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    The Associated Factors and Clinical Features of Neuropathic Pain After Brachial Plexus Injuries: A Cross-sectional Study. Zhou Yingjie,Liu Peixi,Rui Jing,Zhao Xin,Lao Jie The Clinical journal of pain INTRODUCTION:Neuropathic pain in patients with brachial plexus injuries brings complicated obstacles to the treatment and recovery for both surgeons and patients. OBJECTIVES:The clinical features of neuropathic pain, including pain intensity, type and time phase, need to be investigated. Moreover, possible associated factors need to be explored. METHODS:A cross-sectional study containing 77 participants was conducted. Their baseline information and injury-related conditions were collected. The Present Pain Index evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale, self-reports using the specific pain questionnaires were used for screening and estimating the patients' pain. T test, χ test, Logistic Regression, and correlation coefficient were used when conducting the statistical analyses. RESULTS:The occurrence rate of neuropathic pain in our study was 54.5%. Paresthesia/dysesthesia had the highest average score in our population. Among potential associated factors, smoking (P=0.001), regular alcohol drinking (P=0.001), total brachial plexus injuries (P=0.01), and avulsions (P=0.019) were related to the development of neuropathic pain. Patients with neuropathic pain experienced significantly poorer function of the upper limbs measured by the Disabilities of Arm, Hand and Shoulder questionnaire (P<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between the function of the upper limbs and pain intensity (r=0.60, P<0.001). DISCUSSION:Though the pain type and time phase manifested differently across patients, paresthesia/dysesthesia occurred most commonly. Patients were more likely to develop neuropathic pain if they had total brachial plexus injuries, avulsion and bad life habits. Moreover, the function of the upper limbs was affected by pain. 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000493
    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation compared to conventional physiotherapy for adults with traumatic upper brachial plexus injury: A protocol for a randomized clinical trial. Chagas Alessandra Carolina de Santana,Wanderley Débora,Barboza Paulo José Moté,Martins José Vicente Pereira,de Moraes Alexa Alves,de Souza Fernando Henrique Morais,de Oliveira Daniella Araújo Physiotherapy research international : the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy BACKGROUND:Traumatic upper plexus injury affects daily living activities performance and participation of individuals. Physical therapy treatment has a fundamental role on functional recovery, but it is still an unexplored and challenging field. AIM:To develop a protocol to evaluate the efficacy of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) compared to conventional physiotherapy (CPT group) on functionality and quality of life. METHODS:A committee was formed by four physical therapists to develop the treatment protocol. A Delphi study was carried out in order to quantify the level of agreement. A protocol for a randomized controlled trial was proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol in improving functionality and quality of life, according Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials. Participants will be randomly assigned (1:1) to PNF or CPT group and two weekly sessions will be carried out for 12 months postsurgery, with a three-month follow-up. The main outcome measurements are: upper limb functionality, quality of life, range of motion, muscle strength, tactile sensitivity, and pain, which will be assessed at baseline, on the 6th, 9th, and 12th months postsurgery. RESULT:A PNF protocol was developed for traumatic upper brachial plexus injury, consisting of 11 illustrated exercises, three for immediate postoperative and eight for postoperative. Biomechanical objectives, observations, positions of patients and therapists and PNF principles, procedures and techniques have been described. An 80% agreement on all items in the first round of the Delphi study was achieved. CONCLUSION:A protocol based on the PNF-concept was developed with the aim of improving the functionality and quality of life of individuals undergoing nerve transfer after traumatic injury to the upper plexus. The detailed description of a physical therapy treatment protocol through an appropriate method will allow its use in clinical practice and in future studies with this population. 10.1002/pri.1873
    The research for the function evaluation of facial nerve and the mechanisms of rehabilitation training. Si-Yi Han,Ling Wang,Hai-Bo Yu,Yan-Hua Gou,Wei-Zheng Zhong,Xing-Xian Huang,Shao-Yun Zhang,Yong-Feng Liu,Yi-Rong Chen Medicine BACKGROUND:Peripheral facial paralysis (PFP) is a common peripheral neural disease. Acupuncture treatment combined with PFP rehabilitation exercises is a routine method of PFP treatment. This article is to provide a new visual and objective evaluation method for exploring the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture treatment on PFP, and develop an interactive augmented facial nerve function rehabilitation training system with multiple training models. METHODS:This prospective and observational trial will recruit 200 eligible participants for the following study. In the trial, the laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) technology will be applied to monitor the microcirculation of facial blood flow during acupuncture, and real-time monitoring algorithms, data sampling, and digital imaging methods will be conducted by machine learning and image segmentation. Then, a database of patient facial expressions will be built, the correlation between surface blood flow perfusion volume and facial structure symmetry will be analyzed, combined with scale assessment and electrophysiological detection. In addition, we will also explore the objectivity and effectiveness of LASCA in the evaluation of facial paralysis (FP), and the changes in blood flow microcirculation before and after acupuncture treatment will be analyzed. RESULTS:The standard image of the facial target area with facial nerve injury will be manually segmented by the convolutional neural network method. The blood flow images of the eyelid, cheek, and mandible of the patients' affected and healthy side will be compared and evaluated. Laser speckle blood flow symmetry Pr and its changes in FP condition evolution and prognosis outcome will be measured, and relevant characteristic signals values will be extracted. Finally, COX regression analysis method is conducted to establish a higher accuracy prediction model of FP with cross-validation based on laser speckle blood flow imaging technology. CONCLUSIONS:We use modern interdisciplinary high-tech technologies to explore the mechanism of acupuncture rehabilitation training in PFP. And we will provide evidence for the feasibility of using the LASCA technique as a typing diagnosis of FP in the acupuncture rehabilitation treatment of PFP. REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR1800019463. 10.1097/MD.0000000000025430
    Clinical evaluation of a hyaluronan-based gel following microsurgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves of the hand. Atzei Andrea,Calcagni Maurizio,Breda Bruno,Fasolo Giampaolo,Pajardi Giorgio,Cugola Landino Microsurgery A controlled clinical trial was performed to investigate the safety and efficacy of the hyaluronate-based gel polymer Hyaloglide after microsurgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves of the hand. Thirty patients were randomized to receive either no postsurgical treatment (n = 16) or Hyaloglide (n = 14) and were clinically evaluated at various intervals for 1 year. The application of Hyaloglide posed no safety concerns. Efficacy was assessed by the recovery of sensitivity, measurement of pain, and progression of Tinel's sign. The Hyaloglide-treated group showed better improvement in recovery from pain, approaching statistical significance during the first 3 months postsurgery. Likewise, recovery of sensitivity was also higher in the Hyaloglide-treated group throughout the entire follow-up period, and the distance of Tinel's sign was longer in the Hyaloglide-treated group (P < 0.05 at day 30). The application of Hyaloglide may improve recovery of sensitivity and decrease pain following microsurgical repair of the peripheral nerves of the hand. 10.1002/micr.20299
    Clinical research of comprehensive rehabilitation in treating brachial plexus injury patients. Zhou Jun-Ming,Gu Yu-Dong,Xu Xiao-Jun,Zhang Shen-Yu,Zhao Xin Chinese medical journal BACKGROUND:Brachial plexus injury is one of the difficult medical problems in the world. The aim of this study was to observe the clinical therapeutic effect of comprehensive rehabilitation in treating dysfunction after brachial plexus injury. METHODS:Forty-three cases of dysfunction after brachial plexus injury were divided into two groups randomly. The treatment group, which totaled 21 patients (including 14 cases of total brachial plexus injury and seven cases of branch brachial plexus injury), was treated with comprehensive rehabilitation including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, mid-frequency electrotherapy, Tuina therapy, and occupational therapy. The control group, which totaled 22 patients (including 16 cases of total brachial plexus injury and six cases of branch brachial plexus injury), was treated with home-based electrical nerve stimulation and occupational therapy. Each course was of 30 days duration and the patients received four courses totally. After four courses, the rehabilitation effect was evaluated according to the brachial plexus function evaluation standard and electromyogram (EMG) assessment. RESULTS:In the treatment group, there was significant difference in the scores of brachial plexus function pre- and post-treatment (P < 0.01) in both "total" and "branch" injury. The scores of two "total injury" groups had statistical differences (P < 0.01), while the scores of two "branch injury" groups had statistical differences (P < 0.05) after four courses. EMG suggested that the appearance of regeneration potentials of the recipient nerves in the treatment group was earlier than the control group and had significant differences (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Comprehensive rehabilitation was more effective in treating dysfunction after brachial plexus injury than nonintegrated rehabilitation.
    Involvement of Cdc2 in axonal regeneration enhanced by exercise training in rats. Seo Tae Beom,Han In Sun,Yoon Jin-Hwan,Hong Kwon-Eui,Yoon Sung-Jin,Namgung Uk Medicine and science in sports and exercise PURPOSE:Physical activity can improve sensorimotor recovery after peripheral nerve injury. We examined the effects of treadmill training (TMT) on axonal regeneration in the injured sciatic nerve of the rat and further investigated cellular and molecular events that underlie enhanced axonal regrowth by training. METHODS:After crush injury of the sciatic nerves, rats were randomly assigned into either TMT or sedentary groups. Three to 14 d after injury, changes in protein levels in the regenerating nerve were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Axonal regeneration was assessed by anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. The animals' functional recovery was determined by the sciatic functional index. RESULTS:We identified enhanced axonal regrowth in the distal stump of the sciatic nerve 7-14 d after injury in the rats with TMT. Cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) mRNA and protein levels were highly increased in the injured sciatic nerves 3 and 7 d after injury, and decreased to basal levels 14 d later. Daily TMT accelerated distal shift of Cdc2 mRNA and protein induced in the regenerating nerves, and Cdc2 kinase activity was similarly increased in the distal stump by TMT. Cdc2 protein induced by TMT was mainly colocalized with Schwann cell marker S100beta protein, and correlated with axial distribution pattern of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled proliferating cell population in the regenerating nerve. We further demonstrate that axonal regeneration and motor function recovery after injury, both of which were promoted by TMT, were greatly suppressed by in vivo administration of Cdc2 inhibitor roscovitine. CONCLUSION:The present data suggest that Cdc2 kinase activated in the regenerating sciatic nerve may play an important role in TMT-mediated enhancement of axonal regeneration. 10.1249/01.mss.0000227311.00976.68
    [Surgical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. Evaluation of a multicenter study]. Päzolt H J,Henkert K Zentralblatt fur Chirurgie In a retrospective study 674 nerve injuries of the upper limb were analysed, which were treated by operative management in 10 hospitals of the GDR. The median nerve (226 cases) and the ulnar nerve (209 cases) most were frequently concerned. 427 injured nerves were reconstructed primary or early secondary. In 46.3% epineural nerve suture was performed and in 23% interfascicular nerve grafting. Good or very good results occurred in 71% (motor recovery) and 70.7% (sensory recovery) according to the scheme of Highet. The best results occurred after primary reconstruction independent of operative technique. The results get worse with increasing age.
    Effect of Unmodulated 5-kHz Alternating Currents Versus Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Mechanical and Thermal Pain, Tactile Threshold, and Peripheral Nerve Conduction: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial. Avendaño-Coy Juan,Gómez-Soriano Julio,Goicoechea-García Carlos,Basco-López Julian Angel,Taylor Julian Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of unmodulated 5-kHz alternating current on mechanical pain threshold (MPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), tactile threshold (TT), and peripheral nerve conduction (PNC) compared with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and sham stimulation. SETTING:National referral center. DESIGN:Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. PARTICIPANTS:Healthy volunteers (N=38). No dropouts or adverse events were reported. INTERVENTION:TENS, unmodulated 5-kHz currents, and sham stimulation were applied on the radial nerve for 20 minutes with a 24-hour washout period between them and concealed intervention allocation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Four measures were taken: before, during, and 2 after the interventions. Algometry was used to assess MPT, a Peltier thermode for HPT using the method of limits, Von Frey filaments for TT, and radial nerve compound action potential. RESULTS:No differences were observed on MPT, HPT, and PNC when 5-kHz current and TENS were compared. However, TT increased 56.2mN (95% confidence interval [CI], 28.8-83.6) in the TENS group compared with the 5-kHz current group during intervention. Compared with sham stimulation during intervention, MPT increased 4.7N (95% CI, 0.3-9.2) using 5-kHz current and 10.4N (95% CI, 3.5-17.3) with TENS. TT increased 17.2mN (95% CI, 4.7-29.7) with 5-kHz current and 73.4mN (95% CI, 47.5-99.2) with TENS. However, HPT increased 1.0°C (95% CI, 0.2-2.0) only with TENS. For the PNC, no differences were found among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS:Unmodulated 5-kHz current produced an increase in somatosensory thresholds that was greater than placebo but not when compared with TENS; however, participants perceived 5-kHz currents to be more comfortable and showed more habituation to them. 10.1016/j.apmr.2016.11.020
    Electric acupuncture treatment of peripheral nerve injury. Hao J,Zhao C,Cao S,Yang S Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan 54 cases of peripheral nerve injury were treated by electric acupuncture and compared with 54 control cases treated with supportive medication. The changes after treatment were observed chiefly by electromyography while sensory and motor improvement were also recorded as auxiliary indicators. The therapeutic results in the acupuncture group were 5 cases cured, 26 markedly effective, 19 improved, and 4 cases failed, a total effective rate of 92.6% in contrast to the 55.6% for the controls. Analysis of the therapeutic results showed that 1) those in the acupuncture group were significantly better than in the control group; 2) nerve injuries should be treated as early as possible; 3) the radial nerve and the common peroneal nerve recovered faster than others; 4) cases not surgically explored recovered faster than those that were, and 5) patients with prompt propagation of the needling sensation recovered significantly faster than those with slow propagation.
    Surgical treatment of common peroneal nerve injuries: indications and results. A series of 62 cases. Garozzo D,Ferraresi S,Buffatti P Journal of neurosurgical sciences AIM:Common peroneal nerve (CPN) injuries represent the most common nerve lesions of the lower limb and can be due to several causative mechanisms. Although in most cases they recover spontaneously, an irreversible damage of the nerve is also likely to occur. Nerve regeneration following CPN repair is poorer if compared to other peripheral nerves and this can explain the reluctant attitude of many physicians towards the surgical treatment of these patients. Among the several factors advocated to explain the poor outcome following surgery, it has been suggested that reinnervation might be obstacled by the force imbalance between the functioning flexors and the paralysed extensors that eventually results in the fixed equinism of the foot, due to the excessive contracture of the active muscles and the shortening of the heel cord. Therefore the early correction of these forces might favour nerve regeneration. Following such hypothesis, the authors treat irreversible CPN injuries performing a one-stage procedure of nerve repair and tibialis tendon transfer. We report our experience, describing the indications to surgical treatment, the operative technique and the postoperative clinical outcome correlated with the causative mechanisms of the injuries. METHODS:A 62-patient series controlled over a period of 15 years with a post-traumatic palsy of the CPN is reported. All the patients underwent surgery. In open wounds, when a nerve transection was suspected, surgery was performed at emergency (2 cases). In closed injuries, operative treatment was advised when no spontaneous regeneration occurred 3-4 months after the injury. From 1988 till 1991, 9 patients were elected for surgery : in 6 cases treatment consisted of neuroma resection and nerve repair by means of a graft. In 3 patients it was performed only a CPN decompression at the fibular neck. Since 1991, surgical treatment has always consisted of nerve repair associated with a tendon transfer during the same procedure. Fifty-three patients were elected for surgery. Nerve repair was achieved by direct suture in 1 case and by means of a graft in 46 patients. Decompression of the CPN at the fibular neck was performed in 6 patients where nerve continuity was demonstrated. RESULTS:In the first group of patients, nerve repair outcome was highly disapponting: no recovery in 5 cases, reinnervation occurred in 1 patient only (M1-2). CPN decompression was followed by complete recovery in 2 cases, no improvement was observed in 1 case. Nerve repair associated with tibialis tendon transfer dramatically improved the postoperative outcome: at 2 year follow-up, neural regeneration was demonstrated in 90% of the patients. Surgical outcome depends on the causative mechanisms of the lesion: sharp injuries and severe dislocations of the knee had an excellent recovery, while in crush injuries and gunshot wounds good recovery was less common. CONCLUSION:Surgical treatment of CPN injuries can nowadays be highly rewarding. CPN palsies in open wounds should undergo surgical exploration at emergency. In close injuries with no spontaneous recovery within 4 months after the injury, patients should be advised to seek surgical treatment regardless the causative mechanism of the lesion. According to our experience, the association of a transfer procedure to nerve repair enhances neural regeneration, dramatically improving the surgical outcome of these injuries.
    Impact of exploration of sensory branches of saphenous nerve in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructive surgery. Mirzatolooei Fardin,Pisoodeh Karim Archives of Iranian medicine BACKGROUND:Post-operative sensory disturbances following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the quadruple hamstring tendon is a prevalent complication. This study evaluates the impact of exploration and salvage of superficial branches of the saphenous nerve on the incidence of post-operative sensory loss. METHODS:In a prospective descriptive study, 98 out of 120 patients with ACL reconstruction operated by the transfix method were followed 2 weeks and 6 months post-surgery. Hamstring tendon autograft was harvested through a 2-3 cm anteromedial oblique incision just over the pes anserinus. Meticulous dissection was done to find and save the superficial sensory branches of the saphenous nerve through the incision. Sensory changes were evaluated by physical examination for light touch; patients were requested to complete a specific diagram to evaluate sensory loss.  RESULTS:In 44 patients at least one nerve was located and saved. The rate of hypoesthesia in this group of patients was 20.5%. In 54 patients we were unable to locate the nerve. The rate of hyposthesia in this group was 72%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall rate of sensory disturbance in 98 patients was 48.9%. A total of 10 patients developed hyposthesia over the anteromedial part of the Mid-leg. CONCLUSION:Exploration and salvage of the sensory branches of the saphenous nerve has a tremendous effect on the rate of sensory deficit. 012154/AIM.009
    Management and outcomes of 42 surgical suprascapular nerve injuries and entrapments. Kim Daniel H,Murovic Judith A,Tiel Robert L,Kline David G Neurosurgery OBJECTIVE:Retrospective chart reviews of 42 patients with surgical suprascapular nerve (SSN) injury/entrapment were performed. Presenting symptoms, findings, operative approach, and results are documented. METHODS:Forty-two patients with SSN injuries/entrapments underwent operations between 1970 and 2002. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of shoulder pain; spinati muscle function was evaluated with the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center grading system. Side of lesion and sex were equally represented; mean follow-up was 18 months (range, 12-48 mo). SSN injuries/entrapments were associated with occupational overuse, sports-related injury, direct trauma and ganglion cysts. Thirty-one (79%) of 39 patients with suprascapular notch SSN injuries/entrapments, excluding ganglion cysts, presented with mild to moderate shoulder pain and spinati weakness. RESULTS:Motor function for these 31 patients was graded on a scale of 0 to 5. Preoperatively, patients had supraspinatus function Grades 0 to 2 and infraspinatus function Grades 0 to 2. Supraspinatus function improved postoperatively to Grade 4 or better in 28 patients (90%) and to Grades 2 to 3 in 3 patients (10%). Infraspinatus function improved to better than Grade 3 in 10 patients (32%), to Grades 2 to 3 in 14 patients (45%), and to Grade 1 in 7 patients (23%). Preoperatively, eight (21%) of 39 patients presenting with persistent severe pain had Grade 3 spinati strength. Of these eight patients, seven (88%) had an improvement in pain postoperatively. Strength in this group remained the same or improved to Grade 4. Postoperatively, three patients with ganglion cysts had good improvement in spinati function. CONCLUSION:Although SSN injury/entrapment is rare, 42 patients are presented who responded well to SSN release. Supraspinatus muscle improvement was as good as or better than that achieved in the infraspinatus. 10.1227/01.neu.0000163406.14384.4f
    Evaluation of Cutaneous Spatial Resolution and Pressure Threshold Secondary to Digital Nerve Repair. Klein Holger J,Fakin Richard M,Ducommun Pascal,Giesen Thomas,Giovanoli Pietro,Calcagni Maurizio Plastic and reconstructive surgery BACKGROUND:As the sophistication of functional reconstruction procedures continues to increase, so does the need for valid, precise, and reliable instruments to assess their clinical results. The authors compare two tests for spatial resolution and two for cutaneous pressure threshold in an adult patient cohort having undergone microsurgical digital nerve repair after traumatic transection. METHODS:Patients who underwent epineural coaptation after digital nerve transection at the authors' institution between June of 2006 and December of 2011 were asked to participate in a follow-up examination assessing spatial resolution (two-point discrimination and grating orientation test) and cutaneous pressure threshold (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and pressure-specifying sensory device). Interinstrument correlations were conducted and critically elucidated. RESULTS:Eighty-one patients (26 female and 55 male patients; median age, 42 years; interquartile range, 23 years) were examined with a mean follow-up period of 3.5 ± 1.4 years. Although all tests could differentiate between the healthy and operated fingers, poor to moderate correlations were found between two-point discrimination and grating orientation test (ρ(operated) = 0.483, p < 0.0001; ρ(healthy) = 0.350, p < 0.0001), and between Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and Pressure-Specified Sensory Device testing (ρ(operated) = 0.287, p = 0.01; ρ(healthy) = 0.382, p < 0.001), indicating that they measure different properties. Altogether, the grating orientation test proved superior to two-point discrimination, whereas Pressure-Specified Sensory Device testing was superior to Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing. CONCLUSIONS:Thoughtful use of test instruments is advisable when assessing sensibility of the hand. This study suggests including Pressure-Specified Sensory Device testing to assess cutaneous pressure threshold and the grating orientation test to assess spatial resolution in clinical, routine test batteries. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Diagnostic, III. 10.1097/PRS.0000000000002023
    A prospective study comparing single and double fascicular transfer to restore elbow flexion after brachial plexus injury. Martins Roberto Sergio,Siqueira Mario Gilberto,Heise Carlos Otto,Foroni Luciano,Teixeira Manoel Jacobsen Neurosurgery BACKGROUND:The recovery of elbow flexion in upper brachial plexus injury can be achieved by the reinnervation of the biceps muscle (single reinnervation), but concomitant restoration of brachialis and biceps function (double reinnervation) has been recommended to improve elbow flexion strength. OBJECTIVE:To prospectively compare morbidity and outcomes of single or double muscle reinnervation in restoring elbow flexion following incomplete injury to the brachial plexus. METHODS:Forty consecutive patients were prospectively submitted to single or double muscle reinnervation. Elbow flexion strength was evaluated with a push-and-pull dynamometer 12 months after surgery. Hand morbidity related to the procedures was evaluated by the Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments test, quantification of static 2-point discrimination, and measurements of handgrip and lateral pinch strength in serial evaluations up to the final follow-up. RESULTS:Similar results for the strength of elbow flexion were observed in both groups. A worsening of sensibility, measured by using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, was identified in 8 patients, all of whom showed recovery during follow-up. No worsening of 2-point discrimination was observed. A decrease in handgrip and lateral pinch strength was identified in 8 and 9 patients, respectively, which improved during follow-up. There was no difference between the groups in the incidence of hand motor morbidity parameters. CONCLUSION:The strength of elbow flexion did not differ significantly between the groups treated with single or double muscle reinnervation. Deterioration of handgrip, lateral pinch strength, and sensibility measured by using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, was temporary, resulting in low morbidity for both techniques. 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318285c3f6
    Inter- and intra-tester reliability of sensibility testing in digital nerve repair. Bulut T,Akgun U,Ozcan C,Unver B,Sener M The Journal of hand surgery, European volume The aim of this study was to investigate the inter- and intra-tester reliability of the static two-point discrimination and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament tests in digital nerve repair. A total of 100 digital nerves from 67 patients were included into the study. An experienced orthopaedic surgeon and a physiotherapist examined the sensory nerve recovery. The reproducibility score of both tests was at a poor level, but the reliability of the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test was higher than the static two-point discrimination test. These tests should not be used alone in the quantitative monitoring of sensory recovery, but should be interpreted with the clinical findings.Level 3 non-randomized controlled study. 10.1177/1753193415621273
    Contralateral peripheral neurotization for hemiplegic upper extremity after central neurologic injury. Hua Xu-Yun,Qiu Yan-Qun,Li Tie,Zheng Mou-Xiong,Shen Yun-Dong,Jiang Su,Xu Jian-Guang,Gu Yu-Dong,Xu Wen-Dong Neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Central neurological injury (CNI) is a major contributor to physical disability that affects both adults and children all over the world. The main sequelae of chronic stage CNI are spasticity, paresis of specific muscles, and poor selective motor control. Here, we apply the concept of contralateral peripheral neurotization in spasticity releasing and motor function restoration of the affected upper extremity. OBJECTIVE:A clinical investigation was performed to verify the clinical efficacy of contralateral C7 neurotization for rescuing the affected upper extremity after CNI. METHODS:In the present study, 6 adult hemiplegia patients received the nerve transfer surgery of contralateral C7 to C7 of the affected side. Another 6 patients with matched pathological and demographic status were assigned to the control group that received rehabilitation only. During the 2-year follow-up, muscle strength of bilateral upper extremities was assessed. The Modified Ashworth Scale and Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale were used for evaluating spasticity and functional use of the affected upper extremity, respectively. RESULTS:Both flexor spasticity release and motor functional improvements were observed in the affected upper extremity in all 6 patients who had surgery. The muscle strength of the extensor muscles and the motor control of the affected upper extremity improved significantly. There was no permanent loss of sensorimotor function of the unaffected upper extremity. CONCLUSION:This contralateral C7 neurotization approach may open a door to promote functional recovery of upper extremity paralysis after CNI. 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000590
    Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) to enhance nerve regeneration in carpal tunnel syndrome: study protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Curran Matthew W T,Olson Jaret,Morhart Michael,Sample Dory,Chan K Ming Trials BACKGROUND:Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common form of peripheral nerve injury, affecting approximately 3 % of the population. While surgery is effective in mild and moderate cases, nerve and functional recovery are often not complete in severe cases. Therefore, there is a need for adjuvant methods to improve nerve regeneration in those cases. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) is involved in lipid transport, vital for mitochondrial function. Although it has been shown to be effective in various forms of neuropathies, it has not been used in traumatic or compressive peripheral nerve injury. METHODS:In this pilot study we will utilize a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Inclusion criteria will include adult patients with severe CTS. This will be confirmed by nerve conduction studies and motor unit number estimation (MUNE). Only those with severe motor unit loss in the thenar muscles (2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for the age group) will be included. Eligible patients will be randomized to receive 3,000 mg/day of ALCAR orally or placebo following carpal tunnel release surgery for 2 months. The primary outcome will be MUNE with supplementary secondary outcome measures that include: 1) two-point discrimination; 2) Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments for pressure sensitivity; 3) cold and pain threshold for small fiber function; 4) Boston self-assessment Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 5) Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire for symptom severity; and 6) Purdue Pegboard Test for hand functional performance. To follow post treatment recovery and monitor safety, patients will be seen at 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. The outcome measures will be analyzed using two-way ANOVA, with treatment assignment and time points being the independent factors. If significant associations are detected, a post hoc analysis will be completed. We aim to recruit ten patients into each of the two groups. Data from this pilot will provide the basis for power calculation for a full-scale trial. DISCUSSION:ALCAR is a physiologic peptide crucial for fatty acid transport. ALCAR has been shown to be effective in neuroprotection in the central nervous system and increase peripheral nerve regeneration. This has been applied clinically to various systemic peripheral neuropathies including diabetic neuropathy, antiretroviral toxic neuropathy, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. While animal evidence exists for the benefit of ALCAR in compression neuropathy, there have been no human studies to date. This trial will represent the first use of ALCAR in peripheral nerve injury/compression neuropathy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02141035 ; 20 April 2015. 10.1186/s13063-016-1324-2
    Occupation-based intervention versus rote exercise in modified constraint-induced movement therapy for patients with median and ulnar nerve injuries: a randomized controlled trial. Rostami Hamid Reza,Akbarfahimi Malahat,Hassani Mehraban Afsoon,Akbarinia Ali Reza,Samani Susan Clinical rehabilitation OBJECTIVE:To investigate effect of practice type during modified constraint-induced movement therapy on hand function in patients with chronic median and ulnar nerve injuries. DESIGN:A prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING:Participants' private home. SUBJECTS:A convenience sample of 36 outpatient participants allocated randomly to three equal groups. INTERVENTIONS:Intervention groups underwent 3-hour intensive training of affected hand each day, 3-day a week, 4-week in association with immobilisation of healthy hand: occupation-based group practiced meaningful occupations while rote exercise-based group performed rote exercises during constraint-induced movement therapy. Control group performed different activities with affected hand for 1.5-hour each day during 4-week without restriction of healthy hand. MAIN MEASURES:A blinded assessor tested Canadian occupational performance measure, box and block, Static two-point discrimination, disabilities of arm, shoulder, hand questionnaire, and self-assessment manikin in a random order across sessions 3-time as baseline (pre-test), after 4-week intervention (post-test), and 1-month after intervention period (follow up). RESULTS:Scores significantly changed in intervention groups compared to control. Despite significantly more improvement in occupation-based than rote exercise-based group in subjective measures at post-test and follow up (Canadian occupational performance measure: mean change 4.7 vs. 2.1 for performance, P< 0.001 and mean change 5.3 vs. 2.6 for satisfaction, P< 0.001), it was significant just at follow up for box and block and static two-point discrimination. CONCLUSIONS:Practice content of constraint-induced movement therapy is a critical part of its effectiveness on improving outcomes following peripheral nerve repair in favour of occupation-based intervention in present study. 10.1177/0269215516672276
    Greater Cortical Activation and Motor Recovery Following Mirror Therapy Immediately after Peripheral Nerve Repair of the Forearm. Chen Yueh-Hsia,Siow Tiing-Yee,Wang Ju-Yu,Lin Shang-Ying,Chao Yuan-Hung Neuroscience Cortical reorganization occurs immediately after peripheral nerve injury, and early sensorimotor training is suggested during nerve regeneration. The effect of mirror therapy and classical sensory relearning on cortical activation immediately after peripheral nerve repair of the forearm is unknown. Six participants were randomly assigned to the mirror-therapy group or the sensory-relearning group. Sensorimotor training was conducted in a mirror box for 12 weeks. The mirror-therapy group used mirror reflection of the unaffected hand in order to train the affected hand, and the sensory-relearning group trained without mirror reflection. Semmes-Weinstein Monofilaments (SWM) test, static 2-point discrimination test (S-2PD), grip strength, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores were measured at baseline, the end of the intervention (T1), and 3 months after the intervention (T2). Finger and manual dexterity were measured at T1 and T2, and a functional MRI (fMRI) was conducted at T1. All participants showed improvement in the SWM, S-2PD tests, upper extremity function, and grip strength after the intervention at T1, except for the participant who injured both the median and ulnar nerves in the sensory-relearning group. In addition, the mirror-therapy group had better outcomes in finger dexterity and manual dexterity, and fMRIs showed greater activation in the multimodal association cortices and ipsilateral brain areas during motor tasks. This study provides evidence-based results confirming the benefits of early sensorimotor relearning for cortical activation in peripheral nerve injury of the forearm and different neuroplasticity patterns between mirror therapy and classical sensor relearning. 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.11.048
    [Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture combined with functional training for treatment of peripheral nerve incomplete injury of upper limbs]. Xiao Gui-rong,Hao Hua,Zhao Qiu-ling,Yan Huan-ying,Shan Qiu-hua Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion OBJECTIVE:To search for the best program for treatment of peripheral nerve incomplete injury. METHODS:Ninety cases were randomly divided into a treatment group, a control group I and a control group II, 30 cases in each group. The treatment group were treated with electroacupuncture at Jianyu (LI 15), Hegu (LI 4), Quchi (LI 11), etc. plus functional training, and the control group I with electroacupuncture and the control group H with functional training. After treatment for 3 months, basic function, practical function, EMG, nerve conduction velocity were compared among the 3 groups. RESULTS:The good rate of basic function of 50.0%, the curemarkedly effective rate of practical function of 50.0% and the total effective rate of neurophysiology of 64.3% in the treatment group were better than 20.7%, 17.2%, 41.4% in the control group I (P < 0.05) and 23.3%, 20.0% and 36.O7% in the control group II (P 0.05). CONCLUSION:Electroacupuncture combined with functional training can accelerate nervous repair, promote functional recovery of the denervated muscles, so as to shorten the restoring time of nerve-muscle and increase life quality of the patient.
    Efficacy of functional training of the facial muscles for treatment of incomplete peripheral facial nerve injury. Cai Zhi Gang,Shi Xiao Jian,Lu Xu Guang,Yang Zhao Hui,Yu Guang Yan The Chinese journal of dental research : the official journal of the Scientific Section of the Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA) OBJECTIVE:To investigate the efficacy of functional training of facial mimic muscles for patients with incomplete peripheral facial nerve injury. METHODS:Ninety-two patients with 241 injured branches of incomplete peripheral facial nerve injury were divided into a treatment group and a control group. The treatment group consisted of 58 cases that received functional training of facial mimic muscles. The rest of the cases served as controls. Assessment parameters included the House-Brackmann grading system, a quantitative facial nerve function estimating system and electroneurography. According to the three assessments, the facial nerve injury was divided into four grades: normal, minor, moderate and severe. The treatment group started training facial mimic muscle activity 2 weeks after facial nerve injury. After follow-ups of 1 to 4 years, the outcomes were statistically analysed. RESULTS:In the minor facial nerve injury group, there was no significant difference in the time needed for initial recovery (Ti, the time needed for significant recovery of the facial nerve function after injury) and final recovery (Tf, the time point after which no further improvement of facial nerve function was obtained) between the two groups (P > 0.05). No adverse effect was found in these cases. In the moderate facial nerve injury group, the Ti and Tf of the treatment group were shorter than those of the control group (P < 0.05). One case had synkinesis. In the patients with severe facial nerve injury, the recovery rate of facial nerve function in the treatment group was higher than that of the control group and the sequelae were less. CONCLUSION:Functional training of facial mimic muscles cannot shorten the time of recovery for the patients with minor facial nerve injury but it can speed up the recovery and reduce the undesirable sequelae such as synkinesis and hemifacial spasm for the patients with moderate and severe facial nerve injury.
    [Efficacy observation on traumatic nerve injury treated with different acupuncture therapies]. Li Shu-Cheng,Lu Pei-Si,Lao Jin-xiong,Deng Cong,Gu Ting-Ting Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion OBJECTIVE:To observe the difference in the efficacy on traumatic nerve injury among electroacupuncture, warm needling therapy and electroacupuncture plus warm needling therapy and explore the better therapeutic method. METHODS:The electromyography (EMG) and electroneurography (ENG) of 93 cases showed traumatic nerve injury of moderate damage. According to the single blind randomization principle, they were divided into an electroacupuncture (EA) group, a warm needling therapy (WN) group and an EA plus WN group, 31 cases in each one. The main acupoints were selected from Yangming Meridian and Shaoyang Meridian corresponding to the distribution of damaged nerves. EA, WN and EA plus WN were applied separately. The treatment was given once every day, 15 treatments made one session. After 3 sessions of treatment (45 treatments in total), EMG and ENG were re-checked and the results were analyzed statistically. RESULTS:Regarding the total effective rate and effective rate, it was 96. 8% (30/31) in the EA plus WN group, which was better than 74.2% (23/31) in the EA group and 77. 4% (24/31) in the WN group (P<0. 05). Concerning to the improvements of EMG, the result in the EA plus WN group was 96.8% (30/31), which was better than the other two groups [74. 2%(23/31),74. 2%(23/31)] (P<0. 05). In terms of the recovery of nerve conduction and amplitude, the results in EA plus WN group [(50.9+/-4. 6)m/s,(8. 8+/-2. 9),microVx1 000] were better than the other two groups [(43.7+/-3.1)m/s,(4. 2+/-1. 9)microV X 1 000,(43. 8+/-3. 3)m/s,(4. 5+/-2. 2)microV X 1 000] (P<0. 05). CONCLUSION:EA combined with WN is a better therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion in the treatment of traumatic nerve injury.
    Comparison of objective muscle strength in C5-C6 and C5-C7 brachial plexus injury patients after double nerve transfer. Tsai Yi-Jung,Su Fong-Chin,Hsiao Chih-Kun,Tu Yuan-Kun Microsurgery PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quantitative muscle strength to distinguish the outcomes of different injury levels in upper arm type brachial plexus injury (BPI) patients with double nerve transfer. METHODS:Nine patients with C5-C6 lesions (age = 32.2 ± 13.9 year old) and nine patients with C5-C7 lesions (age = 32.4 ± 7.9 year old) received neurotization of the spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve combined with the Oberlin procedure (fascicles of ulnar nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve) were recruited. The average time interval between operation and evaluation were 27.3 ± 21.0 and 26.9 ± 20.6 months for C5-C6 and C5-C7, respectively. British Medical Research Council (BMRC) scores and the objective strength measured by a handheld dynamometer were evaluated in multiple muscles to compare outcomes between C5-C6 and C5-C7 injuries. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in BMRC scores between the groups. C5-C6 BPI patients had greater quantitative strength in shoulder flexor (P = 0.02), shoulder extensor (P < 0.01), elbow flexor (P = 0.04), elbow extensor (P = 0.04), wrist extensor (P = 0.04), and hand grip (P = 0.04) than C5-C7 BPI patients. CONCLUSIONS:Upper arm type BPI patients have a good motor recovery after double nerve transfer. The different outcomes between C5-C6 and C5-C7 BPI patients appeared in muscles responding to hand grip, wrist extension, and sagittal movements in shoulder and elbow joints. 10.1002/micr.22283
    Clinical evaluation of a resorbable wrap-around implant as an alternative to nerve repair: a prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised clinical study of sensory, motor and functional recovery after peripheral nerve repair. Aberg Maria,Ljungberg Christina,Edin Ellenor,Millqvist Helena,Nordh Erik,Theorin Anna,Terenghi Giorgio,Wiberg Mikael Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS Peripheral nerve injures are common and often result in impaired functional recovery. The majority of injuries involve the arm and/or the hand. The traditional treatment for peripheral nerve injuries is repair by using microsurgical techniques, either by primary nerve suture or nerve graft, but research to find more successful methods that could improve recovery is ongoing. Tubulisation has been investigated by several authors and is suggested as an alternative to microsurgical techniques. The resorbable poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) is one of the materials that has been previously tested experimentally. In this prospective, randomised, assessor-blinded clinical study, PHB was investigated as an alternative to epineural suturing in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries at the wrist/forearm level of the arm. Twelve patients, with a complete, common, sharp injury of the median and/or ulnar nerve at the wrist/forearm level, were treated by either using PHB or microsurgical epineural end-to-end suturing. All patients were assessed using a battery of tests, including evaluation of functional, sensory and motor recovery by means of clinical, neurophysiological, morphological and physiological evaluations at 2 weeks and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months after surgery. No adverse events or complications considered as product related were reported, and thus PHB can be regarded as a safe alternative for microsurgical epineural suturing. The majority of the methods in the test battery showed no significant differences between the treatment groups, but one should consider that the study involved a limited number of patients and a high variability was reported for the evaluating techniques. However, sensory recovery, according to the British Medical Research Council score and parts of the manual muscle test, suggested that treating with PHB may be advantageous as compared to epineural suturing. This, however, should be confirmed by large-scale efficacy studies. 10.1016/j.bjps.2008.06.041
    [Combined application of physical factors in patients with traumatic vertebrogenic neuropathy. Guide for physicians]. Gorbunov F E,Vinnikov A A,Maslovskaia S G,Kozlovskiĭ V A,Kuznetsov O F,Gusarova S A,Minenkov A A,Orekhova E M,Konchugova T V,Krupennikov A I Voprosy kurortologii, fizioterapii, i lechebnoi fizicheskoi kultury
    Development of Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Guideline rating the physical impairment: lower extremities. Kim Hee-Chun,Kim Joon-Sung,Lee Kee-Haeng,Lee Ho Seong,Choi Eun-Seok,Yu Jay-Young, Journal of Korean medical science Lower Extremities Committee of Korean Academy of Medical Sciences Guideline for Impairment Rating develops new guidelines which are based on McBride method, American Medical Association Guides, Disability evaluation by The Korean Orthopaedic Association, The Korean Neurosurgery Society, and Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine. The committee analyzed and discussed to create an ideal method practical in Korea. Our committee endeavors to develop new methods which are easy to use, but are suitable for professional use and also independent from the examinee's intentions. The lower extremities are evaluated on the basis of anatomic change, functional change, and diagnosis based evaluation. Nine methods are used to assess the lower extremities. Anatomic assessment includes leg length discrepancy, ankylosis, amputation, skin loss, peripheral nerve injury, and vascular disease. In functional assessment, range of motion and muscle strength are included. Diagnosis-based assessments are used to evaluate impairment caused by specific fractures, deformities, ligament instability, meniscectomies, post-traumatic arthritis, fusion of the foot, and lower extremity joint replacements. 10.3346/jkms.2009.24.S2.S299
    Laser phototherapy (780 nm), a new modality in treatment of long-term incomplete peripheral nerve injury: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Rochkind Shimon,Drory Vivian,Alon Malvina,Nissan Moshe,Ouaknine Georges E Photomedicine and laser surgery OBJECTIVE:The authors conducted this pilot study to prospectively investigate the effectiveness of low-power laser irradiation (780 nm) in the treatment of patients suffering from incomplete peripheral nerve and brachial plexus injuries for 6 months up to several years. BACKGROUND DATA:Injury of a major nerve trunk frequently results in considerable disability associated with loss of sensory and motor functions. Spontaneous recovery of long-term severe incomplete peripheral nerve injury is often unsatisfactory. METHODS:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 18 patients who were randomly assigned placebo (non-active light: diffused LED lamp) or low-power laser irradiation (wavelength, 780 nm; power, 250 mW). Twenty-one consecutive daily sessions of laser or placebo irradiation were applied transcutaneously for 3 h to the injured peripheral nerve (energy density, 450 J/mm(2)) and for 2 h to the corresponding segments of the spinal cord (energy density, 300 J/mm(2)). Clinical and electrophysiological assessments were done at baseline, at the end of the 21 days of treatment, and 3 and 6 months thereafter. RESULTS:The laser-irradiated and placebo groups were in clinically similar conditions at baseline. The analysis of motor function during the 6-month follow-up period compared to baseline showed statistically significant improvement (p = 0.0001) in the laser-treated group compared to the placebo group. No statistically significant difference was found in sensory function. Electrophysiological analysis also showed statistically significant improvement in recruitment of voluntary muscle activity in the laser-irradiated group (p = 0.006), compared to the placebo group. CONCLUSION:This pilot study suggests that in patients with long-term peripheral nerve injury noninvasive 780-nm laser phototherapy can progressively improve nerve function, which leads to significant functional recovery. 10.1089/pho.2007.2093
    Peripheral nerve regeneration: A comparative study of the effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, and lateral saphenous vein graft as a conduit in a dog model. Open veterinary journal BACKGROUND:The quality of healing of peripheral nerve injuries remains a common challenge causing pain and poor quality of life for millions of people and animals annually. AIMS:The objectives of this study were to evaluate the healing quality of facial nerve injury in a dog model following local treatment using an autologous injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) at the injury site in combination with the application of an autologous saphenous vein graft as a conduit. METHODS:20 apparently healthy adult Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. Dogs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were subjected to facial nerve neurectomy and saphenous vein conduit graft implantation at the site of facial nerve injury. Dogs in groups 2 and 3 received 1 ml of autologous PRP and BM-MSCs, respectively. Injections were administered directly in the vein conduit immediately after nerve injury. Dogs in group 1 (grafted but not treated; control) received only an autologous vein graft, and those in group 4 (normal control) received no graft and no PRP or BM-MSCs treatment. The dogs were monitored daily for 8 weeks after surgery. Clinical evaluation of the facial nerve, including lower eyelid, ear drooping, upper lip, and tongue functions, was carried out once per week using a numerical scoring system of 0-3. At the end of the study period (week 8), the facial nerve injury site was evaluated grossly for the presence of adhesions using a numerical scoring system of 0-3. The facial nerve injury site was histopathologically assessed for the existence of perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration, fibrous tissue deposition, and axonal injury using H&E-stained tissue sections. RESULTS:Clinically, BM-MSCs treated dogs experienced significant ( < 0.05) improvement in the lower eyelid, ear, lip, and tongue functions 4 weeks postoperatively compared to other groups. Grossly, the facial nerve graft site in the BM-MSCs treated group showed significantly ( < 0.05) lesser adhesion scores than the other groups. Histopathologically, there was significantly ( < 0.05) less perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration, less collagen deposition, and more normal axons at the facial nerve injury site in the BM-MSCs treated group compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION:This study showed clinically significant enhancement of nerve regeneration by applying autologous BM-MSCs and autologous vein grafting at the site of facial nerve injury. However, further clinical trials are warranted before this application can be recommended to treat traumatic nerve injuries in the field. 10.5455/OVJ.2021.v11.i4.20
    Nerve gaps repaired with acellular nerve allografts recellularized with Schwann-like cells: Preclinical trial. Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS BACKGROUND:Acellular nerve allografts (ANA) recellularized with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or Schwann cells (SC) are, at present, a therapeutic option for peripheral nerve injuries (PNI). This study aimed to evaluate the regenerative and functional capacity of a recellularized allograft (RA) compared with autograft nerve reconstruction in PNI. METHODS:Fourteen ovines were randomly included in two groups (n=7). A peroneal nerve gap 30 mm in length was excised, and nerve repair was performed by the transplantation of either an autograft or a recellularized allograft with SC-like cells. Evaluations included a histomorphological analysis of the ANA, MSC pre differentiated into SC-like cells, at one year follow-up functional limb recovery (support and gait), and nerve regeneration using neurophysiological tests and histomorphometric analysis. All evaluations were compared with the contralateral hindlimb as the control. RESULTS:The nerve allograft was successfully decellularized and more than 70% of MSC were pre differentiated into SC-like cells. Functional assessment in both treated groups improved similarly over time (p <0.05). Neurophysiological results (latency, amplitude, and conduction velocity) also improved in both treated groups at twelve months. Histological results demonstrated a less organized arrangement of nerve fibers (p <0.05) with an active remyelination process (p <0.05) in both treated groups compared with controls at twelve months. CONCLUSIONS:ANA recellularized with SC-like cells proved to be a successful treatment for nerve gaps. Motor recovery and nerve regeneration were satisfactorily achieved in both graft groups compared with their contralateral nontreated nerves. This approach could be useful for the clinical therapy of PNI. 10.1016/j.bjps.2021.05.066
    Failure to Compensate: Patients With Nerve Injury Use Their Injured Dominant Hand, Even When Their Nondominant Is More Dexterous. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation OBJECTIVE:To identify how individuals respond to unilateral upper extremity peripheral nerve injury via compensation (increased use of the nondominant hand). We hypothesized that injury to the dominant hand would have a greater effect on hand use (left vs right choices). We also hypothesized that compensation would not depend on current (postinjury) nondominant hand performance because many patients undergo rehabilitation that is not designed to alter hand use. DESIGN:Observational survey, single-arm. SETTINGS:Academic research institution and referral center. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 48 adults (N=48) with unilateral upper extremity peripheral nerve injury. Another 14 declined participation. Referred sample, including all eligible patients from 16 months at 1 nerve injury clinic and 1 hand therapy clinic. INTERVENTIONS:Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Hand use (% of actions with each hand) via Block Building Task. Dexterity via Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function. RESULTS:Participants preferred their dominant hand regardless of whether it was injured: hand usage (dominant/nondominant) did not differ from typical adults, regardless of injured side (P>.07), even though most participants (77%) were more dexterous with their uninjured nondominant hand (mean asymmetry index, -0.16±0.25). The Block Building Task was sensitive to hand dominance (P=2 × 10) and moderately correlated with Motor Activity Log amount scores (r=0.33, P<.0001). Compensation was associated only with dominant hand dexterity (P=3.9 × 10), not on nondominant hand dexterity, rehabilitation, or other patient and/or injury factors (P>.1). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with peripheral nerve injury with dominant hand injury do not compensate with their unaffected nondominant hand, even if it is more dexterous. For the subset of patients unlikely to recover function with the injured hand, they could benefit from rehabilitation that encourages compensation with the nondominant hand. 10.1016/j.apmr.2021.10.010
    Influence of surface peripheral electrical stimulation on nerve regeneration after digital nerve neurorrhaphy: study protocol for a randomized clinical trial. Mattos Enilton,Guedes Alex,Lessa Paulo Itamar Ferraz,Baptista Abrahão Fontes F1000Research We will study the influence of low intensity and frequency surface peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) on nerve regeneration of digital nerve injuries of the hand after its surgical repair in humans. Participants will be patients with acute traumatic peripheral nerve injury referred to the Hand Surgery Service of the General Hospital of the State of Bahia, a reference service in the state. These patients will undergo surgery followed by PES in the immediate postoperative period. After hospital discharge, they will be followed up on an outpatient basis by researchers, who will remotely supervise a physiotherapy program. Our hypothesis is that PES will positively influence the recovery of sensory function in patients undergoing neurorrhaphy of digital nerves of the hand.  U1111-1259-1998 (12/18/2020). 10.12688/f1000research.42120.2
    A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham-controlled trial of external non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation for chronic neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury (EN-PENS trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Johnson Selina,Goebel Andreas,Richey Roberta,Holmes Emily,Hughes Dyfrig Trials BACKGROUND:Eight percent of people in the UK are estimated to have persistent (chronic) neuropathic pain, and for many there is no effective treatment. Medications are the most common first-line treatment but often have limited benefit or adverse events. Surgical treatments, such as spinal cord stimulation, are then often considered. External non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation (EN-PENS) is a form of electrical stimulation that involves placing a pen-shaped electrode onto the skin, which can be easily self-administered by patients. Observational studies suggest that EN-PENS may relieve pain for people with localised neuropathic pain; however, there is currently no evidence from controlled trials to confirm the efficacy and confidently determine the effect size for patients with longstanding neuropathic pain. METHODS:EN-PENS is a single-site, blinded, randomised controlled parallel-group superiority add-on trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio, designed to evaluate the efficacy of treatment versus control treatment in 76 patients with longstanding neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury. Patients with moderate to -severe neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury will be randomised to receive either the active or control treatment, followed by an optional treatment extension or treatment switch to the alternative treatment arm. The primary outcome is average 24-h pain intensity recorded on an 11-point (0-10) numerical rating scale, averaged over the last 7 days of treatment. DISCUSSION:Study results will be used to inform potential treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness of EN-PENS for this population group. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN53432663 . Registered on 7 July 2016. 10.1186/s13063-016-1709-2
    A Touch-Observation and Task-Based Mirror Therapy Protocol to Improve Sensorimotor Control and Functional Capability of Hands for Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury. The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association IMPORTANCE:To develop a practical program in the early phase after nerve repair for more rapid return of function. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of touch-observation and task-based mirror therapy on the sensorimotor outcomes of patients with nerve repair. DESIGN:An assessor-blinded study with a randomized controlled design. SETTING:University hospital. PARTICIPANTS:We recruited 12 patients with median or ulnar nerve repair between the level of midpalm and elbow referred by the plastic surgeons. INTERVENTION:The patients were randomized into touch-observation and task-based mirror therapy or control groups, and both groups received training for 12 wk. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) test, two-point discrimination test, Purdue Pegboard Test (PPT), Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test (MMDT), and pinch-holding-up activity test were assessed at pretreatment, immediately after treatment, and 12 wk after the last treatment. RESULTS:The experimental group showed greater improvements in the results of the pinch-holding-up activity test and the PPT Unilateral Pin Insertion, Bilateral Pin Insertion, and Assembly subtests. However, change on the SWM test revealed no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Touch-observation and task-based mirror therapy is an effective but low-cost treatment protocol to optimize sensorimotor control and functional capability of the upper limb in patients with peripheral nerve injury. 10.5014/ajot.2018.027763