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    Relationship between gut microbiota and lung function decline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 1-year follow-up study. Chiu Yu-Chi,Lee Shih-Wei,Liu Chi-Wei,Lan Tzuo-Yun,Wu Lawrence Shih-Hsin Respiratory research OBJECTIVE:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by a persistent limitation in airflow. Gut microbiota is closely correlated with lung inflammation. However, gut microbiota has not been studied in patients with declining lung function, due to chronic lung disease progression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Stool samples were obtained from 55 patients with COPD that were in stable condition at enrolment (stage 1) and at a 1-year follow-up (stage 2). After extracting stool DNA, we performed next generation sequencing to analyse the distribution of gut microbiota. RESULTS:Patients were divided to control and declining lung function groups, based on whether the rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) had declined over time. An alpha diversity analysis of initial and follow-up stool samples showed a significant difference in the community richness of microbiota in the declining function group, but not in the control group. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes was more abundant in the control group and Firmicutes was more abundant in the declining function group. The Alloprevotella genus was more abundant in the control group than in the declining function group. At 1-year follow-up, the mean proportions of Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas significantly increased in the control and declining function groups, respectively. CONCLUSION:Some community shifts in gut microbiota were associated with lung function decline in COPD patients under regular treatment. Future studies should investigate the mechanism underlying alterations in lung function, due to changes in gut bacterial communities, in COPD. 10.1186/s12931-022-01928-8
    Comprehensive profiling of the gut microbiota in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of varying severity. Chiu Yu-Chi,Lee Shih-Wei,Liu Chi-Wei,Lin Rebecca Chou-Jui,Huang Yung-Chia,Lan Tzuo-Yun,Wu Lawrence Shih-Hsin PloS one Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that reduces lung and respiratory function, with a high mortality rate. Severe and acute deterioration of COPD can easily lead to respiratory failure, resulting in personal, social, and medical burden. Recent studies have shown a high correlation between the gut microbiota and lung inflammation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between gut microbiota and COPD severity. A total of 60 COPD patients with varying severity according to GOLD guidelines were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from patients' stool and 16S rRNA data analysis conducted using high-throughput sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis. The richness of the gut microbiota was not associated with COPD severity. The gut microbiome is more similar in stage 1 and 2 COPD than stage 3+4 COPD. Fusobacterium and Aerococcus were more abundant in stage 3+4 COPD. Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group and Lachnoclostridium were less abundant in stage 2-4, and Tyzzerella 4 and Dialister were less abundant in stage 1. However, the abundance of a Bacteroides was associated with blood eosinophils and lung function. This study suggests that no distinctive gut microbiota pattern is associated with the severity of COPD. The gut microbiome could affect COPD by gut inflammation shaping the host immune system. 10.1371/journal.pone.0249944
    Dynamic changes of gut and lung microorganisms during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Sun Zhe,Zhu Qiu-Li,Shen Yun,Yan Tao,Zhou Xin The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences Increasing evidence has indicated the intimate relationship between the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. The microbial ecosystem has been confirmed to share key conceptual features with gut-lung microbiome disorder and dysregulation during chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. However, the dynamic changes of the gut-lung microbiome during COPD exacerbations and its potential role in disease etiology remain poorly understood. The present study investigated the dynamic changes of gut and lung microorganisms during acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A longitudinal 16S ribosomal DNA survey of the gut and lung microbiome was completed on 90 feces and sputum samples collected from 15 subjects with AECOPD at three visits, which were defined as exacerbation, seven-day stable state. The present analysis revealed a dynamic gut-lung microbiota, where changes appeared to be associated with exacerbation events indicative of specific exacerbation phenotypes. Antibiotic and steroid treatments appeared to have differential effects on the gut-lung microbiome, and the microbiome was associated with disease progression, but not with severity. The abundance and diversity of the microbiome was strongly influenced by the disease progression and therapy. Using culture-independent methods to impact the gut and lung microbiota on AECOPD may be the key to understanding the interactions between the gut and lung, highlighting its potential as a biomarker, and possibly a target for future respiratory therapeutics. 10.1002/kjm2.12147
    Gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory research BACKGROUND:Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, but the contribution of gut microbes to the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still poorly understood. METHODS:We carried out 16S rRNA gene sequencing and short-chain fatty acid analyses in stool samples from a cohort of 73 healthy controls, 67 patients with COPD of GOLD stages I and II severity, and 32 patients with COPD of GOLD stages III and IV severity. Fecal microbiota from the three groups were then inoculated into recipient mice for a total of 14 times in 28 days to induce pulmonary changes. Furthermore, fecal microbiota from the three groups were inoculated into mice exposed to smoke from biomass fuel to induce COPD-like changes. RESULTS:We observed that the gut microbiome of COPD patients varied from that of healthy controls and was characterized by a distinct overall microbial diversity and composition, a Prevotella-dominated gut enterotype and lower levels of short-chain fatty acids. After 28 days of fecal transplantation from COPD patients, recipient mice exhibited elevated lung inflammation. Moreover, when mice were under both fecal transplantation and biomass fuel smoke exposure for a total of 20 weeks, accelerated declines in lung function, severe emphysematous changes, airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion were observed. CONCLUSION:These data demonstrate that altered gut microbiota in COPD patients is associated with disease progression in mice model. 10.1186/s12931-021-01872-z
    Disease-associated gut microbiome and metabolome changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Bowerman Kate L,Rehman Saima Firdous,Vaughan Annalicia,Lachner Nancy,Budden Kurtis F,Kim Richard Y,Wood David L A,Gellatly Shaan L,Shukla Shakti D,Wood Lisa G,Yang Ian A,Wark Peter A,Hugenholtz Philip,Hansbro Philip M Nature communications Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third commonest cause of death globally, and manifests as a progressive inflammatory lung disease with no curative treatment. The lung microbiome contributes to COPD progression, but the function of the gut microbiome remains unclear. Here we examine the faecal microbiome and metabolome of COPD patients and healthy controls, finding 146 bacterial species differing between the two groups. Several species, including Streptococcus sp000187445, Streptococcus vestibularis and multiple members of the family Lachnospiraceae, also correlate with reduced lung function. Untargeted metabolomics identifies a COPD signature comprising 46% lipid, 20% xenobiotic and 20% amino acid related metabolites. Furthermore, we describe a disease-associated network connecting Streptococcus parasanguinis_B with COPD-associated metabolites, including N-acetylglutamate and its analogue N-carbamoylglutamate. While correlative, our results suggest that the faecal microbiome and metabolome of COPD patients are distinct from those of healthy individuals, and may thus aid in the search for biomarkers for COPD. 10.1038/s41467-020-19701-0