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    European guideline and expert statements on the management of narcolepsy in adults and children. Bassetti Claudio L A,Kallweit Ulf,Vignatelli Luca,Plazzi Giuseppe,Lecendreux Michel,Baldin Elisa,Dolenc-Groselj Leja,Jennum Poul,Khatami Ramin,Manconi Mauro,Mayer Geert,Partinen Markku,Pollmächer Thomas,Reading Paul,Santamaria Joan,Sonka Karel,Dauvilliers Yves,Lammers Gert J Journal of sleep research BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Narcolepsy is an uncommon hypothalamic disorder of presumed autoimmune origin that usually requires lifelong treatment. This paper aims to provide evidence-based guidelines for the management of narcolepsy in both adults and children. METHODS:The European Academy of Neurology (EAN), European Sleep Research Society (ESRS), and European Narcolepsy Network (EU-NN) nominated a task force of 18 narcolepsy specialists. According to the EAN recommendations, 10 relevant clinical questions were formulated in PICO format. Following a systematic review of the literature (performed in Fall 2018 and updated in July 2020) recommendations were developed according to the GRADE approach. RESULTS:A total of 10,247 references were evaluated, 308 studies were assessed and 155 finally included. The main recommendations can be summarized as follows: (i) excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in adults-scheduled naps, modafinil, pitolisant, sodium oxybate (SXB), solriamfetol (all strong); methylphenidate, amphetamine derivatives (both weak); (ii) cataplexy in adults-SXB, venlafaxine, clomipramine (all strong) and pitolisant (weak); (iii) EDS in children-scheduled naps, SXB (both strong), modafinil, methylphenidate, pitolisant, amphetamine derivatives (all weak); (iv) cataplexy in children-SXB (strong), antidepressants (weak). Treatment choices should be tailored to each patient's symptoms, comorbidities, tolerance and risk of potential drug interactions. CONCLUSION:The management of narcolepsy involves non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches with an increasing number of symptomatic treatment options for adults and children that have been studied in some detail. 10.1111/jsr.13387
    Narcolepsy management in Australia: time to wake up. Sivam Sheila,Chamula Ksenia,Swieca John,Frenkel Simon,Saini Bandana The Medical journal of Australia 10.5694/mja2.51150
    A practical guide to the therapy of narcolepsy and hypersomnia syndromes. Mignot Emmanuel J M Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics Narcolepsy and other syndromes associated with excessive daytime sleepiness can be challenging to treat. New classifications now distinguish narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency (also called type 1 narcolepsy), a lifelong disorder with well-established diagnostic procedures and etiology, from other syndromes with hypersomnolence of unknown causes. Klein-Levin Syndrome, a periodic hypersomnia associated with cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, is also considered a separate entity with separate therapeutic protocols. Non hypocretin-related hypersomnia syndromes are diagnoses of exclusion. These diagnoses are only made after eliminating sleep deprivation, sleep apnea, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and psychiatric comorbidities as the primary cause of daytime sleepiness. The treatment of narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency is well-codified, and involves pharmacotherapies using sodium oxybate, stimulants, and/or antidepressants, plus behavioral modifications. These therapies are almost always needed, and the risk-to-benefit ratio is clear, notably in children. Detailed knowledge of the pharmacological profile of each compound is needed to optimize use. Treatment for other syndromes with hypersomnolence is more challenging and less codified. Preferably, therapy should be conservative (such as modafinil, atomoxetine, behavioral modifications), but it may have to be more aggressive (high-dose stimulants, sodium oxybate, etc.) on a case-by-case, empirical trial basis. As cause and evolution are unknown in these conditions, it is important to challenge diagnosis and therapy over time, keeping in mind the possibility of tolerance and the development of stimulant addiction. Kleine-Levin Syndrome is usually best left untreated, although lithium can be considered in severe cases with frequent episodes. Guidelines are provided based on the literature and personal experience of the author. 10.1007/s13311-012-0150-9