Major risk factors for atherosclerosis are manifested in experimental Ca-deficiency.
Koide M,Harayama H,Iio A,Obata K,Matsuda N,Ono T,Yokota M,Tuan R S
Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
The eggshell is the major source of Ca required during growth of chick embryos. Therefore, chick embryos placed ex ovo for long-term (SL) are rendered severe systemic calcium deficiency. We report here that SL chick embryos express Ca-deficiency related atherogenic disorders, and that in vitro Ca-deficiency induces dedifferentiation, i.e. loss of cell-type specific features and accelerated proliferative activities, in the various types of cultured cells. Systemic blood pressure is significantly higher and an accelerated weight gain of the heart is noted in SL compared to normal embryos (NL) at the incubation Day-14. Plasma cholesterol was lower, while triglyceride and glucose were higher in SL. Varying Ca in the culture medium (FCa, 1.8 mM; HCa, 2.8 mM; Ca/2, 0.9 mM) clearly affected the phenotype of the cultured cardiomyocytes and vascular cells isolated from the chick embryos. The cell number and total DNA were significantly larger and the level of LDH and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was elevated in Ca/2 compared to FCa. On the contrary, the level of CPK and contractile proteins were lowered in Ca/2. Thus, it is indicated that Ca-deficiency induces atherogenic disorders in vivo, and accelerates cell proliferation and decelerates sarcomeric protein expression in vitro. Taken together, it is suggested that the atherogenic, developmental disorders in SL may be the integrated result of the phenotype alteration in the various cell types directly induced by Ca-deficiency.
Effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on performance, egg shell quality and bone metabolism in hens.
Jiang Sha,Cui Luying,Shi Cheng,Ke Xiao,Luo Jingwen,Hou Jiafa
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
This study investigated the effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on laying performance, eggshell quality and bone metabolism of layers. One hundred and sixty-two 19-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens in 54 battery cages were allocated to one of nine dietary treatments with control, middle and high levels of energy (11.50, 12.68 and 13.37 MJ/kg, respectively) and low, control and high levels of calcium (2.62%, 3.7% and 4.4%, respectively) for 60 days, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition and egg weight, decreased feed intake and bone quality and had no effects on eggshell quality. The high-energy diet reduced the serum phosphate concentration and elevated osteocalcin mRNA expression in the keel bone without increasing osteocalcin protein. Dietary calcium intake did not affect fat deposition, feed intake or egg weight. Low dietary calcium resulted in weaker eggshells and poorer bone quality than that from hens fed the control diet. High dietary calcium increased serum calcium concentration, osteoprotegerin mRNA and osteocalcin protein and inhibited serum alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased its mRNA compared with low or control dietary calcium. The high-energy and high-calcium diet significantly reduced egg production. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition but had negative effects on bone metabolic homeostasis. Dietary calcium did not influence fat deposition but a high-calcium diet benefited bone homeostasis, while a low-calcium diet was associated with poorer eggshell quality and bone homeostasis.
Effects of dietary Bacillus subtilis supplementation and calcium levels on performance and eggshell quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.
Wang Jing,Wang Wei-Wei,Qi Guang-Hai,Cui Chuang-Fei,Wu Shu-Geng,Zhang Hai-Jun,Xu Li,Wang Jing
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Bacillus subtilis supplementation and calcium (Ca) levels on performance, eggshell quality, intestinal morphology, and relative calbindin-D28k (CALB1) mRNA level of laying hens in the late phase of production. An experiment employing a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 3 levels of Ca (3.5, 4.0, and 4.5%) and the absence or presence of B. subtilis was carried out with a total of 576 Hy-Line Brown laying hens aged 72 to 79 wk. Every group had 8 replicates of 12 birds each. The results showed that 4.0 and 4.5% Ca levels improved (P < 0.05) apparent retention and serum Ca content of aged laying hens. Compared with the 3.5% Ca level, the 4.0% Ca level in diets increased (P < 0.05) thickness, eggshell weight, shell ratio, and eggshell Ca content of aged laying hens. Moreover, breaking strength, thickness, eggshell weight, shell ratio, eggshell Ca content, apparent retention of Ca in g/day, apparent retention of Ca in percent, villus height, villus height/crypt depth, serum Ca level, and relative CALB1 mRNA level of aged laying hens were all increased (P < 0.05) by B. subtilis supplementation in diets. The supplemental B. subtilis decreased feed conversion ratio (P = 0.001) significantly. In addition, there was an interaction effect between increased Ca levels from 3.5 to 4.5% and B. subtilis supplementation on crypt depth in the duodenum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that both the increase in dietary Ca level from 3.5 to 4.5% and B. subtilis supplementation could enhance intestinal Ca absorption and improve eggshell quality of laying hens in the late phase of production (72-79 wk of age). Dietary supplementation of B. subtilis accompanying the 4.0% Ca level was appropriate in enhancement of eggshell quality.
The Response of Layer Hen Productivity and Egg Quality to an Additional Limestone Source When Offered Diets Differing in Calcium Concentrations and the Inclusion of Phytase.
Ruhnke Isabelle,Akter Yeasmin,Sibanda Terence Zimazile,Cowieson Aaron J,Wilkinson Stuart,Maldonado Stephanie,Singh Mini,Hughes Patrick,Caporale Dylana,Bucker Stephan,O'Shea Cormac John
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI
Laying hens require substantial quantities of calcium (Ca) to maintain egg production. However, maintaining recommended dietary Ca through inclusion of limestone may impede nutrient digestibility, including that of other minerals. It was hypothesized that providing a separate source of dietary Ca in the form of limestone grit would preserve Ca intake of hens offered diets containing suboptimal Ca concentrations. Furthermore, the impact of dietary phytase at a "superdosing" inclusion rate on the voluntary consumption of limestone grit was evaluated. One hundred and forty-four laying hens (19 weeks of age) were assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement comprising three dietary Ca concentrations (40, 30, and 20 g/kg) and ±dietary phytase (3500 FYT/kg diet) on an ad libitum basis for six weeks. Limestone grit (3.4 ± 1.0 mm) was provided to all hens ad libitum. Hens offered diets containing phytase consumed significantly less limestone grit = 0.024). Egg weight, rate of lay, and egg mass were unaffected by dietary treatment ( > 0.05). Egg shell weight % ( < 0.001), shell thickness ( < 0.001), and shell breaking strength ( < 0.01) decreased in line with dietary Ca levels. In summary, dietary superdosing with phytase reduced the consumption of a separate limestone source in individually housed, early lay ISA Brown hens. Egg shell quality variables but not egg production worsened in line with lower dietary Ca levels.