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    Effect of stem cell transplantation of premature ovarian failure in animal models and patients: A meta-analysis and case report. Chen Lei,Guo Shilei,Wei Cui,Li Honglan,Wang Haiya,Xu Yan Experimental and therapeutic medicine Stem cell transplantation has been considered a promising therapeutic approach for premature ovarian failure (POF). However, to date, no quantitative data analysis of stem cell therapy for POF has been performed. Therefore, the present study performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of stem cell transplantation in improving ovarian function in animal models of POF. In addition, a case report of a patient with POF subjected to stem cell treatment was included to demonstrate that stem cell therapy also contributes to the recovery of ovarian function in patients. Published studies were identified by a systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane's library databases, and references cited in associated reviews were also considered. Data regarding follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), ovarian weight, follicle count, the number of pregnancies and other parameters, including delivery route and cell type, were extracted. Pooled analysis, sensitivity analyses, subgroup analyses and meta-regression were performed. In the case of POF, transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), abdominal ultrasound (TAS) and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were performed to observe the endometrial morphology and blood flow signals in the patient. Overall, pooled results from 16 pre-clinical studies demonstrated that stem cell-based therapy significantly improved FSH levels [standardized mean difference (SMD)=-1.330; 95% confidence interval (CI), -(2.095-0.565); P=0.001], E2 levels (SMD=2.334; 95% CI, 1.350-3.319; P<0.001), ovarian weight (SMD=1.310; 95% CI, 0.157-2.463; P=0.026), follicle count (SMD=1.871; 95% CI, 1.226-2.516; P<0.001), and the number of pregnancies (risk ratio=1.715, 95% CI, 1.213-2.424; P=0.002). The results of TVS and TAS demonstrated improved ovarian size and endometrial thickness in the patient with POF after MSC treatment. Of note, a rich blood flow signal in the endometrium was observed on CDFI. It appeared that stem cell-based therapy may be an effective method for the resumption of ovarian function in a patient and in animal models of POF; however, large-scale and high-quality future studies are required to confirm the present findings due to heterogeneity. 10.3892/etm.2018.5970
    Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Premature Ovarian Failure: From Bench to Bedside. Wang Ming-Yao,Wang Yi-Xuan,Li-Ling Jesse,Xie Hui-Qi Tissue engineering. Part B, Reviews Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a devastating condition for women of childbearing age with serious health consequences, including distress, infertility, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, ischemic heart disease, and increased mortality. In addition to the mainstay estrogen therapy, stem cell therapy has been tested as the result of rapid progress in cell biology and reprogramming research. We hereby provide a review for the latest research and issues related with stem cell-based therapy for POF, and provide a commentary on various methods for enhancing its effect. Large amount of animal studies have demonstrated an extensive benefit of stem cells for failed ovarian recovering. As shown by such studies, stem cell therapy can result in recovery of hormonal levels, follicular activation, ovarian angiogenesis, and functional restoration. Meanwhile, a study of molecular pathways revealed that the function of stem cells mainly depends on their paracrine actions, which can produce multiple factors for the promotion of ovarian angiogenesis and regulation of cellular functions. Nevertheless, studies using disease models also revealed certain drawbacks. Clinical trials have shown that menstrual cycle and even pregnancy may occur in POF patients following transplantation of stem cells, although the limitations, including inadequate number of cases and space for the improvement of transplantation methodology. Only with its safety and effect get substantial improvement through laboratory experiments and clinical trials, can stem cell therapy really bring benefits to more patients. Additionally, effective pretreatment and appropriate transplantation methods for stem cells are also required. Taken together, stem cell therapy has shown a great potential for the reversal of POF and is stepping from bench to bedside. Impact statement Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a devastating condition with serious clinical consequences. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current status of stem cell therapy for POF. Considering the diversity of cell types and functions, a rigorous review is required for the guidance for further research into this field. Meanwhile, the challenges and prospect for clinical application of stem cell treatment, methodological improvements, and innovations are addressed. 10.1089/ten.TEB.2020.0205