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    Resolvin D1 Attenuates Mpp+-Induced Parkinson Disease via Inhibiting Inflammation in PC12 Cells. Xu Jinyan,Gao Xiang,Yang Chunying,Chen Li,Chen Zhengjun Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND We investigated the influence of Resolvin D1 (RvD1) on the inflammatory response in PC12 cells (a cell model of Parkinson disease, PD). MATERIAL AND METHODS 4 mmol/L 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (Mpp+) was used in PC12 cells for an in vitro PD model. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to explore PC12 cell viability. Western blot (WB) experiments were used to identify nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK)/p-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p-P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 protein levels. Transcription levels of inflammatory factors, for instance, TNF-α and IL-6, were explored by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR). Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA). Cell apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V Fluorescein (FITC) kit. RESULTS RvD1 dose-dependently inhibited MPP+ induced upregulation of PC12 cell apoptosis/cellular damage/TNF-α and p-P38/p-ERK/NF-κB as well as downregulation of PC12 cell viability. CONCLUSIONS We can draw the conclusion that RvD1 attenuates PD via inhibiting Mpp+-induced inflammation in PC12 cells. 10.12659/msm.901995
    Piperlongumine restores the balance of autophagy and apoptosis by increasing BCL2 phosphorylation in rotenone-induced Parkinson disease models. Liu Jia,Liu Weijin,Lu Yongquan,Tian Hao,Duan Chunli,Lu Lingling,Gao Ge,Wu Xia,Wang Xiaomin,Yang Hui Autophagy Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease and is caused by genetics, environmental factors and aging, with few treatments currently available. Apoptosis and macroautophagy/autophagy play critical roles in PD pathogenesis; as such, modulating their balance is a potential treatment strategy. BCL2 (B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2) is a key molecule regulating this balance. Piperlongumine (PLG) is an alkaloid extracted from Piper longum L. that has antiinflammatory and anticancer effects. The present study investigated the protective effects of PLG in rotenone-induced PD cell and mouse models. We found that PLG administration (2 and 4 mg/kg) for 4 wk attenuated motor deficits in mice and prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra induced by oral administration of rotenone (10 mg/kg) for 6 wk. PLG improved cell viability and enhanced mitochondrial function in primary neurons and SK-N-SH cells. These protective effects were exerted via inhibition of apoptosis and induction of autophagy through enhancement of BCL2 phosphorylation at Ser70. These results demonstrate that PLG exerts therapeutic effects in a rotenone-induced PD models by restoring the balance between apoptosis and autophagy. ABBREVIATIONS:6-OHDA, 6-hydroxydopamine; ACTB, actin, beta; BafA1, bafilomycin A; BAK1, BCL2-antagonist/killer 1; BAX, BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2, B cell leukemia/lymphoma2; BECN1, Beclin 1, autophagy related; CoQ10, coenzyme Q; COX4I1/COX IV, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4I1; CsA, cyclosporine A; ED50, 50% effective dose; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; JC-1, tetraethylbenz-imidazolylcarbocyanine iodide; LC3, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain3; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; l-dopa, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine; MAPK8/JNK1, mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; MMP, mitochondrial membrane potential; mPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; mRFP, monomeric red fluorescent protein; MPTP, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NFE2L2/NRF2, nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; PD, Parkinson disease; PLG, piperlongumine; pNA, p-nitroanilide; PI, propidium iodide; PtdIns3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PTX, paclitaxel; Rap, rapamycin; SQSTM1/p62, sequestosome 1; TH, tyrosine hydroxylase; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling; WIPI2, WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2; ZFYVE1/DFCP1, zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 1. 10.1080/15548627.2017.1390636
    Protective Effect of Isopulegol in Alleviating Neuroinflammation in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BV-2 Cells and in Parkinson Disease Model Induced with MPTP. Kang Bei,Li Nini,Liu Sha,Qi Shipei,Mu Shengzhi Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent disease linked with age-associated neuronal degeneration. Phytotherapeutic compounds or agents have gained increased importance because of their increased specificity and minimal side effects. Isopulegol, a monoterpene, was utilized in the present study because of its wide range of therapeutic properties. Our aim was to examine the underlying mechanism of anti-neuroinflammatory action and neuroprotective efficacy of isopulegol in cell lines and in an experimental animal model of PD. METHODS:The MTT assay was performed in microglial BV-2 cells subjected to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The release of NO and synthesis of ROS intracellularly in BV-2 cells were detected. C57BL/6 mice induced with MPTP were examined for motor function and coordination. Expression of proinflammatory mediators was also assessed both in vivo and in vitro. Histopathological sections of brain and expression of iNOS and COX-2 were also analyzed. RESULTS:BV-2 cells did not exhibit noticeable toxicity at selected concentrations and LPS-incubated cells showed marked elevation of NO levels and increased production of intracellular ROS. Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines was also observed. Motor function and coordination deficits were observed in mice induced with MPTP. Histopathological abnormalities and increased iNOS and COX-2 expression were noted in MPTP-induced mice. Administration of isopulegol reversed the changes brought about by LPS and MPTP. CONCLUSION:The study indicated that isopulegol is a potential therapeutic drug against clinical complications of PD. 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2021038944
    A GLP-2 Analogue Protects SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a Cells Against Mitochondrial Damage, Autophagy Impairments and Apoptosis in a Parkinson Model. Su Yunfang,Zhang Zijuan,Li Hao,Ma Jinlian,Sun Limin,Shao Simai,Zhang Zhenqiang,Hölscher Christian Drug research Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a peptide hormone that belongs to the glucagon-derived peptide family. We have previously shown that analogues of the sister hormone Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) showed neuroprotective effects. Here we investigated the effect of a GLP-2 agonist in a cell model of Parkinson's disease (PD) created by treating SH-SY5Y or Neuro-2a cells with 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-pyridine ion (MPP+). Cell viability and cell cytotoxicity was detected by MTT and LDH assays, respectively. The protein expression levels of mitochondrial, autophagy and apoptotic biomarkers including PGC-1α, Mfn2, IRE1, ATG7, LC3B, Beclin1 and Bcl-2 were detected by western blot. Mitochondrial superoxide was detected by MitoSOX Red. In addition, mitochondrial morphology, autophagosome and apoptotic corpuscles were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). We found that the GLP-1 and the GLP-2 agonists both protect cells against mitochondrial damage, autophagy impairments and apoptosis induced by MPP+both in SH-SY5Y and Neuro-2a cells. Cell signaling for mitogenesis was enhanced, and oxidative stress levels much reduced by the drugs. This demonstrates for the first time the neuroprotective effects of a GLP-2 analogue in PD cellular models, in which oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis play crucial roles. The protective effects were comparable to those seen with the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide. The results suggest that not only GLP-1, but also GLP-2 has neuroprotective properties and may be useful as a novel treatment of PD. 10.1055/a-1266-3263
    Neuroprotective effect of biosynthesised gold nanoparticles synthesised from root extract of Paeonia moutan against Parkinson disease - In vitro &In vivo model. Xue Jinwei,Liu Tongtong,Liu Yongdan,Jiang Ye,Seshadri Vidya Devanatha Desikan,Mohan Surapaneni Krishna,Ling Li Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology Parkinson disease is one of the most common neurological movement disorders affecting geriatric population. Biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are the ideal alternatives spotlighted by many researchers to treat various diseases. In the present study we synthesized gold nanoparticles using the root extract of Paeonia mountan, woody trees which are used in traditional Chinese medicine to be prescribed for diverse diseases. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles was confirmed with UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis and characterized using FTIR, HR-TEM, EDAX and XRD analysis. The cytotoxicity property of synthesized gold nanoparticles was assessed using MTT assay in the murine microglial BV2 cells. The neuroprotective effect of synthesized gold nanoparticles in inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharides triggered murine microglial BV2 cells was evaluated using nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and inflammatory cytokines assays such as IL-6&IL-1β. Further to confirm in vivo effect of synthesized nanoparticles, the nanoparticles were treated to Parkinson induced C57BL/6 mice. Behavioral, biochemical and molecular analysis were performed to estimate the potency of synthesized gold nanoparticles against the Parkinson induction in mice model. Our characterization results prove the gold nanoparticles synthesized using Paeonia mountan fulfills the requirement of ideal nanodrug and it potentially inhibited the inflammation in in vitro murine microglial BV2. The results of in vivo experiments authentically confirm gold nanoparticles synthesized using Paeonia mountan alleviates the neuroinflammation and improves the motor coordination in Parkinson induced mice. 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111635
    Glial cells in Parkinson´s disease: protective or deleterious? Domingues Ana V,Pereira Inês M,Vilaça-Faria Helena,Salgado António J,Rodrigues Ana J,Teixeira Fábio G Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS Glial cells have been identified more than 100 years ago, and are known to play a key role in the central nervous system (CNS) function. A recent piece of evidence is emerging showing that in addition to the capacity of CNS modulation and homeostasis, glial cells are also being looked like as a promising cell source not only to study CNS pathologies initiation and progression but also to the establishment and development of new therapeutic strategies. Thus, in the present review, we will discuss the current evidence regarding glial cells' contribution to neurodegenerative diseases as Parkinson's disease, providing cellular, molecular, functional, and behavioral data supporting its active role in disease initiation, progression, and treatment. As so, considering their functional relevance, glial cells may be important to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms regarding neuronal-glial networks in neurodegeneration/regeneration processes, which may open new research opportunities for their future use as a target or treatment in human clinical trials. 10.1007/s00018-020-03584-x