The microenvironment in the Hirschsprung's disease gut supports myenteric plexus growth.
Hagl Cornelia Irene,Rauch Ulrich,Klotz Markus,Heumüller Sabine,Grundmann David,Ehnert Sabrina,Subotic Ulrike,Holland-Cunz Stefan,Schäfer Karl-Herbert
International journal of colorectal disease
INTRODUCTION:The transplantation of neural crest derived stem cells (NCSC) is a potent alternative for the treatment of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). Cells to be transplanted should find an appropriate microenvironment to survive and differentiate. Influences of HSCR-smooth-muscle-protein extracts upon isolated myenteric plexus cells, dissociated dorsal root ganglia and NCSC were studied in vitro to investigate the quality of this microenvironment effects. METHODS:Postnatal human gut from children undergoing colonic resection due to HSCR was divided in segments. Smooth muscle was dissected and homogenized. Glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor (GDNF) and transforming-growth-factor-β-1 (TGFβ-1) concentration were measured in the homogenates from the individual segment using ELISA. Myenteric plexus and dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures, as well as NCSCs were exposed to protein extracts derived from ganglionic and aganglionic HSCR segments, and their effect upon neurite outgrowth, survival, and branching was evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:The amount of the factors varied considerably between the individual segments and also from patient to patient. Four major expression patterns could be detected. While all extracts tested lead to a significant increase in neurite outgrowth compared to the control, extracts from proximal segments tended to have more prominent effects. In one experiment, extracts from all individual segments of a single patient were tested. Neurite outgrowth, neuronal survival, and branching pattern varied from segment to segment, but all HSCR-muscle-protein extracts increased neuronal survival and network formation. Smooth muscle protein from aganglionic bowel supports the survival and outgrowth of myenteric neurons and NCSCs and is so an appropriate target for neural stem cell treatment.
Expression profiles of HA117 and its neighboring gene DPF3 in different colon segments of Hirschsprung's disease.
Liu Hang,Luo Yuanyuan,Li Shuangshuang,Wang Shiqi,Wang Ning,Jin Xianqing
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is characterized by the absence of enteric ganglion cells along variable regions of the colon. Established theory demonstrates that HSCR is the consequence caused by the abnormal arrest of the migration and differentiation of neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs). And retinoid signaling was considered to be involved. We speculated that, HA117, a retinoid-related transcript of a long noncoding RNA (LncRNA), may be involved in the genesis of HSCR. In current research, colon specimens were collected from 25 HSCR patients and grouped into 3 segments: proximal anastomosis, dilated segment and stenotic segment. Real-Time PCR was used to analyze the expression profiles of HA117 and its neighboring gene DPF3 in different colon segments. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to detect the distribution of HA117 in the gut wall. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the protein expression of DPF3 in different colon segments. HA117 expression in stenotic segment was higher compared to proximal anastomosis and dilated segment (p < 0.05). Whereas DPF3b mRNA was lower in stenotic segment than that in two other segments (p < 0.05). FISH detected HA117 was distributed in mucosa and muscle layer, mainly present in stenotic segment. Immunohistochemical staining showed that intensive DPF3 staining occurred in proximal anastomosis and the positive staining was hardly observed in stenotic segment. The results suggested that HA117 may be a factor exerting an anti-differentiation or or anti-maturation role in the genesis of HSCR. This gave us a novel cue for better understanding the etiology of HSCR.
P0 and PMP22 mark a multipotent neural crest-derived cell type that displays community effects in response to TGF-beta family factors.
Hagedorn L,Suter U,Sommer L
Development (Cambridge, England)
Protein zero (P0) and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are most prominently expressed by myelinating Schwann cells as components of compact myelin of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and mutants affecting P0 and PMP22 show severe defects in myelination. Recent expression studies suggest a role of P0 and PMP22 not only in myelination but also during embryonic development. Here we show that, in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and differentiated neural crest cultures, P0 is expressed in the glial lineage whereas PMP22 is also detectable in neurons. In addition, however, P0 and PMP22 are both expressed in a multipotent cell type isolated from early DRG. Like neural crest stem cells (NCSCs), this P0/PMP22-positive cell gives rise to glia, neurons and smooth-muscle-like cells in response to instructive extracellular cues. In cultures of differentiating neural crest, a similar multipotent cell type can be identified in which expression of P0 and PMP22 precedes the appearance of neural differentiation markers. Intriguingly, this P0/PMP22-positive progenitor exhibits fate restrictions dependent on the cellular context in which it is exposed to environmental signals. While single P0/PMP22-positive progenitor cells can generate smooth muscle in response to factors of the TGF-(beta) family, communities of P0/PMP22-positive cells interpret TGF-(beta) factors differently and produce neurons or undergo increased cell death instead of generating smooth-muscle-like cells. Our data are consistent with a model in which cellular association of postmigratory multipotent progenitors might be involved in the suppression of a non-neural fate in forming peripheral ganglia.
The boundary cap: a source of neural crest stem cells that generate multiple sensory neuron subtypes.
Hjerling-Leffler Jens,Marmigère Frédéric,Heglind Mikael,Cederberg Anna,Koltzenburg Martin,Enerbäck Sven,Ernfors Patrik
Development (Cambridge, England)
The boundary cap (BC) is a transient neural crest-derived group of cells located at the dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) that have been shown to differentiate into sensory neurons and glia in vivo. We find that when placed in culture, BC cells self-renew, show multipotency in clonal cultures and express neural crest stem cell (NCSCs) markers. Unlike sciatic nerve NCSCs, the BC-NCSC (bNCSCs) generates sensory neurons upon differentiation. The bNCSCs constitute a common source of cells for functionally diverse types of neurons, as a single bNCSC can give rise to several types of nociceptive and thermoreceptive sensory neurons. Our data suggests that BC cells comprise a source of multipotent sensory specified stem cells that persist throughout embryogenesis.
Neural crest stem cells undergo multilineage differentiation in developing peripheral nerves to generate endoneurial fibroblasts in addition to Schwann cells.
Joseph Nancy M,Mukouyama Yoh-Suke,Mosher Jack T,Jaegle Martine,Crone Steven A,Dormand Emma-Louise,Lee Kuo-Fen,Meijer Dies,Anderson David J,Morrison Sean J
Development (Cambridge, England)
Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) persist in peripheral nerves throughout late gestation but their function is unknown. Current models of nerve development only consider the generation of Schwann cells from neural crest, but the presence of NCSCs raises the possibility of multilineage differentiation. We performed Cre-recombinase fate mapping to determine which nerve cells are neural crest derived. Endoneurial fibroblasts, in addition to myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells, were neural crest derived, whereas perineurial cells, pericytes and endothelial cells were not. This identified endoneurial fibroblasts as a novel neural crest derivative, and demonstrated that trunk neural crest does give rise to fibroblasts in vivo, consistent with previous studies of trunk NCSCs in culture. The multilineage differentiation of NCSCs into glial and non-glial derivatives in the developing nerve appears to be regulated by neuregulin, notch ligands, and bone morphogenic proteins, as these factors are expressed in the developing nerve, and cause nerve NCSCs to generate Schwann cells and fibroblasts, but not neurons, in culture. Nerve development is thus more complex than was previously thought, involving NCSC self-renewal, lineage commitment and multilineage differentiation.
Stage-specific control of neural crest stem cell proliferation by the small rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1.
Fuchs Sebastian,Herzog Dominik,Sumara Grzegorz,Büchmann-Møller Stine,Civenni Gianluca,Wu Xunwei,Chrostek-Grashoff Anna,Suter Ueli,Ricci Romeo,Relvas João B,Brakebusch Cord,Sommer Lukas
Cell stem cell
The neural crest (NC) generates a variety of neural and non-neural tissues during vertebrate development. Both migratory NC cells and their target structures contain cells with stem cell features. Here we show that these populations of neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are differentially regulated by small Rho GTPases. Deletion of either Cdc42 or Rac1 in the NC results in size reduction of multiple NC target structures because of increased cell-cycle exit, while NC cells emigrating from the neural tube are not affected. Consistently, Cdc42 or Rac1 inactivation reduces self-renewal and proliferation of later stage, but not early migratory NCSCs. This stage-specific requirement for small Rho GTPases is due to changes in NCSCs that, during development, acquire responsiveness to mitogenic EGF acting upstream of both Cdc42 and Rac1. Thus, our data reveal distinct mechanisms for growth control of NCSCs from different developmental stages.
Neural crest stem cell property of apical pulp cells derived from human developing tooth.
Abe Shigehiro,Hamada Keiichi,Miura Masahiko,Yamaguchi Satoshi
Cell biology international
Recent reports have described that NCSCs (neural crest-derived stem cells) are not only present in the embryonic neural crest but also in the adult tissues. Dental pulp is one of mesenchymal soft tissues origin from cranial neural crest cells, and thought to be a source of adult stem cells. Here, we investigated the existence of NCSC-like cells in apical pulp of human developing tooth. Human impacted third molars with immature apex freshly extracted were obtained. The cells derived from the apical pulp tissue not framed by dentin or the coronal pulp tissues were cultured by primary explant culture. APDCs (apical pulp-derived cells) and CPCs (coronal pulp cells) formed spheres under neurosphere culture condition. The number of spheres from APDCs was larger than that from CPCs. The sphere-forming cells derived from APDCs had self-renewal capacity, and expressed neural crest-associated markers (p75, Snail and Slug) and NSC (neural stem cell) markers (Nestin and Musashi1). The expression pattern of mesenchymal stem cell markers, CD105 and CD166, on the surface of sphere-forming cells derived APDCs was different from that of APDCs. These sphere-forming cells could differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages (osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and smooth muscle cells) and neural lineage (neurons) in vitro, and generated ectopic bone tissues on the border of HA (hydroxyapatite) scaffold in vivo. The results of this study suggest that APDCs contain cells with characteristics of NCSCs reported previously in mice. Humans developing tooth with immature apex is an effective source of cells for neural crest lineage tissue regeneration.
Are neural crest stem cells the missing link between hematopoietic and neurogenic niches?
Coste Cécile,Neirinckx Virginie,Gothot André,Wislet Sabine,Rogister Bernard
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
Hematopoietic niches are defined as cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. Many different cell types have been characterized as contributors to the formation of HSC niches, such as osteoblasts, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, and mesenchymal progenitors. These mesenchymal progenitors have themselves been classified as CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, stem cell factor expressing cells, or nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have been recently identified as neural crest-derived cells (NCSCs). Together, these cells are spatially associated with HSCs and believed to provide appropriate microenvironments for HSC self-renewal, differentiation, mobilization and hibernation both by cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Interestingly, it appears that regulatory pathways governing the hematopoietic niche homeostasis are operating in the neurogenic niche as well. Therefore, this review paper aims to compare both the regulation of hematopoietic and neurogenic niches, in order to highlight the role of NCSCs and nervous system components in the development and the regulation of the hematopoietic system.
Isolation of neural crest-derived stem cells from rat embryonic mandibular processes.
Zhang Jianping,Duan Xiaoyan,Zhang Huali,Deng Zhihong,Zhou Zeyuan,Wen Ning,Smith Anthony J,Zhao Wenming,Jin Yan
Biology of the cell
BACKGROUND INFORMATION:Substantial evidence indicates the existence of NCSCs (neural crest-derived stem cells) in embryonic mandibular processes; however, they have not been fully investigated or isolated. The aim of the present study was to isolate stem cells from mandibular process during embryonic development by MACS (magnetic-activated cell sorting). The findings show that the cells are multipotent and self-renewing. RESULTS:LNGFR (low-affinity nerve-growth-factor receptor)+ cells were isolated from rat embryonic mandibular processes by MACS. The cells were grown in clonal culture by limiting dilution to assess their developmental potential. Clone analysis indicated that, first, LNGFR+ cells are multipotent, being able to generate at least neurons and Schwann cells, similar to peripheral neural crest stem cells. Secondly, multipotent LNGFR+ cells generate multipotent progenies, indicating that they are capable of self-renewal and therefore are stem cells. Thirdly, manipulation of the medium supplementation alters the fate of the isolated LNGFR+ cells. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that LNGFR antibodies label NCSCs with high specificity and purity, and suggest that positive selection using these antibodies may become the method of choice for obtaining multipotent cells from rat embryonic mandibular processes for tissue engineering or regenerative therapeutic use.
Differentiation defect in neural crest-derived smooth muscle cells in patients with aortopathy associated with bicuspid aortic valves.
Jiao Jiao,Xiong Wei,Wang Lunchang,Yang Jiong,Qiu Ping,Hirai Hiroyuki,Shao Lina,Milewicz Dianna,Chen Y Eugene,Yang Bo
Individuals with bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) are at a higher risk of developing thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) than patients with trileaflet aortic valves (TAV). The aneurysms associated with BAV most commonly involve the ascending aorta and spare the descending aorta. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the ascending and descending aorta arise from neural crest (NC) and paraxial mesoderm (PM), respectively. We hypothesized defective differentiation of the neural crest stem cells (NCSCs)-derived SMCs but not paraxial mesoderm cells (PMCs)-derived SMCs contributes to the aortopathy associated with BAV. When induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from BAV/TAA patients were differentiated into NCSC-derived SMCs, these cells demonstrated significantly decreased expression of marker of SMC differentiation (MYH11) and impaired contraction compared to normal control. In contrast, the PMC-derived SMCs were similar to control cells in these aspects. The NCSC-SMCs from the BAV/TAA also showed decreased TGF-β signaling based on phosphorylation of SMAD2, and increased mTOR signaling. Inhibition of mTOR pathway using rapamycin rescued the aberrant differentiation. Our data demonstrates that decreased differentiation and contraction of patient's NCSC-derived SMCs may contribute to that aortopathy associated with BAV.
Adult craniofacial stem cells: sources and relation to the neural crest.
Kaltschmidt Barbara,Kaltschmidt Christian,Widera Darius
Stem cell reviews and reports
During the process of development, neural crest cells migrate out from their niche between the newly formed ectoderm and the neural tube. Thereafter, they give rise not only to ectodermal cell types, but also to mesodermal cell types. Cell types with neural crest ancestry consequently comprise a number of specialized varieties, such as ectodermal neurons, melanocytes and Schwann cells, as well as mesodermal osteoblasts, adipocytes and smooth muscle cells. Numerous recent studies suggest that stem cells with a neural crest origin persist into adulthood, especially within the mammalian craniofacial compartment. This review discusses the sources of adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) derived from the cranium, as well as their differentiation potential and expression of key stem cell markers. Furthermore, the expression of marker genes associated with embryonic stem cells and the issue of multi- versus pluripotency of adult NCSCs is reviewed. Stringent tests are proposed, which, if performed, are anticipated to clarify the issue of adult NCSC potency. Finally, current pre-clinical and clinical data are discussed in light of the clinical impact of adult NCSCs.
Sphere-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Obtained From Human Oral Mucosa Are Enriched in Neural Crest Cells.
Abe Shigehiro,Yamaguchi Satoshi,Sato Yutaka,Harada Kiyoshi
Stem cells translational medicine
UNLABELLED:: Although isolation of oral mucosal stromal stem cells has been previously reported, complex isolation methods are not suitable for clinical application. The neurosphere culture technique is a convenient method for the isolation of neural stem cells and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs); neurosphere generation is a phenotype of NCSCs. However, the molecular details underlying the isolation and characterization of human oral mucosa stromal cells (OMSCs) by neurosphere culture are not understood. The purpose of the present study was to isolate NCSCs from oral mucosa using the neurosphere technique and to establish effective in vivo bone tissue regeneration methods. Human OMSCs were isolated from excised human oral mucosa; these cells formed spheres in neurosphere culture conditions. Oral mucosa sphere-forming cells (OMSFCs) were characterized by biological analyses of stem cells. Additionally, composites of OMSFCs and multiporous polylactic acid scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. OMSFCs had the capacity for self-renewal and expressed neural crest-related markers (e.g., nestin, CD44, slug, snail, and MSX1). Furthermore, upregulated expression of neural crest-related genes (EDNRA, Hes1, and Sox9) was observed in OMSFCs, which are thought to contain an enriched population of neural crest-derived cells. The expression pattern of α2-integrin (CD49b) in OMSFCs also differed from that in OMSCs. Finally, OMSFCs were capable of differentiating into neural crest lineages in vitro and generating ectopic bone tissues even in the subcutaneous region. The results of the present study suggest that OMSFCs are an ideal source of cells for the neural crest lineage and hard tissue regeneration. SIGNIFICANCE:The sphere culture technique is a convenient method for isolating stem cells. However, the isolation and characterization of human oral mucosa stromal cells (OMSCs) using the sphere culture system are not fully understood. The present study describes the isolation of neural crest progenitor cells from oral mucosa using this system. Human OMSCs form spheres that exhibit self-renewal capabilities and multipotency, and are enriched with neural crest-derived cells. These oral mucosa sphere-forming cells can generate ectopic bone tissue in vivo. Therefore, the results of the present study show that the sphere culture system can be applied, without the need for complex isolation techniques, to produce multipotent spheres with the properties of neural crest stem cells. Furthermore, a convenient strategy is demonstrated for the isolation and culture of human OMSCs that could have clinical applications.
Neural crest derived progenitor cells contribute to tumor stroma and aggressiveness in stage 4/M neuroblastoma.
Linares-Clemente Pedro,Aguilar-Morante Diana,Rodríguez-Prieto Ismael,Ramírez Gema,de Torres Carmen,Santamaría Vicente,Pascual-Vaca Diego,Colmenero-Repiso Ana,Vega Francisco M,Mora Jaume,Cabello Rosa,Márquez Catalina,Rivas Eloy,Pardal Ricardo
Pediatric tumors arise upon oncogenic transformation of stem/progenitor cells during embryonic development. Given this scenario, the existence of non-tumorigenic stem cells included within the aberrant tumoral niche, with a potential role in tumor biology, is an intriguing and unstudied possibility. Here, we describe the presence and function of non-tumorigenic neural crest-derived progenitor cells in aggressive neuroblastoma (NB) tumors. These cells differentiate into neural crest typical mesectodermal derivatives, giving rise to tumor stroma and promoting proliferation and tumor aggressiveness. Furthermore, an analysis of gene expression profiles in stage 4/M NB revealed a neural crest stem cell (NCSC) gene signature that was associated to stromal phenotype and high probability of relapse. Thus, this NCSC gene expression signature could be used in prognosis to improve stratification of stage 4/M NB tumors. Our results might facilitate the design of new therapies by targeting NCSCs and their contribution to tumor stroma.
Injury and stress responses of adult neural crest-derived cells.
Parfejevs Vadims,Antunes Ana T,Sommer Lukas
Multipotent neural crest cells can self-renew and give rise to a plethora of neural and non-neural cell types in the vertebrate embryo. Intriguingly, cells reminiscent of such neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) have also been isolated from various postnatal and adult neural crest (NC)-derived structures. However, it has been debated whether NCSC-like cells in the adult correspond to 'in vitro artefacts' emerging upon isolation or fulfil a physiological role in vivo. Here, we discuss recent findings indicating that in different adult NC derivatives, injury or stress responses induce a NCSC-like state, presumably by reprogramming differentiated cells such as Schwann cells. Thereby, injury or stress appear to endow NC-derived cells with the capacity to generate new cell types during the repair process; in addition, injury can activate a repair program in adult NC-derived cells, which promotes tissue repair or regeneration by paracrine signalling. Thus, there is increasing evidence that NCSC-like cells in NC derivatives represent an in vivo state implicated in distinct physiological functions in the adult organism.
Mouse embryonic dorsal root ganglia contain pluripotent stem cells that show features similar to embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.
Ogawa Ryuhei,Fujita Kyohei,Ito Kazuo
In the present study, we showed that the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the mouse embryo contains pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) that have developmental capacities equivalent to those of embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Mouse embryonic DRG cells expressed pluripotency-related transcription factors [octamer-binding transcription factor 4, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box containing gene (Sox) 2, and Nanog] that play essential roles in maintaining the pluripotency of ES cells. Furthermore, the DRG cells differentiated into ectoderm-, mesoderm- and endoderm-derived cells. In addition, these cells produced primordial germ cell-like cells and embryoid body-like spheres. We also showed that the combination of leukemia inhibitor factor/bone morphogenetic protein 2/fibroblast growth factor 2 effectively promoted maintenance of the pluripotency of the PSCs present in DRGs, as well as that of neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) in DRGs, which were previously shown to be present there. Furthermore, the expression of pluripotency-related transcription factors in the DRG cells was regulated by chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 and Sox10, which are indispensable for the formation of NCSCs, and vice versa. These findings support the possibility that PSCs in mouse embryonic DRGs are NCSCs.
Ontogeny and multipotency of neural crest-derived stem cells in mouse bone marrow, dorsal root ganglia, and whisker pad.
Nagoshi Narihito,Shibata Shinsuke,Kubota Yoshiaki,Nakamura Masaya,Nagai Yasuo,Satoh Etsuko,Morikawa Satoru,Okada Yohei,Mabuchi Yo,Katoh Hiroyuki,Okada Seiji,Fukuda Keiichi,Suda Toshio,Matsuzaki Yumi,Toyama Yoshiaki,Okano Hideyuki
Cell stem cell
Although recent reports have described multipotent, self-renewing, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs), the NCSCs in various adult rodent tissues have not been well characterized or compared. Here we identified NCSCs in the bone marrow (BM), dorsal root ganglia, and whisker pad and prospectively isolated them from adult transgenic mice encoding neural crest-specific P0-Cre/Floxed-EGFP and Wnt1-Cre/Floxed-EGFP. Cultured EGFP-positive cells formed neurosphere-like structures that expressed NCSC genes and could differentiate into neurons, glial cells, and myofibroblasts, but the frequency of the cell types was tissue source dependent. Interestingly, we observed NCSCs in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region, circulating blood, and liver at the embryonic stage, suggesting that NCSCs migrate through the bloodstream to the BM and providing an explanation for how neural cells are generated from the BM. The identification of NCSCs in accessible adult tissue provides a new potential source for autologous cell therapy after nerve injury or disease.
Uncovering the In Vivo Source of Adult Neural Crest Stem Cells.
Aquino Jorge B
Stem cells and development
Some late embryonic and adult postmigratory neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) from diverse tissues were shown to grow as multipotent neurospheres. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) contained in these spheres were found to give rise not only to neuroectodermal derivatives but also to some of the progeny of the other embryonic germ layers. In this review, evidences regarding the in vivo properties of NCDCs contributing to NCSCs are discussed. Even though in many cases the final proof for the phenotype identity of in vivo cells generating NCSCs is lacking, some evidences suggest that such postmigratory NCDCs would differ from neural crest cells. The streamline of this review follows a historical perspective that helps understanding the advancements in knowledge of this field of research and highlighting its importance, in an appropriate context. Finally, the potential for regenerative medicine purpose of NCDCs and more specifically of tissues that can be a source of peripheral glia progenitors in the adult is underlined.
Neural crest-derived stem cells display a wide variety of characteristics.
Nagoshi Narihito,Shibata Shinsuke,Nakamura Masaya,Matsuzaki Yumi,Toyama Yoshiaki,Okano Hideyuki
Journal of cellular biochemistry
A recent burst of findings has shown that neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) can be found in diverse mammalian tissues. In addition to their identification in tissues that are known to be derived from the neural crest, recent studies have revealed NCSCs in tissues that are not specifically derived from the neural crest, such as bone marrow. NCSCs can express a wide range of characteristics, and which properties are expressed mainly depends on their tissue sources and the ontogenic stage of the animal. The identification of NCSCs in various tissues opens an entirely new avenue of approach to developing autologous cell replacement therapies for use in regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the origin, migration, and lineage potential of NCSCs from various mammalian tissue sources.
Efficient animal-serum free 3D cultivation method for adult human neural crest-derived stem cell therapeutics.
Greiner J F W,Hauser S,Widera D,Müller J,Qunneis F,Zander C,Martin I,Mallah J,Schuetzmann D,Prante C,Schwarze H,Prohaska W,Beyer A,Rott K,Hütten A,Gölzhäuser A,Sudhoff H,Kaltschmidt C,Kaltschmidt B
European cells & materials
Due to their broad differentiation potential and their persistence into adulthood, human neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) harbour great potential for autologous cellular therapies, which include the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and replacement of complex tissues containing various cell types, as in the case of musculoskeletal injuries. The use of serum-free approaches often results in insufficient proliferation of stem cells and foetal calf serum implicates the use of xenogenic medium components. Thus, there is much need for alternative cultivation strategies. In this study we describe for the first time a novel, human blood plasma based semi-solid medium for cultivation of human NCSCs. We cultivated human neural crest-derived inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs) within a blood plasma matrix, where they revealed higher proliferation rates compared to a standard serum-free approach. Three-dimensionality of the matrix was investigated using helium ion microscopy. ITSCs grew within the matrix as revealed by laser scanning microscopy. Genetic stability and maintenance of stemness characteristics were assured in 3D cultivated ITSCs, as demonstrated by unchanged expression profile and the capability for self-renewal. ITSCs pre-cultivated in the 3D matrix differentiated efficiently into ectodermal and mesodermal cell types, particularly including osteogenic cell types. Furthermore, ITSCs cultivated as described here could be easily infected with lentiviruses directly in substrate for potential tracing or gene therapeutic approaches. Taken together, the use of human blood plasma as an additive for a completely defined medium points towards a personalisable and autologous cultivation of human neural crest-derived stem cells under clinical grade conditions.
Nox4-mediated cell signaling regulates differentiation and survival of neural crest stem cells.
Lee Ji-Eun,Cho Kyu Eun,Lee Kyung Eun,Kim Jaesang,Bae Yun Soo
Molecules and cells
The function of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as second messengers in cell differentiation has been demonstrated only for a limited number of cell types. Here, we used a well-established protocol for BMP2-induced neuronal differentiation of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) to examine the function of BMP2-induced ROS during the process. We first show that BMP2 indeed induces ROS generation in NCSCs and that blocking ROS generation by pretreatment of cells with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) as NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor inhibits neuronal differentiation. Among the ROS-generating Nox isozymes, only Nox4 was expressed at a detectable level in NCSCs. Nox4 appears to be critical for survival of NCSCs at least in vitro as down-regulation by RNA interference led to apoptotic response from NCSCs. Interestingly, development of neural crest-derived peripheral neural structures in Nox4-/- mouse appears to be grossly normal, although Nox4-/- embryos were born at a sub-Mendelian ratio and showed delayed over-all development. Specifically, cranial and dorsal root ganglia, derived from NCSCs, were clearly present in Nox4-/- embryo at embryonic days (E) 9.5 and 10.5. These results suggest that Nox4-mediated ROS generation likely plays important role in fate determination and differentiation of NCSCs, but other Nox isozymes play redundant function during embryogenesis.
Multipotent stem cells with neural crest stem cells characteristics exist in bovine adipose tissue.
Zhang Kai,Cui Xiaozhen,Zhang Bochi,Song Xianyi,Liu Qiang,Yang Shiyu
Biochemical and biophysical research communications
Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) often referred to as the fourth germ layer, comprise a migratory, stem and progenitor cell population and are synonymous with vertebrate evolution and development. The cells follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they generate a diverse array of cell types and tissues. There are NCSCs which are maintained in an undifferentiated state throughout the life in the animal tissues. Based on some cells migratory property, we successfully developed a separation strategy to isolate and identify a population of adipose-derived stem cells with neural crest stem cell features in adult bovine adipose tissues within minimally-invasive surgical procedures. The cells have a high degree of multi-potency and self-renewal capabilities, can be cultured and maintained in feeder-free adhesion conditions as monolayer cells, and also be able to grow in the suspension condition in the form of neurosphere. For the purpose of simple description, we name this type cell as bovine adipose-derived neural crest stem cell (baNCSC). Taken together our study describes a readily accessible source of multipotent baNCSC for autologous tissue engineer and cell-based therapeutic researches.
Protective Effects of Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cell-Conditioned Media against Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Lung Injury in Rats.
Peng Chung-Kan,Wu Shu-Yu,Tang Shih-En,Li Min-Hui,Lin Shih-Shiuan,Chu Shi-Jye,Huang Kun-Lun
Current treatments for ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute lung injury are limited. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (CM) has been reported to attenuate lung injury. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs), a type of multipotent stem cells, are more easily obtained than mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesize that NCSC-CM has anti-inflammatory properties that could protect against IR-induced lung injury in rats. In this study, NCSC-CM was derived from rat NCSCs. Typical acute lung injury was induced by 30-min ischemia followed by 90-min reperfusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were collected to analyze the degree of lung injury after the experiment. NCSC-CM was administered before ischemia and after reperfusion. NCSC-CM treatment significantly attenuated IR-induced lung edema, as indicated by decreases in pulmonary vascular permeability, lung weight gain, wet to dry weight ratio, lung weight to body weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure, and protein level in BALF. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the BALF were also significantly decreased. Additionally, NCSC-CM improved lung pathology and neutrophil infiltration in the lung tissue, and significantly suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and IκB-α degradation in the lung. However, heating NCSC-CM eliminated these protective effects. Our experiment demonstrates that NCSC-CM treatment decreases IR-induced acute lung injury and that the protective mechanism may be attributable to the inhibition of NF-κB activation and the inflammatory response. Therefore, NCSC-CM may be a novel approach for treating IR-induced lung injury.
Neural crest-derived stem cells migrate and differentiate into cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction.
Tamura Yuichi,Matsumura Keisuke,Sano Motoaki,Tabata Hidenori,Kimura Kensuke,Ieda Masaki,Arai Takahide,Ohno Yohei,Kanazawa Hideaki,Yuasa Shinsuke,Kaneda Ruri,Makino Shinji,Nakajima Kazunori,Okano Hideyuki,Fukuda Keiichi
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology
OBJECTIVE:We recently demonstrated that primitive neural crest-derived (NC) cells migrate from the cardiac neural crest during embryonic development and remain in the heart as dormant stem cells, with the capacity to differentiate into various cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Here, we examined the migration and differentiation potential of these cells on myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS:We obtained double-transgenic mice by crossing protein-0 promoter-Cre mice with Floxed-enhanced green fluorescent protein mice, in which the NC cells express enhanced green fluorescent protein. In the neonatal heart, NC stem cells (NCSCs) were localized predominantly in the outflow tract, but they were also distributed in a gradient from base to apex throughout the ventricular myocardium. Time-lapse video analysis revealed that the NCSCs were migratory. Some NCSCs persisted in the adult heart. On MI, NCSCs accumulated at the ischemic border zone area (BZA), which expresses monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Ex vivo cell migration assays demonstrated that MCP-1 induced NCSC migration and that this chemotactic effect was significantly depressed by an anti-MCP-1 antibody. Small NC cardiomyocytes first appeared in the BZA 2 weeks post-MI and gradually increased in number thereafter. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggested that NCSCs migrate into the BZA via MCP-1/CCR2 signaling and contribute to the provision of cardiomyocytes for cardiac regeneration after MI.
Enrichment and Schwann Cell Differentiation of Neural Crest-derived Dental Pulp Stem Cells.
Al-Zer Heba,Apel Christian,Heiland Max,Friedrich Reinhard E,Jung Ole,Kroeger Nadja,Eichhorn Wolfgang,Smeets Ralf
In vivo (Athens, Greece)
BACKGROUND/AIM:As already described in previous studies, neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) can be found in adult human dental pulp. The present study investigated the methodology for enrichment and differentiation-induction of the above mentioned cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Dental pulp was extracted from human wisdom teeth of four patients and subsequently cultured as explants on fibronectin-coated plates in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, l-glutamine and neuregulin-β1. The cells were then characterized by immunofluorescence, while their differentiation-potential was tested by the attempt to induce cells into different lineages, i.e. osteogenic, melanocytic and glial. RESULTS:The enriched cell population expressed nestin, CD271 and SOX10, which are well-known markers for NCSCs. Consequently, the cells were successfully induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, melanocytes and Schwann cells, expressing the corresponding differentiation markers. CONCLUSION:Human adult dental pulp contains a population of stem cells with neural crest ontogeny, which can thus be recruited for multiple regenerative therapies.
Substrate stiffness modulates the multipotency of human neural crest derived ectomesenchymal stem cells via CD44 mediated PDGFR signaling.
Srinivasan Akshaya,Chang Shu-Yung,Zhang Shipin,Toh Wei Seong,Toh Yi-Chin
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from various mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. While the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of MSCs stemming from their developmental origins has been acknowledged, the genetic and environmental factors underpinning these differences are not well-understood. Here, we investigated whether substrate stiffness mediated mechanical cues can directly modulate the development of ectodermal MSCs (eMSCs) from a precursor human neural crest stem cell (NCSC) population. We showed that NCSC-derived eMSCs were transcriptionally and functionally distinct from mesodermal bone marrow MSCs. eMSCs derived on lower substrate stiffness specifically increased their expression of the MSC marker, CD44 in a Rho-ROCK signaling dependent manner, which resulted in a concomitant increase in the eMSCs' adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential. This mechanically-induced effect can only be maintained for short-term upon switching back to a stiff substrate but can be sustained for longer-term when the eMSCs were exclusively maintained on soft substrates. We also discovered that CD44 expression modulated eMSC self-renewal and multipotency via the downregulation of downstream platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling. This is the first instance demonstrating that substrate stiffness not only influences the differentiation trajectories of MSCs but also their derivation from upstream progenitors, such as NCSCs.
Isolation of novel multipotent neural crest-derived stem cells from adult human inferior turbinate.
Hauser Stefan,Widera Darius,Qunneis Firas,Müller Janine,Zander Christin,Greiner Johannes,Strauss Christina,Lüningschrör Patrick,Heimann Peter,Schwarze Hartmut,Ebmeyer Jörg,Sudhoff Holger,Araúzo-Bravo Marcos J,Greber Boris,Zaehres Holm,Schöler Hans,Kaltschmidt Christian,Kaltschmidt Barbara
Stem cells and development
Adult human neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are of extraordinary high plasticity and promising candidates for the use in regenerative medicine. Here we describe for the first time a novel neural crest-derived stem cell population within the respiratory epithelium of human adult inferior turbinate. In contrast to superior and middle turbinates, high amounts of source material could be isolated from human inferior turbinates. Using minimally-invasive surgery methods isolation is efficient even in older patients. Within their endogenous niche, inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs) expressed high levels of nestin, p75(NTR), and S100. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-p75 antibodies displayed that ITSCs are of glial origin and closely related to nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Cultivated ITSCs were positive for nestin and S100 and the neural crest markers Slug and SOX10. Whole genome microarray analysis showed pronounced differences to human ES cells in respect to pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, and NANOG, whereas expression of WDR5, KLF4, and c-MYC was nearly similar. ITSCs were able to differentiate into cells with neuro-ectodermal and mesodermal phenotype. Additionally ITSCs are able to survive and perform neural crest typical chain migration in vivo when transplanted into chicken embryos. However ITSCs do not form teratomas in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Finally, we developed a separation strategy based on magnetic cell sorting of p75(NTR) positive ITSCs that formed larger neurospheres and proliferated faster than p75(NTR) negative ITSCs. Taken together our study describes a novel, readily accessible source of multipotent human NCSCs for potential cell-replacement therapy.
Culture bag systems for clinical applications of adult human neural crest-derived stem cells.
Greiner Johannes F W,Grunwald Lena-Marie,Müller Janine,Sudhoff Holger,Widera Darius,Kaltschmidt Christian,Kaltschmidt Barbara
Stem cell research & therapy
INTRODUCTION:Facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases as well as complex craniofacial injuries such as those common after cancer therapy, the field of regenerative medicine increasingly relies on stem cell transplantation strategies. Here, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) offer many promising applications, although scale up of clinical-grade processes prior to potential transplantations is currently limiting. In this study, we aimed to establish a clinical-grade, cost-reducing cultivation system for NCSCs isolated from the adult human nose using cGMP-grade Afc-FEP bags. METHODS:We cultivated human neural crest-derived stem cells from inferior turbinate (ITSCs) in a cell culture bag system using Afc-FEP bags in human blood plasma-supplemented medium. Investigations of viability, proliferation and expression profile of bag-cultured ITSCs were followed by DNA-content and telomerase activity determination. Cultivated ITSCs were introduced to directed in vitro differentiation assays to assess their potential for mesodermal and ectodermal differentiation. Mesodermal differentiation was determined using an enzyme activity assay (alkaline phosphatase, ALP), respective stainings (Alizarin Red S, Von Kossa and Oil Red O), and RT-PCR, while immunocytochemistry and synaptic vesicle recycling were applied to assay neuroectodermal differentiation of ITSCs. RESULTS:When cultivated within Afc-FEP bags, ITSCs grew three-dimensionally in a human blood plasma-derived matrix, thereby showing unchanged morphology, proliferation capability, viability and expression profile in comparison to three dimensionally-cultured ITSCs growing in standard cell culture plastics. Genetic stability of bag-cultured ITSCs was further accompanied by unchanged telomerase activity. Importantly, ITSCs retained their potential to differentiate into mesodermal cell types, particularly including ALP-active, Alizarin Red S-, and Von Kossa-positive osteogenic cell types, as well as adipocytes positive in Oil Red O assays. Bag culture further did not affect the potential of ITSCs to undergo differentiation into neuroectodermal cell types coexpressing β-III-tubulin and MAP2 and exhibiting the capability for synaptic vesicle recycling. CONCLUSIONS:Here, we report for the first time the successful cultivation of human NCSCs within cGMP-grade Afc-FEP bags using a human blood plasma-supplemented medium. Our findings particularly demonstrate the unchanged differentiation capability and genetic stability of the cultivated NCSCs, suggesting the great potential of this culture system for future medical applications in the field of regenerative medicine.
CHD7, Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog control FoxD3 expression during mouse neural crest-derived stem cell formation.
Fujita Kyohei,Ogawa Ryuhei,Ito Kazuo
The FEBS journal
Neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are tissue-specific stem cells derived from multipotent neural crest cells. NCSCs are present in some adult tissues such as dorsal root ganglia, sciatic nerve, and bone marrow. However, little is known about the formation mechanisms of these cells. We have shown that BMP2/Wnt3a signaling and a chromatin remodeler, CHD7, in mice help to maintain the multipotency of neural crest cells and lead to the formation of NCSCs. In the present study, we analyzed a regulatory gene cascade in the formation of mouse NCSCs. The inhibition of FoxD3 expression significantly suppressed the expression of Sox10, which is an indispensable transcription factor for mouse NCSC formation, in the presence of BMP2/Wnt3a. CHD7, Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog occupied multiple conserved regions of mouse FoxD3, mE1, mE2, and mE3, in a BMP2/Wnt3a-dependent manner. Furthermore, siRNA of CHD7, Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog significantly suppressed FoxD3 expression. The inhibition of histone H3K4 mono- or trimethylation also repressed FoxD3 expression. The present data suggest that CHD7, Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog directly induce FoxD3 expression when stimulated by BMP2/Wnt3a signaling, that FoxD3 promotes Sox10 expression, and that histone H3K4 methylation plays important roles in this process of mouse NCSC formation.
Characterization of neural crest-derived stem cells isolated from human bone marrow for improvement of transplanted islet function.
Brboric Anja,Vasylovska Svitlana,Saarimäki-Vire Jonna,Espes Daniel,Caballero-Corbalan José,Larfors Gunnar,Otonkoski Timo,Lau Joey
Upsala journal of medical sciences
Murine boundary cap-derived neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are capable of enhancing islet function by stimulating beta cell proliferation as well as increasing the neural and vascular density in the islets both and . This study aimed to isolate NCSC-like cells from human bone marrow. CD271 magnetic cell separation and culture techniques were used to purify a NCSC-enriched population of human bone marrow. Analyses of the CD271+ and CD271- fractions in terms of protein expression were performed, and the capacity of the CD271+ bone marrow cells to form 3-dimensional spheres when grown under non-adherent conditions was also investigated. Moreover, the NCSC characteristics of the CD271+ cells were evaluated by their ability to migrate toward human islets as well as human islet-like cell clusters (ICC) derived from pluripotent stem cells. The CD271+ bone marrow population fulfilled the criterion of being multipotent stem cells, having the potential to differentiate into glial cells, neurons as well as myofibroblasts . They had the capacity to form 3-dimensional spheres as well as an ability to migrate toward human islets, further supporting their NCSC identity. Additionally, we demonstrated similar migration features toward stem cell-derived ICC. The results support the NCSC identity of the CD271-enriched human bone marrow population. It remains to investigate whether the human bone marrow-derived NCSCs have the ability to improve transplantation efficacy of not only human islets but stem cell-derived ICC as well.
Roles of chromatin remodelers in maintenance mechanisms of multipotency of mouse trunk neural crest cells in the formation of neural crest-derived stem cells.
Fujita Kyohei,Ogawa Ryuhei,Kawawaki Syunsaku,Ito Kazuo
Mechanisms of development
We analyzed roles of two chromatin remodelers, Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) and SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable-B (SWI/SNF-B), and Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)/Wnt signaling in the maintenance of the multipotency of mouse trunk neural crest cells, leading to the formation of mouse neural crest-derived stem cells (mouse NCSCs). CHD7 was expressed in the undifferentiated neural crest cells and in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sciatic nerve, typical tissues containing NCSCs. BMP/Wnt signaling stimulated the expression of CHD7 and participated in maintaining the multipotency of neural crest cells. Furthermore, the promotion of CHD7 expression maintained the multipotency of these cells. The inhibition of CHD7 and SWI/SNF-B expression significantly suppressed the maintenance of the multipotency of these cells. In addition, BMP/Wnt treatment promoted CHD7 expression and caused the increase of the percentage of multipotent cells in DRG. Thus, the present data suggest that the chromatin remodelers as well as BMP/Wnt signaling play essential roles in the maintenance of the multipotency of mouse trunk neural crest cells and in the formation of mouse NCSCs.
Isolation and Characterization of Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells From Adult Ovine Palatal Tissue.
Zeuner Marie-Theres,Didenko Nikolai N,Humphries David,Stergiadis Sokratis,Morash Taryn M,Patel Ketan,Grimm Wolf-Dieter,Widera Darius
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Adult mammalian craniofacial tissues contain limited numbers of post-migratory neural crest-derived stem cells. Similar to their embryonic counterparts, these adult multipotent stem cells can undergo multi-lineage differentiation and are capable of contributing to regeneration of mesodermal and ectodermal cells and tissues . In the present study, we describe for the first time the presence of Nestin-positive neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) within the ovine hard palate. We show that these cells can be isolated from the palatal tissue and are able to form neurospheres. Ovine NCSCs express the typical neural crest markers Slug and Twist, exhibit high proliferative and migratory activity and are able to differentiate into α smooth muscle cells and β-III-tubulin expressing ectodermal cells. Finally, we demonstrate that oNCSCs are capable of differentiating into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic cells. Taken together, our results suggest that oNCSCs could be used as model cells to assess the efficacy and safety of autologous NCSC transplantation in a large animal model.
Comparative Analysis of Biological Properties of Large-Scale Expanded Adult Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells Isolated from Human Hair Follicle and Skin Dermis.
Vasyliev Roman G,Gubar Olga S,Gordiienko Inna M,Litvinova Larisa S,Rodnichenko Anzhela E,Shupletsova Valeria V,Zlatska Alona V,Yurova Kristina A,Todosenko Natalia M,Khadzhynova Veronika E,Shulha Mariia V,Novikova Svitlana N,Zubov Dmytro O
Stem cells international
Introduction:The adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) have significant perspectives for use in regenerative medicine. The most attractive sources for adult NCSC isolation are the hair follicles (HF) and skin dermis (SD) because of easy access and minimally invasive biopsy. The aim of this study was to compare the biological properties of HF- and SD-derived NCSCs after their large-scale expansion. Methods:The conventional explant method was used to obtain HF NCSCs. For the isolation of SD NCSCs, a new combined technique consisting of preplating and subsequent culturing in 3D blood plasma-derived fibrin hydrogel was applied. The studied cells were characterized by flow cytometry, ICC, qPCR, Bio-Plex multiplex assay, and directed multilineage differentiation assays. Results:We have obtained both adult SD and HF NCSCs from each skin sample ( = 5). Adult SD and HF NCSCs were positive for key neural crest markers: SOX10, P75 (CD271), NESTIN, SOX2, and CD349. SD NCSCs showed a higher growth rate during the large-scale expansion compared to HF NCSCs ( < 0.01). Final population of SD NCSCs also contained more clonogenic cells ( < 0.01) and SOX10, CD271, CD105, CD140a, CD146, CD349 cells ( < 0.01). Both HF and SD NCSCs had similar gene expression profiling and produced growth factors, but some quantitative differences were detected. Adult HF and SD NCSCs were able to undergo directed differentiation into neurons, Schwann cells, adipocytes, and osteoblasts. Conclusion:The HF and SD are suitable sources for large-scale manufacturing of adult NCSCs with similar biological properties. We demonstrated that the NCSC population from SD was homogenous and displayed significantly higher growth rate than HF NCSCs. Moreover, SD NCSC isolation is cheaper, easier, and minimally time-consuming method.
Physiological Plasticity of Neural-Crest-Derived Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Carotid Body.
Annese Valentina,Navarro-Guerrero Elena,Rodríguez-Prieto Ismael,Pardal Ricardo
Adult stem cell plasticity, or the ability of somatic stem cells to cross boundaries and differentiate into unrelated cell types, has been a matter of debate in the last decade. Neural-crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) display a remarkable plasticity during development. Whether adult populations of NCSCs retain this plasticity is largely unknown. Herein, we describe that neural-crest-derived adult carotid body stem cells (CBSCs) are able to undergo endothelial differentiation in addition to their reported role in neurogenesis, contributing to both neurogenic and angiogenic processes taking place in the organ during acclimatization to hypoxia. Moreover, CBSC conversion into vascular cell types is hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) dependent and sensitive to hypoxia-released vascular cytokines such as erythropoietin. Our data highlight a remarkable physiological plasticity in an adult population of tissue-specific stem cells and could have impact on the use of these cells for cell therapy.
Sexual dimorphisms in adult human neural, mesoderm-derived, and neural crest-derived stem cells.
Greiner Johannes F W,Merten Madlen,Kaltschmidt Christian,Kaltschmidt Barbara
Sexual dimorphisms contribute, at least in part, to the severity and occurrence of a broad range of neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and bone disorders. In addition to hormonal factors, increasing evidence suggests that stem cell-intrinsic mechanisms account for sex-specific differences in human physiology and pathology. Here, we discuss sex-related intrinsic mechanisms in adult stem cell populations, namely mesoderm-derived stem cells, neural stem cells (NSCs), and neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs), and their implications for stem cell differentiation and regeneration. We particularly focus on sex-specific differences in stem cell-mediated bone regeneration, in neuronal development, and in NSC-mediated neuroprotection. Moreover, we review our own recently published observations regarding the sex-dependent role of NF-κB-p65 in neuroprotection of human NCSC-derived neurons and sex differences in NCSC-related disorders, so-called neurocristopathies. These observations are in accordance with the increasing evidence pointing toward sex-specific differences in neurocristopathies and degenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease or osteoporosis. All findings discussed here indicate that sex-specific variability in stem cell biology may become a crucial parameter for the design of future treatment strategies.
Identification of a Novel High Yielding Source of Multipotent Adult Human Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells.
Schürmann Matthias,Brotzmann Viktoria,Bütow Marlena,Greiner Johannes,Höving Anna,Kaltschmidt Christian,Kaltschmidt Barbara,Sudhoff Holger
Stem cell reviews and reports
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity. From a surgical point of view, high amounts of tissue are routinely and easily removed during nasal biopsies. Investigating the presence of putative stem cells in obtained middle turbinate tissue by immunohistochemistry, we observed Nestin/p75/S100/α smooth muscle actin (αSMA) cells, which we successfully isolated and cultivated in vitro. Cultivated middle turbinate stem cells (MTSCs) kept their expression of neural crest and stemness markers Nestin, p75 and S100 and showed the capability of sphere formation and clonal growth, indicating their stem cell character. Application of directed in vitro differentiation assays resulted in successful differentiation of MTSCs into osteogenic and neuronal cell types. Regarding the high amount of tissue obtained during surgery as well as their broad differentiation capability, MTSCs seem to be a highly promising novel neural crest stem cell population for applications in cell replacement therapy and pharmacological research.
Alternative generation of CNS neural stem cells and PNS derivatives from neural crest-derived peripheral stem cells.
Weber Marlen,Apostolova Galina,Widera Darius,Mittelbronn Michel,Dechant Georg,Kaltschmidt Barbara,Rohrer Hermann
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
Neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) from the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be reprogrammed in neurosphere (NS) culture to rNCSCs that produce central nervous system (CNS) progeny, including myelinating oligodendrocytes. Using global gene expression analysis we now demonstrate that rNCSCs completely lose their previous PNS characteristics and acquire the identity of neural stem cells derived from embryonic spinal cord. Reprogramming proceeds rapidly and results in a homogenous population of Olig2-, Sox3-, and Lex-positive CNS stem cells. Low-level expression of pluripotency inducing genes Oct4, Nanog, and Klf4 argues against a transient pluripotent state during reprogramming. The acquisition of CNS properties is prevented in the presence of BMP4 (BMP NCSCs) as shown by marker gene expression and the potential to produce PNS neurons and glia. In addition, genes characteristic for mesenchymal and perivascular progenitors are expressed, which suggests that BMP NCSCs are directed toward a pericyte progenitor/mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. Adult NCSCs from mouse palate, an easily accessible source of adult NCSCs, display strikingly similar properties. They do not generate cells with CNS characteristics but lose the neural crest markers Sox10 and p75 and produce MSC-like cells. These findings show that embryonic NCSCs acquire a full CNS identity in NS culture. In contrast, MSC-like cells are generated from BMP NCSCs and pNCSCs, which reveals that postmigratory NCSCs are a source for MSC-like cells up to the adult stage.