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    Placental examination with dye injections in post-delivery chorionicity assessment in dichorionic triplet pregnancy. Lipa Michał,Bomba-Opoń Dorota Agata,Szymusik Iwona,Kosińska-Kaczyńska Katarzyna,Brawura Biskupski Samaha Robert,Węgrzyn Piotr,Wielgoś Mirosław Ginekologia polska The incidence of spontaneous triplet pregnancy is approximately 1 in 7000 deliveries. Due to the fact that every presentation of a triplet and higher order pregnancy is associated with high rate of morbidity and preterm delivery, chorionicity and amnionicity remain significant predictive factors which determine specific management throughout the pregnancy. Ultrasound chorionicity assessment in triplet pregnancies is more complex than in twins, and in many cases it remains unknown. We present a case report of a 24-year-old primipara in a spontaneous dichorionic triplet pregnancy, qualified for a cesarean section at 33 weeks of gestation, with subsequent placental examination with dye injections and post-delivery chorionicity assessment. 10.17772/gp/60555
    Cervical-length measurement in mid-gestation to predict spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic triplet pregnancy. Fichera A,Pagani G,Stagnati V,Cascella S,Faiola S,Gaini C,Lanna M,Pasquini L,Raffaelli R,Stampalija T,Tommasini A,Prefumo F Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology OBJECTIVE:To assess the predictive value of sonographic cervical-length (CL) measurement in mid-gestation for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) in asymptomatic triplet pregnancy. METHODS:This was a retrospective study of asymptomatic triplet pregnancies followed at five Italian tertiary referral centers, between 2002 and 2015. CL was measured transvaginally between 18 and 24 weeks' gestation. Pregnancies with medically indicated PTB were excluded. Demographic and pregnancy characteristics of pregnancies complicated by PTB were analyzed and the distributions of CL measurements in these patients were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between CL and PTB, adjusted for confounders. Performance of CL measurement in prediction of PTB < 28, < 30 and < 32 weeks of gestation was assessed. RESULTS:A total of 120 triplet pregnancies were included in the final analysis. Median CL was 35 (interquartile range (IQR), 29-40) mm measured at a median gestational age of 20 + 2 (IQR, 20 + 0 to 23 + 4) weeks. Overall, 23 (19.2%), 17 (14.2%) and eight (6.7%) patients had a CL < 25, < 20 and < 15 mm, respectively. Spontaneous PTB < 32 weeks occurred in 41 (34.2%) cases, < 30 weeks in 23 (19.2%) and < 28 weeks in 12 (10%) cases. CL < 15 mm was significantly more frequent in the group of patients who delivered < 28 (P = 0.03) and < 30 (P = 0.01) weeks' gestation, compared with those who delivered after 28 and after 30 weeks, respectively, while CL < 20 mm was more common in triplet pregnancies with delivery < 32 weeks compared with those delivered ≥ 32 weeks (P = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis was possible only for PTB < 32 weeks due to the small number of cases that delivered < 30 and < 28 weeks. After adjustment for confounders, CL was not significantly associated with PTB < 32 weeks (adjusted odds ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-1.01). CL measurement had an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.20-0.62), 0.41 (95% CI, 0.26-0.56) and 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31-0.54) for the prediction of spontaneous PTB < 28, < 30 and < 32 weeks, respectively. CONCLUSION:CL assessed in mid-gestation is a poor predictor of PTB < 28, < 30 and < 32 weeks' gestation in asymptomatic triplet pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 10.1002/uog.17464
    Perinatal mortality and morbidity in triplet pregnancy according to chorionicity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Curado J,D'antonio F,Papageorghiou A T,Bhide A,Thilaganathan B,Khalil A Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology OBJECTIVE:The incidence of perinatal mortality and morbidity in triplet pregnancies according to chorionicity is yet to be established. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify perinatal mortality and morbidity in trichorionic triamniotic (TCTA), dichorionic triamniotic (DCTA) and monochorionic triamniotic (MCTA) triplets. METHODS:MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched in December 2017 for literature published in English describing outcomes of DCTA, TCTA and/or MCTA triplet pregnancies. Primary outcomes were intrauterine death (IUD), neonatal death, perinatal death (PND) and gestational age at birth. Secondary outcomes comprised respiratory, neurological and infectious morbidity, as well as a composite score of neonatal morbidity. Data regarding outcomes were extracted from the included studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the risk of mortality and morbidity and to compute the difference in gestational age at birth between TCTA and DCTA triplet pregnancies. RESULTS:Nine studies (1373 triplet pregnancies, of which 1062 were TCTA, 261 DCTA and 50 MCTA) were included in the analysis. The risk of PND was higher in DCTA than in TCTA triplet pregnancies (odds ratio (OR), 3.3 (95% CI, 1.3-8.0)), mainly owing to the higher risk of IUD in DCTA triplet pregnancies (OR, 4.6 (95% CI, 1.8-11.7)). There was no difference in gestational age at birth between TCTA and DCTA triplets (mean difference, 1.1 weeks (95% CI, -0.3 to 2.5 weeks); I  = 85%; P = 0.12). Neurological morbidity occurred in 2.0% (95% CI, 1.1-3.3%) of TCTA and in 11.6% (95% CI, 1.1-40.0%) of DCTA triplets. Respiratory and infectious morbidity affected 28.3% (95% CI, 20.7-36.8%) and 4.2% (95% CI, 2.8-5.9%) of TCTA and 34.0% (95% CI, 21.5-47.7%) and 7.1% (95% CI, 2.7-13.3%) of DCTA triplets, respectively. The incidence of composite morbidity in TCTA and DCTA triplets was 29.6% (95% CI, 21.1-38.9%) and 34.0% (95% CI, 21.5-47.7%), respectively. When translating these figures into a risk analysis, the risk of neurological morbidity (OR, 5.4 (95% CI, 1.6-18.3)) was significantly higher in DCTA than in TCTA triplets, while there was no significant difference in the other morbidities explored. Only one study reported on outcomes of MCTA pregnancies, hence, no formal comparison with the other groups was performed. CONCLUSION:DCTA triplets are at higher risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity than are TCTA triplets. Copyright © 2018 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 10.1002/uog.20209
    [Perinatal outcomes of dichorionic triamniotic triplet pregnancy]. Zhou Y,Jiao Y J,Wei Y,Yuan P B,Wang X J,Zhao Y Y Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi To analyze the perinatal outcomes in different methods of multifetal pregnancy reduction in dichorionic triamniotic (DCTA) triplet pregnancy. A retrospective analysis was performed on 57 cases of DCTA triplets in Peking University Third Hospital from January 1, 2010 to January 1, 2020, including 27 cases in expectant pregnancy group and 30 cases in selective fetal reduction (FR) group. The selective FR group was further divided into 3 subgroups according to different FR methods:retaining monochorionic dichorionic (MCDA) group, retaining dichorionic dichorionic (DCDA) group, and retaining singleton group. The perinatal outcomes of expectant pregnancy group and 3 subgroups of selective FR group were compared. The gestational weeks in selective FR group was (34.5±5.7) weeks, and full-term delivery rate was 53% (16/30), respectively higher than those of the expectant pregnancy group (29.9±6.0) weeks and 7% (2/27). The miscarriage rate of the selective FR group was 10% (3/30), lower than that of the expectant pregnancy group (33%, 9/27). The differences between the two groups were statistically significant (all <0.05). The ratios of pregnancy complications and newborn admission to neonatal ICU (NICU) in the selective FR group were lower than those of the expectant pregnancy group (all <0.05). In the selective FR group, the gestational weeks in retaining MCDA group (6 cases), retaining DCDA group (13 cases), and retaining singleton group (11 cases) were (32.2±4.3), (33.0±6.3), and (37.4±4.7) weeks; the miscarriage rates were 1/6, 1/13, and 1/11; the premature delivery rates were 4/6, 7/13, and 0/11; the full-term delivery rates were 1/6, 5/13, and 10/11; pregnancies with at least 1 survivor rates were 5/6, 12/13, and 10/11; NICU occupancy rates were 6/8, 9/18 and 0/10, respectively. The retaining singleton group had the highest rate of full-term delivery and the lowest rate of NICU occupancy. Compared with other groups, the differences were statistically significant (all <0.05). The full-term delivery rate was significantly higher in the retaining DCDA group than that of the expectant pregnancy group (<0.05). The risk of DCTA triplet pregnancy is high. Reduction of the MCDA pair to singleton has the highest rate of full-term delivery and the lowest rate of NICU occupancy. For pregnant women who wish to retain twin pregnancy, the risk should be fully informed, and consider reduction of one fetus of the MCDA and retaining DCDA twins to continue pregnancy. 10.3760/cma.j.cn112141-20200422-00346
    Effect of monochorionicity on perinatal outcome and growth discordance in triplet pregnancy: collaborative multicenter study in England, 2000-2013. Glinianaia S V,Rankin J,Khalil A,Binder J,Waring G,Curado J,Pateisky P,Thilaganathan B,Sturgiss S N,Hannon T, Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology OBJECTIVES:To compare perinatal outcome and growth discordance between trichorionic triamniotic (TCTA) and dichorionic triamniotic (DCTA) or monochorionic triamniotic (MCTA) triplet pregnancies. METHODS:This was a multicenter cohort study using population-based data on triplet pregnancies from 11 Northern Survey of Twin and Multiple Pregnancy (NorSTAMP) maternity units and the Southwest Thames Region of London Obstetric Research Collaborative (STORK) multiple pregnancy cohort, for 2000-2013. Perinatal outcomes (from ≥ 24 weeks' gestation to 28 days of age), intertriplet fetal growth and birth-weight (BW) discordance and neonatal morbidity were analyzed in TCTA compared with DCTA/MCTA pregnancies. RESULTS:Monochorionic placentation of a pair or trio in triplet pregnancy (n = 72) was associated with a significantly increased risk of perinatal mortality (risk ratio, 2.7 (95% CI, 1.3-5.5)) compared with that in TCTA pregnancies (n = 68), due mainly to a much higher risk of stillbirth (risk ratio, 5.4 (95% CI, 1.6-18.2)), with 57% of all stillbirth cases resulting from fetofetal transfusion syndrome, while there was no significant difference in neonatal mortality (P = 0.60). The associations with perinatal mortality and stillbirth persisted when considering only pregnancies not affected by a major congenital anomaly. DCTA/MCTA triplets had lower BW and demonstrated greater BW discordance than did TCTA triplets (P = 0.049). Severe BW discordance of > 35% was 2.5-fold higher in DCTA/MCTA compared with TCTA pregnancies (26.1% vs 10.4%), but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), presumably due to low numbers. Triplets in both groups were delivered by Cesarean section in over 95% of cases, at a similar gestational age (median, 33 weeks' gestation). The rate of respiratory (P = 0.28) or infectious (P = 0.08) neonatal morbidity was similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS:Despite close antenatal surveillance, monochorionic placentation of a pair or trio in triamniotic triplet pregnancy was associated with a significantly increased stillbirth risk, mainly due to fetofetal transfusion syndrome, and with greater size discordance. In liveborn triplets, there was no adverse effect of monochorionicity on neonatal outcome. © 2020 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 10.1002/uog.21987