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    SLC25A47 is a novel determinant of hepatic mitochondrial function implicated in liver fibrosis. Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Transporters of the SLC25 mitochondrial carrier superfamily bridge cytoplasmic and mitochondrial metabolism by channeling metabolites across mitochondrial membranes and are pivotal for metabolic homeostasis. Despite their physiological relevance as gatekeepers of cellular metabolism, most of the SLC25 family members remain uncharacterized. We undertook a comprehensive tissue distribution analysis of all Slc25 family members across metabolic organs and identified SLC25A47 as a liver-specific mitochondrial carrier. METHOD:We used a murine loss-of-function model to unravel the role of this transporter in mitochondrial and hepatic homeostasis. We performed extensive metabolic phenotyping and molecular characterization of newly generated Slc25a47 and Slc25a47-Fgf21 mice. RESULTS:Slc25a47 mice displayed a wide variety of metabolic abnormalities, as a result of sustained energy deficiency in the liver originating from impaired mitochondrial respiration in this organ. This mitochondrial phenotype was associated with an activation of the mitochondrial stress response (MSR) in the liver, and the development of fibrosis, which was exacerbated upon feeding a high-fat high-sucrose diet. The MSR induced the secretion of several mitokines, amongst which FGF21 played a preponderant role on systemic physiology. To dissect the FGF21-dependent and -independent physiological changes induced in Slc25a47 mice, we generated a double Slc25a47-Fgf21 mouse model and demonstrated that several aspects of the hypermetabolic state were driven by hepatic secretion of FGF21. On the other hand, the metabolic fuel inflexibility observed in Slc25a47 mice could not be rescued with the genetic removal of Fgf21. CONCLUSION:Collectively, our data place SLC25A47 at the center of mitochondrial homeostasis, which upon dysfunction triggers robust liver-specific and systemic adaptive stress responses. The prominent role of SLC25A47 in hepatic fibrosis identifies this carrier, or its transported metabolite, as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. LAY SUMMARY:SLC25A47 is a liver-specific mitochondrial carrier. Slc25a47 mice are unable to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in hepatocytes and show impaired mitochondrial respiration resulting in chronic energy deficiency, mitochondrial stress, and fibrosis in hepatocytes. Hepatic mitochondrial stress is characterized by the secretion of the mitokine FGF21 which drives a strong and systemic hypermetabolic state impacting whole-body physiology. 10.1016/j.jhep.2022.05.040
    Programming axonal mitochondrial maintenance and bioenergetics in neurodegeneration and regeneration. Neuron Mitochondria generate ATP essential for neuronal growth, function, and regeneration. Due to their polarized structures, neurons face exceptional challenges to deliver mitochondria to and maintain energy homeostasis throughout long axons and terminal branches where energy is in high demand. Chronic mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied by bioenergetic failure is a pathological hallmark of major neurodegenerative diseases. Brain injury triggers acute mitochondrial damage and a local energy crisis that accelerates neuron death. Thus, mitochondrial maintenance defects and axonal energy deficits emerge as central problems in neurodegenerative disorders and brain injury. Recent studies have started to uncover the intrinsic mechanisms that neurons adopt to maintain (or reprogram) axonal mitochondrial density and integrity, and their bioenergetic capacity, upon sensing energy stress. In this review, we discuss recent advances in how neurons maintain a healthy pool of axonal mitochondria, as well as potential therapeutic strategies that target bioenergetic restoration to power neuronal survival, function, and regeneration. 10.1016/j.neuron.2022.03.015
    Honokiol ameliorates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury via inhibition of mitochondrial fission. British journal of pharmacology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are crucial contributors to the tubular cell injury and death in acute kidney injury. Novel therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondria protection and halting the progression of acute kidney injury are urgently needed. Honokiol is a small-molecule polyphenol that exhibits extraordinary cytoprotective effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. Thus, we investigated whether honokiol could ameliorate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury via preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Acute kidney injury was induced by cisplatin administration. Biochemical and histological analysis were used to determine kidney injury. The effect of honokiol on mitochondrial function and morphology were determined using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, immunoblot and immunofluorescence. To investigate the mechanism by which honokiol alters mitochondrial dynamics, remodelling and resistance to apoptosis, we used transfection experiments, immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and flow cytometry assay. KEY RESULTS:We demonstrated that the prominent mitochondrial fragmentation occurred in experimental models of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which was coupled to radical oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, deterioration of mitochondrial function, release of apoptogenic factors and the consequent apoptosis. Honokiol treatment caused notable reno-protection and attenuated of these cisplatin-induced changes. Mechanistically, honokiol treatment recovered the expression of SIRT3 and improved AMPK activity in tubular cells exposure to cisplatin, which preserved the Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser637 and blocked its translocation in mitochondria, consequently preventing mitochondrial fragmentation and subsequent cell injury and death. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:Our results indicate that honokiol may protect against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by preserving mitochondrial integrity and function by SIRT3/AMPK-dependent mitochondrial dynamics remodelling. 10.1111/bph.15837