guidelines to justify taking preclinical results to the clinic are needed.
Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral hemorrhage: secondary brain injury.
Aronowski Jaroslaw,Zhao Xiurong
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an often fatal type of stroke that kills approximately 30,000 people annually in the United States. If the patient survives the ictus, then the resulting hematoma within brain parenchyma triggers a series of adverse events causing secondary insults and severe neurological deficits. This article discusses selected aspects of secondary brain injury after ICH and outlines key mechanisms associated with hematoma toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Finally, this review discusses the relevance of hematoma resolution processes as a target for ICH therapy and presents potential clinically relevant molecular targets that could be harnessed to treat secondary injury associated with ICH injury.
Preclinical and clinical research on inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Progress in neurobiology
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most lethal stroke subtypes. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with ICH, its pathophysiology has not been investigated as well as that of ischemic stroke. Available evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the progression of ICH-induced secondary brain injury. For example, in preclinical ICH models, microglial activation has been shown to occur within 1h, much earlier than neutrophil infiltration. Recent advances in our understanding of neuroinflammatory pathways have revealed several new molecular targets, and related therapeutic strategies have been tested in preclinical ICH models. This review summarizes recent progress made in preclinical models of ICH, surveys preclinical and clinical studies of inflammatory cells (leukocytes, macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes) and inflammatory mediators (matrix metalloproteinases, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase, and iron), and highlights the emerging areas of therapeutic promise.
Thrombin and hemin as central factors in the mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury and as potential targets for intervention.
Babu Ranjith,Bagley Jacob H,Di Chunhui,Friedman Allan H,Adamson Cory
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stoke that may cause significant morbidity and mortality. Brain injury due to ICH initially occurs within the first few hours as a result of mass effect due to hematoma formation. However, there is increasing interest in the mechanisms of secondary brain injury as many patients continue to deteriorate clinically despite no signs of rehemorrhage or hematoma expansion. This continued insult after primary hemorrhage is believed to be mediated by the cytotoxic, excitotoxic, oxidative, and inflammatory effects of intraparenchymal blood. The main factors responsible for this injury are thrombin and erythrocyte contents such as hemoglobin. Therapies including thrombin inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, chelators to bind free iron, and antiinflammatory drugs are currently under investigation for reducing this secondary brain injury. This review will discuss the molecular mechanisms of brain injury as a result of intraparenchymal blood, potential targets for therapeutic intervention, and treatment strategies currently in development.
Inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage.
Wang Jian,Doré Sylvain
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating clinical event without effective therapies. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the progression of ICH-induced brain injury. Inflammation is mediated by cellular components, such as leukocytes and microglia, and molecular components, including prostaglandins, chemokines, cytokines, extracellular proteases, and reactive oxygen species. Better understanding of the role of the ICH-induced inflammatory response and its potential for modulation might have profound implications for patient treatment. In this review, a summary of the available literature on the inflammatory responses after ICH is presented along with discussion of some of the emerging opportunities for potential therapeutic strategies. In the near future, additional strategies that target inflammation could offer exciting new promise in the therapeutic approach to ICH.
Minimally invasive surgery plus recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation decreases perihematomal edema.
Mould W Andrew,Carhuapoma J Ricardo,Muschelli John,Lane Karen,Morgan Timothy C,McBee Nichol A,Bistran-Hall Amanda J,Ullman Natalie L,Vespa Paul,Martin Neil A,Awad Issam,Zuccarello Mario,Hanley Daniel F,
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Perihematomal edema (PHE) can worsen outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Reports suggest that blood degradation products lead to PHE. We hypothesized that hematoma evacuation will reduce PHE volume and that treatment with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) will not exacerbate it. METHODS:Minimally invasive surgery and rt-PA in ICH evacuation (MISTIE) phase II tested safety and efficacy of hematoma evacuation after ICH. We conducted a semiautomated, computerized volumetric analysis on computed tomography to assess impact of hematoma removal on PHE and effects of rt-PA on PHE. Volumetric analyses were performed on baseline stability and end of treatment scans. RESULTS:Seventy-nine surgical and 39 medical patients from minimally invasive surgery and rt-PA in ICH evacuation phase II (MISTIE II) were analyzed. Mean hematoma volume at end of treatment was 19.6±14.5 cm(3) for the surgical cohort and 40.7±13.9 cm(3) for the medical cohort (P<0.001). Edema volume at end of treatment was lower for the surgical cohort: 27.7±13.3 cm(3) than medical cohort: 41.7±14.6 cm(3) (P<0.001). Graded effect of clot removal on PHE was observed when patients with >65%, 20% to 65%, and <20% ICH removed were analyzed (P<0.001). Positive correlation between PHE reduction and percent of ICH removed was identified (ρ=0.658; P<0.001). In the surgical cohort, 69 patients underwent surgical aspiration and rt-PA, whereas 10 underwent surgical aspiration only. Both cohorts achieved similar clot reduction: surgical aspiration and rt-PA, 18.9±14.5 cm(3); and surgical aspiration only, 24.5±14.0 cm(3) (P=0.26). Edema at end of treatment in surgical aspiration and rt-PA was 28.1±13.8 cm(3) and 24.4±8.6 cm(3) in surgical aspiration only (P=0.41). CONCLUSIONS:Hematoma evacuation is associated with significant reduction in PHE. Furthermore, PHE does not seem to be exacerbated by rt-PA, making such neurotoxic effects unlikely when the drug is delivered to intracranial clot.
Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.
Hemphill J Claude,Greenberg Steven M,Anderson Craig S,Becker Kyra,Bendok Bernard R,Cushman Mary,Fung Gordon L,Goldstein Joshua N,Macdonald R Loch,Mitchell Pamela H,Scott Phillip A,Selim Magdy H,Woo Daniel, , ,
PURPOSE:The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS:A formal literature search of PubMed was performed through the end of August 2013. The writing committee met by teleconference to discuss narrative text and recommendations. Recommendations follow the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association methods of classifying the level of certainty of the treatment effect and the class of evidence. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 6 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Scientific Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. RESULTS:Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the care of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Topics focused on diagnosis, management of coagulopathy and blood pressure, prevention and control of secondary brain injury and intracranial pressure, the role of surgery, outcome prediction, rehabilitation, secondary prevention, and future considerations. Results of new phase 3 trials were incorporated. CONCLUSIONS:Intracerebral hemorrhage remains a serious condition for which early aggressive care is warranted. These guidelines provide a framework for goal-directed treatment of the patient with intracerebral hemorrhage.
Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage. A powerful and easy-to-use predictor of 30-day mortality.
Broderick J P,Brott T G,Duldner J E,Tomsick T,Huster G
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to determine the 30-day mortality and morbidity of intracerebral hemorrhage in a large metropolitan population and to determine the most important predictors of 30-day outcome. METHODS:We reviewed the medical records and computed tomographic films for all cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in Greater Cincinnati during 1988. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality were determined using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. RESULTS:The 30-day mortality for the 188 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage was 44%, with half of deaths occurring within the first 2 days of onset. Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage was the strongest predictor of 30-day mortality for all locations of intracerebral hemorrhage. Using three categories of parenchymal hemorrhage volume (0 to 29 cm3, 30 to 60 cm3, and 61 cm3 or more), calculated by a quick and easy-to-use ellipsoid method, and two categories of the Glasgow Coma Scale (9 or more and 8 or less), 30-day mortality was predicted correctly with a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 98%. Patients with a parenchymal hemorrhage volume of 60 cm3 or more on their initial computed tomogram and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less had a predicted 30-day mortality of 91%. Patients with a volume of less than 30 cm3 and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 9 or more had a predicted 30-day mortality of 19%. Only one of the 71 patients with a volume of parenchymal hemorrhage of 30 cm3 or more could function independently at 30 days. CONCLUSIONS:Volume of intracerebral hemorrhage, in combination with the initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, is a powerful and easy-to-use predictor of 30-day mortality and morbidity in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Mechanisms of brain injury after intracerebral haemorrhage.
Xi Guohua,Keep Richard F,Hoff Julian T
The Lancet. Neurology
The past decade has resulted in a rapid increase in knowledge of mechanisms underlying brain injury induced by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Animal studies have suggested roles for clot-derived factors and the initial physical trauma and mass effect as a result of haemorrhage. The coagulation cascade (especially thrombin), haemoglobin breakdown products, and inflammation all play a part in ICH-induced injury and could provide new therapeutic targets. Human imaging has shown that many ICH continue to expand after the initial ictus. Rebleeding soon after the initial haemorrhage is common and forms the basis of a current clinical trial using factor VIIa to prevent rebleeding. However, questions about mechanisms of injuries remain. There are conflicting data on the role of ischaemia in ICH and there is uncertainty over the role of clot removal in ICH therapy. The next decade should bring further information about the underlying mechanisms of ICH-induced brain injury and new therapeutic interventions for this severe form of stroke. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying ICH-induced brain injury.
Advances in the management of intracerebral hemorrhage.
Adeoye Opeolu,Broderick Joseph P
Nature reviews. Neurology
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major public-health problem worldwide. No proven treatments are available for this condition, which is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Only 20% of individuals who survive ICH are independent at 6 months. Hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and anticoagulation are known to be associated with such hemorrhages. No effective preventive therapies exist specifically for CAA-related ICH. The incidence of hypertension-related ICH might be decreasing in some populations with improvements in the treatment of hypertension; however, the incidence of anticoagulant-related ICH is increasing, as the use of anticoagulants rises. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the clinical management of ICH, although in the past 10 years completed medical and surgical clinical trials-examining hemostatic therapy, blood pressure control and/or hematoma evacuation-have refined our understanding of the goals of such management. Ongoing clinical trials, which have built on the lessons of past studies, hold promise for the development of effective, scientifically proven treatments for ICH. In this Review, we discuss clinical trials for ICH that have been completed in the past 10 years, the contributions of these studies to the clinical management of ICH, and the ongoing trials that might further improve clinical care.
Changes in cost and outcome among US patients with stroke hospitalized in 1990 to 1991 and those hospitalized in 2000 to 2001.
Qureshi Adnan I,Suri M Fareed K,Nasar Abu,Kirmani Jawad F,Ezzeddine Mustapha A,Divani Afshin A,Giles Wayne H
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of new treatments by examining the changes between 1990 to 1991 and 2000 to 2001 in in-hospital mortality rates and hospital charges in adult patients with stroke. METHODS:From the Nationwide Inpatient Survey, the largest all-payer inpatient care database in the United States, patients with stroke admitted in 1990 to 1991 or 2000 to 2001 were studied. We analyzed hospital charges (adjusted for inflation based on the Consumer Price Index of the Bureau of Labor Statistics) and patient outcomes by type of institution: rural, urban nonteaching, and urban teaching in 1990 to 1991 and in 2000 to 2001. RESULTS:In 1990 to 1991, there were 1 736 352 admissions for cerebrovascular diseases, and in 2000 to 2001, there were 1 958 018 admissions. The number of admissions in urban teaching hospitals increased by 13%, 19%, and 25%, for ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. The overall in-hospital mortality rate relatively declined by 36% for ischemic stroke, by 6% for intracerebral hemorrhages, and by 10% for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The mean hospital charges increased from $10 500 to $16 200 for patients with ischemic stroke, from $18 300 to $28 800 for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, and from $37 400 to $65 900 for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Mortality rates among patients admitted after ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were all lower in urban teaching hospitals than in rural and urban nonteaching hospitals and the mean charges per admission were all higher. CONCLUSIONS:There has been an increase in the inflation-adjusted hospital charges for all patients with stroke and a reduction in mortality rates for all stroke subtypes probably related to an increase in the proportion of patients with stroke admitted to urban teaching hospitals.
Heart disease and stroke statistics--2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association.
,Lloyd-Jones Donald,Adams Robert J,Brown Todd M,Carnethon Mercedes,Dai Shifan,De Simone Giovanni,Ferguson T Bruce,Ford Earl,Furie Karen,Gillespie Cathleen,Go Alan,Greenlund Kurt,Haase Nancy,Hailpern Susan,Ho P Michael,Howard Virginia,Kissela Brett,Kittner Steven,Lackland Daniel,Lisabeth Lynda,Marelli Ariane,McDermott Mary M,Meigs James,Mozaffarian Dariush,Mussolino Michael,Nichol Graham,Roger Véronique L,Rosamond Wayne,Sacco Ralph,Sorlie Paul,Roger Véronique L,Stafford Randall,Thom Thomas,Wasserthiel-Smoller Sylvia,Wong Nathan D,Wylie-Rosett Judith,
Long term survival after primary intracerebral haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study.
Fogelholm R,Murros K,Rissanen A,Avikainen S
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
OBJECTIVES:To determine the long term survival and predictors of death in patients with primary intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in Central Finland. METHODS:Data were collected retrospectively on all adult patients with first ever ICH in Central Finland county between September 1985 and December 1991. The survival of all patients at the end of December 2002 was investigated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed and factors associated with both early (< or =28 days) and late deaths determined. Long term survival was compared with the general Finnish population of the same age and sex distribution. The causes of death were compared with those of the population of Central Finland. RESULTS:411 patients with first ever ICH were identified, 199 men (mean age 64.9 years) and 212 women (mean age 69.5); 30 died before hospital admission, and 208 (50.6%) within the first 28 days. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, at 16 years the cumulative survival was 3.2% for men and 9.8% for women. The 28 day survivors had a 4.5-fold increased annual risk of dying during the first year after ICH, and 2.2-fold during years 2 to 6. On admission, significant independent predictors of death within the first four weeks were unconsciousness, lateral shift of cerebral midline structures, mean arterial pressure > or =134 mm Hg, hyperglycaemia, anticoagulant treatment, and ventricular extrasystoles. Predictors of late death for the 28 day survivors were old age, male sex, and heart failure. CONCLUSIONS:Primary intracerebral haemorrhage has a poor short and long term outcome. The results emphasise the importance of primary and secondary prevention for ICH.
Incidence, case fatality, and functional outcome of intracerebral haemorrhage over time, according to age, sex, and ethnic origin: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
van Asch Charlotte Jj,Luitse Merel Ja,Rinkel Gabriël Je,van der Tweel Ingeborg,Algra Ale,Klijn Catharina Jm
The Lancet. Neurology
BACKGROUND:Since the early 1980s, imaging techniques have enabled population-based studies of intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to assess the incidence, case fatality, and functional outcome of intracerebral haemorrhage in relation to age, sex, ethnic origin, and time period in studies published since 1980. METHODS:From PubMed and Embase searches with predefined inclusion criteria, we identified population-based studies published between January, 1980, and November, 2008. We calculated incidence and case fatality. Incidences for multiple studies were pooled in a random-effects binomial meta-analysis. Time trends of case fatality were assessed with weighted linear-regression analysis. FINDINGS:36 eligible studies described 44 time periods (mid-year range 1983-2006). These studies included 8145 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. Incidence did not decrease between 1980 and 2008. Overall incidence was 24.6 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 19.7-30.7). Incidence was not significantly lower in women than in men (overall incidence ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.61-1.18). Using the age group 45-54 years as reference, incidence ratios increased from 0.10 (95% CI 0.06-0.14) for people aged less than 45 years to 9.6 (6.6-13.9) for people older than 85 years. Median case fatality at 1 month was 40.4% (range 13.1-61.0) and did not decrease over time, and was lower in Japan (16.7%, 95% CI 15.0-18.5) than elsewhere (42.3%, 40.9-43.6). Six studies reported functional outcome, with independency rates of between 12% and 39%. Incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage per 100 000 person-years was 24.2 (95% CI 20.9-28.0) in white people, 22.9 (14.8-35.6) in black people, 19.6 (15.7-24.5) in Hispanic people, and 51.8 (38.8-69.3) in Asian people. INTERPRETATION:Incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage increases with age and has not decreased between 1980 and 2006. Case fatality is lower in Japan than elsewhere, increases with age, and has not decreased over time. More data on functional outcome are needed. FUNDING:Netherlands Heart Foundation.