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    Macrophage extracellular trap formation promoted by platelet activation is a key mediator of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury. Okubo Koshu,Kurosawa Miho,Kamiya Mako,Urano Yasuteru,Suzuki Akari,Yamamoto Kazuhiko,Hase Koji,Homma Koichiro,Sasaki Junichi,Miyauchi Hiroaki,Hoshino Tatsuo,Hayashi Matsuhiko,Mayadas Tanya N,Hirahashi Junichi Nature medicine Rhabdomyolysis is a serious syndrome caused by skeletal muscle injury and the subsequent release of breakdown products from damaged muscle cells into systemic circulation. The muscle damage most often results from strenuous exercise, muscle hypoxia, medications, or drug abuse and can lead to life-threatening complications, such as acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis and the AKI complication can also occur during crush syndrome, an emergency condition that commonly occurs in victims of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, and man-made disasters, such as wars and terrorism. Myoglobin released from damaged muscle is believed to trigger renal dysfunction in this form of AKI. Recently, macrophages were implicated in the disease pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI, but the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we show that macrophages released extracellular traps (ETs) comprising DNA fibers and granule proteins in a mouse model of rhabdomyolysis. Heme-activated platelets released from necrotic muscle cells during rhabdomyolysis enhanced the production of macrophage extracellular traps (METs) through increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and histone citrullination. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, this unanticipated role for METs and platelets as a sensor of myoglobin-derived heme in rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. This previously unknown mechanism might be targeted for treatment of the disease. Finally, we found a new therapeutic tool for prevention of AKI after rhabdomyolysis, which might rescue some sufferers of this pathology. 10.1038/nm.4462
    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease. Chen Li,Zhou Xia,Fan Lucy X,Yao Ying,Swenson-Fields Katherine I,Gadjeva Mihaela,Wallace Darren P,Peters Dorien J M,Yu Alan,Grantham Jared J,Li Xiaogang The Journal of clinical investigation Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by renal cyst formation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Macrophages infiltrate cystic kidneys, but the role of these and other inflammatory factors in disease progression are poorly understood. Here, we identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as an important regulator of cyst growth in ADPKD. MIF was upregulated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in polycystin-1-deficient murine kidneys and accumulated in cyst fluid of human ADPKD kidneys. MIF promoted cystic epithelial cell proliferation by activating ERK, mTOR, and Rb/E2F pathways and by increasing glucose uptake and ATP production, which inhibited AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. MIF also regulated cystic renal epithelial cell apoptosis through p53-dependent signaling. In polycystin-1-deficient mice, MIF was required for recruitment and retention of renal macrophages, which promoted cyst expansion, and Mif deletion or pharmacologic inhibition delayed cyst growth in multiple murine ADPKD models. MIF-dependent macrophage recruitment was associated with upregulation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. TNF-α induced MIF expression, and MIF subsequently exacerbated TNF-α expression in renal epithelial cells, suggesting a positive feedback loop between TNF-α and MIF during cyst development. Our study indicates MIF is a central and upstream regulator of ADPKD pathogenesis and provides a rationale for further exploration of MIF as a therapeutic target for ADPKD. 10.1172/JCI80467
    The lack of PI3Kγ favors M1 macrophage polarization and does not prevent kidney diseases progression. Amano Mariane T,Castoldi Angela,Andrade-Oliveira Vinicius,Latancia Marcela T,Terra Fernanda F,Correa-Costa Matheus,Breda Cristiane N S,Felizardo Raphael J F,Pereira Welbert O,da Silva Marina B,Miyagi Mariana Y S,Aguiar Cristhiane F,Hiyane Meire I,Silva João S,Moura Ivan C,Camara Niels O S International immunopharmacology Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major concerns in worldwide public health, and their pathophysiology involves immune cells activation, being macrophages one of the main players of both processes. It is suggested that metabolic pathways could contribute to macrophage modulation and phosphatidylinositol‑3 kinase (PI3K) pathway was shown to be activated in kidneys subjected to ischemia and reperfusion as well as unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Although PI3K inhibition is mostly associated with anti-inflammatory response, its use in kidney injuries has been shown controversial results, which indicates the need for further studies. Our aim was to unveil the role of PI3Kγ in macrophage polarization and in kidney diseases development. We analyzed bone-marrow macrophages polarization from wild-type (WT) and PI3Kγ knockout (PI3K KO) animals. We observed increased expression of M1 (CD86, CCR7, iNOS, TNF, CXCL9, CXCL10, IL-12 and IL-23) and decreased of M2 (CD206, Arg-1, FIZZ1 and YM1) markers in the lack of PI3Kγ. And this modulation was accompanied by higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in PI3K KO M1 cells. PI3K KO mice had increased M1 in steady state kidneys, and no protection was observed in these mice after acute and chronic kidney insults. On the contrary, they presented higher levels of protein-to-creatinine ratio and Kim-1 expression and increased tubular injury. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the lack of PI3Kγ favors M1 macrophages polarization providing an inflammatory-prone environment, which does not prevent kidney diseases progression. 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.08.020