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    Mechanisms and disease consequences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Loomba Rohit,Friedman Scott L,Shulman Gerald I Cell Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. Its more advanced subtype, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), connotes progressive liver injury that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we provide an in-depth discussion of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to progressive liver injury, including the metabolic origins of NAFLD, the effect of NAFLD on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, bile acid toxicity, macrophage dysfunction, and hepatic stellate cell activation, and consider the role of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that promote fibrosis progression and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in NASH. 10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.015
    MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis and treatment of progressive liver injury in NAFLD and liver fibrosis. Su Qiaozhu,Kumar Virender,Sud Neetu,Mahato Ram I Advanced drug delivery reviews Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases the risk of various liver injuries, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ample evidence has suggested that aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is functionally involved in the activation of cellular stress, inflammation and fibrogenesis in hepatic cells, including hepatocytes, Kupffer and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), at different pathological stages of NAFLD and liver fibrosis. Here, we overview recent findings on the potential role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, including lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, metabolic inflammation and fibrogenesis. We critically assess the literatures on both human subjects and animal models of NAFLD and liver fibrosis with miRNA dysregulation and their mechanisms of actions in liver damage. We further highlight the potential use of miRNA mimics or antimiRNAs as therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD and liver fibrosis. 10.1016/j.addr.2018.01.009
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Brunt Elizabeth M,Wong Vincent W-S,Nobili Valerio,Day Christopher P,Sookoian Silvia,Maher Jacquelyn J,Bugianesi Elisabetta,Sirlin Claude B,Neuschwander-Tetri Brent A,Rinella Mary E Nature reviews. Disease primers Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disorder characterized by excess accumulation of fat in hepatocytes (nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL)); in up to 40% of individuals, there are additional findings of portal and lobular inflammation and hepatocyte injury (which characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)). A subset of patients will develop progressive fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular complications are life-threatening co-morbidities of both NAFL and NASH. NAFLD is closely associated with insulin resistance; obesity and metabolic syndrome are common underlying factors. As a consequence, the prevalence of NAFLD is estimated to be 10-40% in adults worldwide, and it is the most common liver disease in children and adolescents in developed countries. Mechanistic insights into fat accumulation, subsequent hepatocyte injury, the role of the immune system and fibrosis as well as the role of the gut microbiota are unfolding. Furthermore, genetic and epigenetic factors might explain the considerable interindividual variation in disease phenotype, severity and progression. To date, no effective medical interventions exist that completely reverse the disease other than lifestyle changes, dietary alterations and, possibly, bariatric surgery. However, several strategies that target pathophysiological processes such as an oversupply of fatty acids to the liver, cell injury and inflammation are currently under investigation. Diagnosis of NAFLD can be established by imaging, but detection of the lesions of NASH still depend on the gold-standard but invasive liver biopsy. Several non-invasive strategies are being evaluated to replace or complement biopsies, especially for follow-up monitoring. 10.1038/nrdp.2015.80
    Genetic contributions to NAFLD: leveraging shared genetics to uncover systems biology. Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects around a quarter of the global population, paralleling worldwide increases in obesity and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD arises in the context of systemic metabolic dysfunction that concomitantly amplifies the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. These interrelated conditions have long been recognized to have a heritable component, and advances using unbiased association studies followed by functional characterization have created a paradigm for unravelling the genetic architecture of these conditions. A novel perspective is to characterize the shared genetic basis of NAFLD and other related disorders. This information on shared genetic risks and their biological overlap should in future enable the development of precision medicine approaches through better patient stratification, and enable the identification of preventive and therapeutic strategies. In this Review, we discuss current knowledge of the genetic basis of NAFLD and of possible pleiotropy between NAFLD and other liver diseases as well as other related metabolic disorders. We also discuss evidence of causality in NAFLD and other related diseases and the translational significance of such evidence, and future challenges from the study of genetic pleiotropy. 10.1038/s41575-019-0212-0