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    Identification of the RP11-21C4.1/SVEP1 gene pair associated with FAT2 mutations as a potential biomarker in gastric cancer. Zhou Lingshan,Yang Yuan,Liu Min,Gan Yuling,Liu Rong,Ren Man,Zheng Ya,Wang Yuping,Zhou Yongning Bioengineered Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Despite rapid advances in systemic therapy, GC remains the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. We aimed to identify a novel prognostic signature associated with FAT2 mutations in GC. We analyzed the expression levels of FAT2-mutant and FAT2-wildtype GC samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with FAT2 mutations showed better prognosis than those without the mutation. Sixteen long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 62 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) associated with FAT2 mutations were correlated with the prognosis of GC. We then constructed a 4-mRNA signature and a 5-lncRNA signature for GC. Finally, we identified the most relevant gene pair as a prognostic signature of GC that exhibited superior predictive performance in comparison with the 4-mRNA or 5-lncRNA signature by weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In this study, we constructed a prognostic signature of GC by integrative genomics analysis, which also provided insights into the molecular mechanisms linked to FAT2 mutations in GC. 10.1080/21655979.2021.1953211
    Could microtubule inhibitors be the best choice of therapy in gastric cancer with high immune activity: mutant DYNC1H1 as a biomarker. Bai Jin,Yang BoWen,Shi Ruichuan,Shao Xinye,Yang Yujing,Wang Fang,Xiao Jiawen,Qu Xiujuan,Liu Yunpeng,Zhang Ye,Li Zhi Aging Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has achieved unprecedented breakthroughs in various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC) with high immune activity (MSI-H or TMB-H), yet clinical benefits from ICB were moderate. Here we aimed to identify the most appropriate drugs which can improve outcomes in GC. We firstly compared MSI-H and TMB-H GC samples with normal samples in TCGA-STAD cohort, respectively. After that, Connectivity Map database repurposed nine candidate drugs (CMap score < -90). Then, microtubule inhibitors (MTIs) were screened as the significant candidate drugs with their representative gene sets strongly enriched ( < 0.05) via GSEA. GDSC database validated higher activities of some MTIs in GC cells with MSI-H and TMB-H ( < 0.05). Furthermore, some MTIs activities were positively associated with mutant Dynein Cytoplasmic 1 Heavy Chain 1 (DYNC1H1) ( < 0.05) based on NCI-60 cancer cell line panel. DYNC1H1 was high frequently alteration in GC and was positively associated with TMB-H and MSI-H. Mutant DYNC1H1 may be accompanied with down-regulation of MTIs-related genes in GC or change the binding pocket to sensitize MTIs. Overall, this study suggested that some MTIs may be the best candidate drugs to treat GC with high immune activity, especially patients with DYNC1H1 mutated. 10.18632/aging.104084
    The association of sex-biased ATRX mutation in female gastric cancer patients with enhanced immunotherapy-related anticancer immunity. Ge You,Wei Feiran,Du Guoping,Fei Gaoqiang,Li Wei,Li Xiaoshan,Chu Jinjin,Wei Pingmin BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Genetic alterations have been proven to be the promising biomarkers for ICI response. However, sex biases in genetic alterations have been often ignored in the field of immunotherapy, which might specially influence the anticancer immunity and immunotherapy efficacy in male or female patients. Here, we have systematically evaluated the effect of the sex biases in somatic mutation of gastric cancer (GC) patients on the anticancer immunity and clinical benefit to immunotherapy. METHODS:Genomic and transcriptomic data of gastric cancer were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC). We also obtained the genomic and clinical data of a MSKCC ICI-treated cohort from cbioportal database. GC male and female-derived tumor somatic mutation profiles were compared by maftools R package. Single sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) was conducted to calculate the score of the anticancer immunity indicators including IFN-γ signaling, cytolytic activity (CYT) and antigen presenting machinery (APM). RESULTS:ATRX was found to mutate more frequently in female GC patients compared to male patients (FDR = 0.0108). Female GC patients with ATRX mutation manifested significantly more MSI-high subtypes, increased TMB and PDL1 expression as well as higher scores of IFN-γ signaling, CYT and APM. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) has shown that ATRX mutation might enhance the immunogenicity and anticancer immunity through affecting DNA damage repair pathways. In the ICI-treated cohort from MSKCC, GC patients with ATRX mutation were associated with prolonged overall survival. When stratifying the entire ICI-treated cohort by sex, female patients with ATRX mutation obtained significantly better survival benefits than that of ATRX mutant male patients (Female patients, HR of ATRX MT vs WT = 0.636, 95%CI = 0.455-0.890, P = 0.023; Male patients, HR of ATRX MT vs WT = 0.929, 95%CI = 0.596-1.362, P = 0.712). CONCLUSIONS:ATRX mutation might serve as a potential predictive biomarker for favorable clinical benefit to ICI in female GC patients. ATRX mutation could be applied in combination with other biomarkers of ICI response to better identify the female GC patients who will derive greater benefits from ICI therapy. 10.1186/s12885-021-07978-3
    Diagnostic and prognostic value of CEA, CA19-9, AFP and CA125 for early gastric cancer. Feng Fan,Tian Yangzi,Xu Guanghui,Liu Zhen,Liu Shushang,Zheng Gaozan,Guo Man,Lian Xiao,Fan Daiming,Zhang Hongwei BMC cancer BACKGROUND:The diagnostic and prognostic significance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate associated antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in early gastric cancer have not been investigated yet. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the diagnostic and prognostic significance of the four tumor markers for early gastric cancer. METHODS:From September 2008 to March 2015, 587 early gastric cancer patients were given radical gastrectomy in our center. The clinicopathological characteristics were recorded. The association between levels of CEA and CA19-9 and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients were analyzed. RESULTS:There were 444 men (75.6%) and 143 women (24.4%). The median age was 57 years (ranged 21-85). The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rate was 99.1%, 96.8% and 93.1%, respectively. The positive rate of CEA, CA19-9, AFP and CA125 was 4.3%, 4.8%, 1.5% and 1.9%, respectively. The positive rate of all markers combined was 10.4%. The associations between the clinicopathological features and levels of CEA and CA19-9 were analyzed. No significant association was found between CEA level and clinicopathological features. However, elevated CA19-9 level was correlated with female gender and presence of lymph node metastasis. Age > 60 years old, presence of lymph node metastasis and elevation of CEA level were independent risk factors for poor prognosis of early gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS:The positive rates of CEA, CA19-9, APF and CA125 were relatively low for early gastric cancer. Elevation of CA19-9 level was associated with female gender and presence of lymph node metastasis. Elevation of CEA level was an independent risk factor for the poor prognosis of early gastric cancer. 10.1186/s12885-017-3738-y
    Sporadic Early-Onset Diffuse Gastric Cancers Have High Frequency of Somatic CDH1 Alterations, but Low Frequency of Somatic RHOA Mutations Compared With Late-Onset Cancers. Cho Soo Young,Park Jun Won,Liu Yang,Park Young Soo,Kim Ju Hee,Yang Hanna,Um Hyejin,Ko Woo Ri,Lee Byung Il,Kwon Sun Young,Ryu Seung Wan,Kwon Chae Hwa,Park Do Youn,Lee Jae-Hyuk,Lee Sang Il,Song Kyu Sang,Hur Hoon,Han Sang-Uk,Chang Heekyung,Kim Su-Jin,Kim Byung-Sik,Yook Jeong-Hwan,Yoo Moon-Won,Kim Beom-Su,Lee In-Seob,Kook Myeong-Cherl,Thiessen Nina,He An,Stewart Chip,Dunford Andrew,Kim Jaegil,Shih Juliann,Saksena Gordon,Cherniack Andrew D,Schumacher Steven,Weiner Amaro-Taylor,Rosenberg Mara,Getz Gad,Yang Eun Gyeong,Ryu Min-Hee,Bass Adam J,Kim Hark Kyun Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Early-onset gastric cancer, which develops in patients younger than most gastric cancers, is usually detected at advanced stages, has diffuse histologic features, and occurs more frequently in women. We investigated somatic genomic alterations associated with the unique characteristics of sporadic diffuse gastric cancers (DGCs) from younger patients. METHODS:We conducted whole exome and RNA sequence analyses of 80 resected DGC samples from patients 45 years old or younger in Korea. Patients with pathogenic germline mutations in CDH1, TP53, and ATM were excluded from the onset of this analysis, given our focus on somatic alterations. We used MutSig2CV to evaluate the significance of mutated genes. We recruited 29 additional early-onset Korean DGC samples and performed SNP6.0 array and targeted sequencing analyses of these 109 early-onset DGC samples (54.1% female, median age, 38 years). We compared the SNP6.0 array and targeted sequencing data of the 109 early-onset DGC samples with those from diffuse-type stomach tumor samples collected from 115 patients in Korea who were 46 years or older (late onset) at the time of diagnosis (controls; 29.6% female, median age, 67 years). We compared patient survival times among tumors from different subgroups and with different somatic mutations. We performed gene silencing of RHOA or CDH1 in DGC cells with small interfering RNAs for cell-based assays. RESULTS:We identified somatic mutations in the following genes in a significant number of early-onset DGCs: the cadherin 1 gene (CDH1), TP53, ARID1A, KRAS, PIK3CA, ERBB3, TGFBR1, FBXW7, RHOA, and MAP2K1. None of 109 early-onset DGC cases had pathogenic germline CDH1 mutations. A higher proportion of early-onset DGCs had mutations in CDH1 (42.2%) or TGFBR1 (7.3%) compared with control DGCs (17.4% and 0.9%, respectively) (P < .001 and P = .014 for CDH1 and TGFBR1, respectively). In contrast, a smaller proportion of early-onset DGCs contained mutations in RHOA (9.2%) than control DGCs (19.1%) (P = .033). Late-onset DGCs in The Cancer Genome Atlas also contained less frequent mutations in CDH1 and TGFBR1 and more frequent RHOA mutations, compared with early-onset DGCs. Early-onset DGCs from women contained significantly more mutations in CDH1 or TGFBR1 than early-onset DGCs from men. CDH1 alterations, but not RHOA mutations, were associated with shorter survival times in patients with early-onset DGCs (hazard ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-7.7). RHOA activity was reduced by an R5W substitution-the RHOA mutation most frequently detected in early-onset DGCs. Silencing of CDH1, but not RHOA, increased migratory activity of DGC cells. CONCLUSIONS:In an integrative genomic analysis, we found higher proportions of early-onset DGCs to contain somatic mutations in CDH1 or TGFBR1 compared with late-onset DGCs. However, a smaller proportion of early-onset DGCs contained somatic mutations in RHOA than late-onset DGCs. CDH1 alterations, but not RHOA mutations, were associated with shorter survival times of patients, which might account for the aggressive clinical course of early-onset gastric cancer. Female predominance in early-onset gastric cancer may be related to relatively high rates of somatic CDH1 and TGFBR1 mutations in this population. 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.05.012