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    [Goat's milk in nutrition]. Pellerin P Annales pharmaceutiques francaises Compared with cow's milk and mother's milk, goat's milk has biochemical properties theoretically favoring its nutritional value. The theoretical beneficial effects of goat's milk have incited experimental studies in the pig model and clinical studies (particularly in children). They have also inspired research on the bioavailability and digestibility of goat's milk and led to work improving goat breeds using feeding, genetic or transgenetic methodologies. We can expect to see adapted goat's milk food being proposed for children, particularly those intolerant to cow's milk, for patients with gastrointestinal disease, or even as a supplement for the elderly and malnourished. One can hope that the people living in developing countries, where the goat population is the most important, will benefit from the production of quality goat's milk.
    Soy formulas and nonbovine milk. Muraro Maria Antonella,Giampietro Paolo G,Galli Elena Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology BACKGROUND:Cow's milk allergy is frequently observed during the first year of life when nutritional requirements are critical. In those cases where breast-feeding is not available, a safe and adequate substitute to cow's milk should be offered. OBJECTIVE:The primary aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of milk derived from vegetable proteins, such as soy, or from animals such as goat, mare, or donkey, or elemental diet in children with cow's milk allergy. METHODS:MEDLINE searches were conducted with key words such as soy, goat's milk, donkey's milk, mare's milk, and elemental diet. Additional articles were identified from references in books or articles. Original research papers and review articles from peer-reviewed journals were chosen. RESULTS:Soy formulas are nutritionally adequate and can be used in children with immunoglobulin E-mediated nongastrointestinal manifestations of cow's milk allergy. Goat's milk is as allergenic as cow's milk. Mare's milk and donkey's milk may be used in selected cases of cow's milk allergy after appropriate modification to make them suitable for human infants. Elemental diets are usually restricted to the most severe cases of cow's milk allergy (ie, sensitivity to extensively hydrolyzed protein formulas). CONCLUSIONS:Vegetable formulas obtained from soy and milk derived from other mammals, such as mare or donkey, homemade preparations, and elemental diet may represent valid alternatives for children with cow's milk allergy. Extensive clinical trials are needed on the safety profile of any alternative mammal-derived milk. The choice of alternative milk should take into account the clinical profile of the child allergic to cow's milk, particularly as concerns age, severity of symptoms, degree of sensitivity to cow's milk proteins, and any multiple food allergies. 10.1016/s1081-1206(10)62132-1
    Potential nutraceuticals from the casein fraction of goat's milk. Journal of food biochemistry Goat is one of the major dairy and meat providers. In terms of structure, nutrient content, and medicinal properties, goat milk is somewhat different from other milk. The differences in composition are important in determining the technical suitability of goat milk and its products for health benefits. In recent years, there has been increasing attention to the identification and molecular composition of milk proteins and the interest in caprine milk. Casein, which accounts for almost 80% of all the proteins, is the most significant protein found in goat milk. It is a pioneer in the field of nutraceutical formulation and drug production by using the goat mammary gland as a bioreactor. In goat milk, the most prevalent proteins are αS-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of goat milk casein and also focus on recent findings on their medicinal importance that may be helpful for further research on dairy products with health beneficial properties for humans as a remarkable nutraceutical. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Goat milk casein is considered as a healthy nutrient as well as a therapeutic agent to control abnormal or disease conditions through some of its biologically active peptide residues. Casein fractions of goat milk have been shown to exhibit different biologic activities. Therefore, this study aims to observe the use of goat milk in various disorders and to know about the different products made from goat milk. It will be helpful in the field of medicine to be a new active constituent for the management of various disease conditions. 10.1111/jfbc.13982
    Study of human allergic milk whey protein from different mammalian species using computational method. Dixit Shikha Jaiprakash,Kk Appu Kuttan,Singh Kiran Bioinformation Nowadays, safety and quality assessment of food used for human consumption have to consider by its possible contribution to the maintenance or improvement of the consumer's health. Milk is an important food with many nutrients. Cow milk is an important source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals for the growing child as well as adults. But, numerous cow milk proteins have been implicated in allergic responses and most of these have been shown to contain multiple allergic epitopes. The present study disclosed best alternatives to cow milk, which are not allergic and as good as cow milk in nutritional value. The in silico analysis of casein (alpha s1, alpha s2, beta and kappa) and beta-lactoglobulin, unveils that sheep milk is a more suitable alternate to cow milk for allergic infants and buffalo milk for allergic adult humans. 10.6026/97320630081035
    Allergy to goat and sheep cheese with good tolerance to cow cheese. Umpiérrez A,Quirce S,Marañón F,Cuesta J,García-Villamuza Y,Lahoz C,Sastre J Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology BACKGROUND:We report on a patient who experienced allergic reactions after eating goat cheese and after touching goat and sheep cheese, but not after consuming cow's milk dairy products. OBJECTIVE:To assess the allergenicity and IgE-binding capacity of the caseins from the three different species. METHODS:Skin prick tests were carried out using whole milk and caseins from three different species (goat, sheep and cow), and whey fractions of cow's milk. Total serum IgE and specific IgE to cow's milk proteins were measured by CAP system and specific IgE against caseins and whole milk were determined by ELISA technique. To evaluate allergenic cross-reactivity, inhibition of the IgE ELISA activity to goat's milk and goat casein was tested for the three caseins. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting was used to determine IgE binding bands in caseins. RESULTS:Skin tests were positive to sheep and goat's milk, sheep and goat casein, as well as to sheep and goat cheese. Total serum IgE was 66 kU/L and IgE determinations by CAP were negative. IgE ELISA against the caseins from goat and sheep was strongly positive, whereas it was negative to cow casein. ELISA inhibition assays revealed a high degree of cross-reactivity between goat casein and sheep casein. Immunoblotting showed three IgE-binding bands in goat casein at 31, 27 and 22 kDa, which may correspond to alpha-, beta- and gamma-caseins. A band at about 31 kDa was observed in sheep casein and another band at 34 kDa was recognized in cow casein. CONCLUSION:This patient developed allergy to goat and sheep cheese with good tolerance to cow's milk. We identified goat casein as the main allergen causing sensitization in this patient as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro tests. A high degree of cross-reactivity between goat and sheep casein was observed.
    Selective allergy to sheep's and goat's milk proteins. Muñoz Martín T,de la Hoz Caballer B,Marañón Lizana F,González Mendiola R,Prieto Montaño P,Sánchez Cano M Allergologia et immunopathologia BACKGROUND:Cow's milk proteins are amongst the most common causes of food allergy in infants, and caseins are probably the main allergens. The existence of a high degree of cross-reactivity between milk caseins from different animals has been reported. We describe a 2-year-old boy who experienced allergic reactions after eating and touching sheep's cheese, but who tolerated cow's milk and cow's milk dairy products. He had never ingested milk or milk derivatives from sheep or goat. METHODS:Skin prick tests were carried out using whey fractions of cow's milk, whole milk and casein from goat, sheep and cow. We also performed skin prick tests with enzymes used in cheese production. Prick-by-prick tests with cheese made from cow, sheep and goat and their corresponding whole milk were also performed. Total serum IgE and specific IgE to cow's milk proteins, whole cow's milk and sheep's milk were determined. Specific IgE against casein and whole milk from the three different species were determined by ELISA. Inhibition of IgE binding to bovine casein was tested for casein and whole milk from all three species. The proteins of three types of casein and whole milk from cow, sheep and goat were separated by SDS-PAGE and were incubated with the patient's serum. RESULTS:Skin tests were positive to sheep's milk and goat and sheep casein and were negative to all cow's milk proteins and whole cow's and goat's milk. Prick-by-prick tests were positive to goat's and sheep's cheese and were negative to cow's cheese. In ELISA-inhibition, sheep's milk and goat and sheep casein were able to inhibit > 50 % of specific IgE binding to sheep casein. The results of immunoblotting showed that the patient's circulating IgEs recognized only one band in the lanes corresponding to sheep and goat casein. CONCLUSIONS:We report a patient with allergy to sheep's and goat's milk proteins but not to cow's milk proteins. Sheep casein was probably the main allergen causing sensitization in this patient. The results suggest that sheep casein shows a high degree of cross-reactivity with goat casein but not with cow casein. Our patient presented allergic symptoms caused by sheep and goat milk and cheese proteins. However, he was able to tolerate cow's milk and cow's milk dairy products without any ill effects. 10.1016/s0301-0546(04)79222-8
    Analysis of casein alpha S1 & S2 proteins from different mammalian species. Masoodi Tariq Ahmad,Shafi Gowhar Bioinformation Nowadays, the quality of any food used for human consumption is, to a considerable extent, considered by its possible contribution to the maintenance or improvement of the consumer's health. In developed countries there is increasing interest in goat milk and its derivates, the quality of which is considered of special importance in the light of current tendencies favouring healthy eating. In particular, goat's milk is a hypoallergenic alternative to cow's milk in the human diet. In the present work, we studied the casein alpha S1 and S2 proteins of cow, goat and sheep for comparative analysis. We found that the amino acid sequence of these proteins is almost same in goat and sheep but there are several changes at different base pairs when these two sequences are compared with cow. Prediction of secondary structures (GOR) was performed for alpha s1 and s2 proteins to gain functional insights. Our in silico study revealed considerable identity in chemical properties between goat and sheep but a considerable dissimilarity in cow with goat and sheep casein proteins. Moreover, the effect amino acid change on secondary structures in the three species is discussed. There was no significant difference found between goat and sheep alpha S1 and S2 proteins, so naturally both will be having same properties. The study concludes that sheep milk is another convenient alternative for the cow milk allergic children. 10.6026/97320630004430